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🏛 | Voting before the House of Representatives election starts About 17% of all voters in Aomori prefecture before the previous House of Representatives election


Voting before the House of Representatives election begins About 17% of all voters in Aomori Prefecture before the previous House of Representatives election

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Early voting is held at 103 locations in the prefecture.

Early voting for the House of Representatives election announced on the XNUMXth began on the XNUMXth in Aomori Prefecture.Of these, Aomori City ... → Continue reading

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Early voting system

Early voting system(PheasantBeforeVoting, PheasantAllWhat is a vote?Japan OfelectionorReferendumInAdvance voting systemone of.Public office election lawIn Article 48-22003 (Heisei15 years)May 12System established fromLaw Concerning Procedures for Amending the Constitution of JapanThe system established in Article 60.

In legal terms, "KijitsuAllBecause it is read, the government office may adopt this reading. The mass media prioritizes readability and "Kijitsu"BeforeIs often read[1].


On the election date (so-called "election day")voteNot possibleVotersHowever, the date of public notice or the date of notification[2]From the day after the election to the day before the election date,Electoral listRegistered inMunicipalityIt is a system that allows you to vote in the same municipality as. However, there is a similar systemJudge of the Supreme Court national reviewIn, both the notification date and the due dateHouse of Representatives general electionSame day as, but the period of early voting is "examination date7 days before your tourIt was "the day before the examination deadline" (Supreme Court Judge National Examination LawArticle 26). The reason for this was that it took time to produce and prepare the ballot because it was necessary to print the judge's name on the ballot. However, due to the revision of the law in December 2016, it will be enforced in June 12.11 days before your tourWas revised to "the day before the examination date".

2003 OfPublic office election lawDue to the revision so farAbsentee voting systemOf "Electoral listRegistered in市町村とthe sameIn the municipalityVotersIt was newly established to relax the requirements for the case of "voting". The traditional absentee ballot system has been reduced to a reduced range of voters.

  • In regular electionsSelf-form voting, In the Supreme Court Justice National ExaminationSymbolic votingIs. In early voting, the ballot is placed naked and directly into the ballot box. From the time of input, it will be treated as a formal vote in the same way as the vote on the day of the election.
    • Absentee ballot differs in that the ballot is enclosed in an envelope and opened on the election date.
  • IElectoral listVote at the polling place managed by the election administration committee of the municipality registered in. An early voting witness will be placed at the early polling place for a formal vote. At the time of voting, it guarantees the opportunity for a third party to give an opinion as to whether or not to accept the vote.
  • In order to make a formal vote, the polling place needs to list the names of all the confirmed candidates. Therefore, it was implemented from the next day, not on the day of the public notice or the day of the notification (candidates are being accepted).[3].
  • For those who intend to vote before the deadline, it is determined whether or not the person who intends to vote has the right to vote on the "day when the early voting is to be made" instead of the election date.
    • Even if you are 18 years old by the election date, early voting is not possible if you are 17 years old (more than 18 days before your 2th birthday) on the day you want to vote in advance. Also, the sentence expires before the election date.ParoleInsiderCivil rightsThose who are released from the suspension cannot vote before the deadline even if they have not expired or canceled on the day they are going to vote in advance.In this case, absentee ballot may be used even when the vote is held in the municipality registered in the electoral list (absentee ballot by other methods is also possible).In this case, when the receptionist enters the system to confirm the right to vote, a display prompting absentee ballot will appear (however, in April 2017).AkitaDaisen CityHas made a mistake in getting a 17-year-old woman to vote early[4]. )
      • According to the interpretation of the Public Offices Election Act (judgment), the age of 18 is the birthday.When you contact about the cancellation the day beforeAnd you will get the right to vote on that day[5].. Regarding the voting age, the revised Public Offices Election Law was enacted on June 2015, 27, with the main content of reducing the voting age from 6 years old or older to 17 years old or older.
  • If an elector (candidate) loses his or her qualifications or dies by the election day after early voting, the votes cast for that candidate will beInvalid votesWill be. This treatment is the same for absentee ballots.
  • Voting is valid even if voters lose their right to vote before the election date after the early voting (death, relocation outside the constituency in a local election, etc.).

Voting procedure

The basic procedure is as follows.

  • Electors go to the polling place before the deadline and prove their identity with a voting place admission ticket or other means.
  • Written that you will not be able to vote on the election dateoathTo do.
  • After that, the ballot is received from the staff and voted in the same way as a normal vote.

The individual points will be described in detail below.

One of the differences from regular voting is "OathIs the point that must be submitted. "leisure-Tourism-shoppingFor ambiguous and concise reasons such as. Article 49-8 of the Public Offices Election Act Enforcement Ordinance stipulates that "on the day of the election, you must file an affidavit to swear that you are likely to fall under the category and that the petition is genuine." Is[6].

As with regular voting, if the voting place admission ticket has already been mailed, you can bring it with you so that the admission ticket has not arrived yet.If you can't bring it, other waysThen, the identity of the elector is confirmed.sealEtc. are not needed. Regarding the method of identification, each site that handles election affairs市町村Judgments are divided by the Election Commission,Driver's licenseThere are a small number of cases where you are required to show an ID card such as.

Only people who can voteWeekday-Saturday-Sunday-public holiday-Days OffOf the throatDayEven so, as a general rule, it is from 8:30 to 20:XNUMX every day during the period,MunicipalitiesIt may vary depending on the facility and facility. Check with the enclosed form when sending the voting place admission ticket,Election Management CommitteeIt is desirable to contact. Especially recentlyMerger of municipalitiesDue to the influence of, there are cases where the constituencies of members of the House of Representatives are different even in the same municipality.

Polling place

In recent years, to improve conveniencestation,University,supermarket[7],Department store[8]Some local governments set up such places.Voting ageHas been reduced to over 18 years oldhigh schoolSome local governments set up in[9].. In addition, in local governments where the population is aging and depopulating, the selection staffWagon car,Low floor busA "pre-movement polling place" has been introduced that patrols with a table, ballots, ballot boxes, etc.[10][11]..Part of the voting area Remote islandIn some cases, early voting is performed to secure voting opportunities on the island.[12].

History of introduction

If any of the reasons listed in the following items apply on the election dateExpectedVoters who have the right to vote on the early election day can vote early.

(Public office election law(Shown below, quoting Article 48-2, Paragraph 1, Items 1 to 6)
  • (I) Duties or operations or duties specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications[13]Engage in.
  • (Ii) Business (excluding those specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in the preceding item) orACCIDENTBecause of the outside of the area of ​​the voting district to which it belongsTravelOr to stay.
  • three disease, Injured,妊娠,SenilityOr身体 OfObstacleFor orPostpartumIt is difficult to walk because it is located inPenal institution,Labor office,DetentionPlace,Juvenile training,Juvenile discrimination officeOrWomen's Guidance CenterMust be housed in.
  • Four traffic difficulties(I.e.Living in or staying in an area specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in other areas.
  • (V) You live at an address outside the area of ​​the municipality to which the voting district belongs.
  • (Vi) It is difficult to reach the polling place due to a natural disaster or bad weather. (Effective from June 29, 6)

1998 Before the revision of the Public Offices Election Act (10)Absentee voting systemIn, it was a necessary condition that "it is definitely difficult to vote on the election date" rather than "expected". Furthermore, it was also a condition that the first item of the above went outside the area of ​​the voting district, and the second item went outside the area of ​​the municipality. In this way, the requirements are extremely limited, and even in actual operation, voters are often asked persistently about the destination and reason at the absentee ballot window.PoliciesIt was sometimes felt that it was an infringement. In addition, the election itself was invalidated because the management and operation of the absentee ballot was sloppy.

The 1998 revision of the Public Offices Election Act eased the conditions required to use the absentee ballot system to the same extent as it does today. As a result, the number of absentee ballot users has increased significantly. However, in the practical aspect of the absentee ballot system, the administrative procedures related to voting and counting of votes still require time and effort. In addition, the election administration committee decided the election result without forgetting to count the absentee ballot, and the incidents and accidents related to the absentee ballot continued.

2003 (15) Due to the revision of the Public Offices Election Law in December, the current early voting system was established.Voter turnoutPursue the rise ofMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications-Election Management Committee, Requests an easy-to-use voting system from the Election Commission, which seeks simplification of election administrationVotersIt can be said that this is the result of the agreement of these requests.

Regarding the implementation of the new early voting with the list of candidates in mind, among the election officials and experts, "futureElectronic votingThere is an analysis that says, "It is aimed at expanding the introduction of." For the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, when the system startedFlyerIn, it is said that early voting can also be conducted by electronic voting.[14].. The nation's first electronic balloting in early voting is2004 (Heisei16 years)May 1ExecutiveRokunohe(Aomori) It was carried out in the mayoral election.

No. XNUMX was added to avoid a situation where a weather disaster might occur on the day of the election and it would be damaged on the way back and forth to the polling place, but it was the first large-scale national election held immediately after the enforcement.48th House of Representatives general electionIt was effective in. Election dayTyphoon 21Since it was expected that the number of areas affected by the above would increase, the number of early voters nationwide was 2 for all voters, probably because the jurisdiction of each local government appealed the addition of the 21,378,387th reason through the media. A record high of XNUMX people, which is a percentage[15]. Also,COVID-19 epidemicIn the polling placeThree denseIt is understood that voting before the deadline to avoid the situation also falls under this item XNUMX.[16].


Since the start of the system, the use of early voting has steadily spread. According to a survey by the Tokyo Election Commission,2007 (19) House of Councilors electionThen, 10.81% of the voters on the day of Tokyo and 18.68% of the voters used early voting.[17].. These percentages2004 (16) House of Councilors electionCompared with, it increased by 3.92 points and 6.39 points, respectively. The Election Commission has analyzed the increase as it was able to direct voters who had previously abstained due to their busy schedules to vote, as intended to reform the system from absentee ballots.[17].


Unlike absentee ballot, this system completes voting behavior by casting votes directly in the ballot box. at the same time,Equal electionとSecret electionSo, for whatever reason, votersCannot cancel or re-vote after early voting.. Therefore, the following situations occur.

  • If a candidate is missing, such as when the candidate dies, the votes cast on that candidate will be invalid.[18].
    However, the absentee ballot is also invalid, so it is not a problem unique to this system.
  • If the requirements for a valid vote are not met due to an obvious mistake by the Election Commission[19]Is also invalid.
  • If the voters who voted lose their right to vote by the election date[20]In addition, early voting will be valid as it is and will be counted.
    In the absentee ballot, only the votes of those who have the right to vote on the election date are opened after the ballot counting manager decides to accept or reject the ballot, and then the voting manager decides to accept or reject the ballot. There is a problem that this difference in treatment is unfair.[21].

Another problem is that when multiple elections are held, the start date of early voting differs from election to election. Especially when this problem occurred every timeHouse of Representatives general electionWill be carried out on the same day asJudge of the Supreme Court national reviewSo, the start date of the early voting is from the day after the public announcement date for the lower house election, and 7 days before the election day for the national examination. If you have already voted only for the lower house election, the national examination vote will be I had to do it again at a later date. In December 2016, the Supreme Court Justice National Examination Law was amended to unify the start dates of the House of Representatives election and the early voting of the national examination, and it came into effect in June of the following year, so it was resolved in the House of Representatives election. However, if national elections, prefectural elections, and municipal elections are held on the same election day in the same city, the same problem can occur, so when voting for unvoted items again. There have also been mistakes such as reissuing the voting form for elections that have already been voted on and having them vote twice. In addition, early voting is to swear that it is unlikely that you can vote on the day of voting, but it seems that it is possible to vote for the unvoted portion on the day of voting.[22].

The looser requirements for early voting also affect the tactics of each camp.In other words, many camps that have voting blocs are calling for votes early so that they will not change their minds in the middle of the election period, and they can easily vote in the absence of information.Organization voteIt is a disadvantage in that it may be used for enclosure of[Source required](As an example,2009 (21)HyogoGovernorThe prefecture in the electionHimejiIejima TownLocal in early voting inFishery cooperativeHowever, there was a case in which the voters who came to the polling place and the voters who came to the cleaning service were given 2,000 yen in cash and called for a vote.Public office election lawIs a problem as it may conflict with[23][24]).

The Public Offices Election Act does not provide for the presentation of identification cards when voting. Submitting an affidavit for voters who did not bring their voting place admission ticket at the voting place before the deadlineDate of BirthIn many cases, you can vote only by verbal confirmation such as, and you are rarely asked to show your ID. According to a survey by the Tokyo Electoral College, only 17.5% of local governments in Tokyo require identification as to how to verify their identity when the elector does not bring a numbered ticket. There is. Many of the remaining 82.5% say that filing an affidavit is sufficient as a reason not to require identification.[25].49th House of Representatives general electionIn early voting,HokkaidoHakodateA 12-year-old son with an admission ticket for his mother who couldn't come to vote due to poor physical condition has made a mistake in voting.[26].. The fact that identity verification is not thoroughElection violation・ It is also a factor of fraudulent voting[27].. In order to improve this situation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications issued a notice (General Administration No. 19 dated May 5, 23) and requested each election administration committee to properly carry out identity verification.[28].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Regarding how to read "before", the legal term is "zen", but the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, which has jurisdiction over the Public Offices Election Act, is particular about "mae" or "zen" as a general term if the system permeates the people. The attitude that there is no.In fact, the ministry's officialWebsiteThen.URLIn "kijitsumae"Some say.Summary of press conference after the Cabinet meeting of Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications Katayama June 2003, 6,About the establishment of the early voting system Election system news list 2003 (Heisei 15)May 12
  2. ^ "Public announcement" isHouse of Representatives general electionas well as the House of Councilors ordinary electionTerm limited to. Other than that (local elections, re-elections of members of parliament and by-elections, national examination of judges of the Supreme Court, etc.), "notification" is used.
  3. ^ The 156th Diet Special Committee on the Establishment of Political Ethics and the Revision of the Public Election Law No. 3 House of Representatives 2003 (Heisei15 years)May 5
  4. ^ "<18-year-old voting right> Early vote at 17 years old due to mistake". Kahoku Shimpo. NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ Full age,Age calculationSee also article
  6. ^ #Tokyo Selection 2008, Pages 9-10
  7. ^ "[House of Representatives election XNUMX] Strategy to increase turnout by pre-deadline voting at supermarkets, stations, and universities". Sankei News (Sokoku Shimbun). (November 2014, 12). http://www.sankei.com/politics/news/141210/plt1412100053-n1.html NovemberBrowse. 
  8. ^ “Young voters can vote early at department stores (16/07/03)”. ANN News(YouTube) (Asahi News Network). (November 2016, 7). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uVUkuIYUdk0 NovemberBrowse. 
  9. ^ “18-year-old voting right applied to high school in Chiba early polling place (16/06/29)”. ANN News (YouTube) (Asahi News Network). (June 2016, 6). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8C4RzO-PJ9o NovemberBrowse. 
  10. ^ "[House of Representatives election] The election staff puts a ballot box on the car and patrols-Popular with elderly people in areas suffering from depopulation, early mobile polling place". Sankei WEST (Sokoku Shimbun). (November 2017, 10). http://www.sankei.com/west/news/171006/wst1710060055-n1.html NovemberBrowse. 
  11. ^ "Introducing early voting on the bus for the first time in the prefecture". Chunichi Shimbun(July 2019, 7). https://www.chunichi.co.jp/article/shizuoka/tokai-news/CK2019071202000089.html NovemberBrowse. 
  12. ^ Early voting on the XNUMXrd on Orono Island Asahi Shimbun, July 2007, 7 (viewed March 20, 2021).
  13. ^ According to Article 25-13 of the Public Offices Election Law Enforcement Regulations (Prime Minister's Office Ordinance No. 15 of 4), "A person who presides over a ceremonial occasion such as a mourner at a funeral, a relative of that person, or a position similar to these people in terms of social norms. It is said that a person who is recognized as having a certain task should perform at the ceremonial occasion.
  14. ^ Early voting system (flyer) (PDF)
  15. ^ "Early vote, XNUMX million people = XNUMX% increase from the previous time, the highest number of updates ever [XNUMX House of Representatives election]". jiji.comJiji Press. (October 2017, 10). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2017102200730&g=pol NovemberBrowse. 
  16. ^ Further response to new coronavirus infections in election management execution (PDF) Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAutonomous Administration BureauElection Director, Reiwa March 2, 3 (viewed October 4, 2021).
  17. ^ a b #Tokyo Selection 2008, Page 6
  18. ^ Example: April 2007Nagasaki mayor shooting dead
  19. ^ Misdistribution of paper, wrong ballot box, etc.
  20. ^ Example: If you move after the early voting and before the election date, etc.
  21. ^ If you die before the voting date, "before the deadline" is valid. "Absentee" is invalid. Hokkaido Shimbun 2007May 7
  22. ^ Double issuance of ballots [14 House of Representatives election] --December 2014, 12 Jiji Press
  23. ^ Himeji Fisheries Cooperative gives 2000 yen to early voters ... Hyogo prefectural governor election Yomiuri Shimbun 2009 (21)May 6
  24. ^ Calling for a vote of 2 yen for cleaning activities Himeji Fisheries Cooperative Kobe Shimbun June 2009, 21 (Heisei 6)
  25. ^ #Tokyo Selection 2008, Page 11
  26. ^ "Miss in the pre-election vote of the House of Representatives Issue a ballot to the XNUMX-year-old and vote". NHK Hokkaido NEWS WEB. NovemberBrowse.
  27. ^ "Voting before the deadline A series of crimes aimed at blind spots Kagawa Prefecture election, strengthening the sense of caution". Sanyo newspaper Kagawa version (July 2007, 7). As of September 22, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.NovemberBrowse.(2007 (19)May 4ExecutiveKagawa Prefectural AssemblyParliamentary elections and 2007 (Heisei 19)May 4ExecutiveTakamatsuReported false voting cases in early voting in parliamentary elections)
  28. ^ #Tokyo Selection 2008, Page 10


  • Tokyo Metropolitan Election Commission Secretariat Election Division "About the status of efforts for early voting" "Election Time Signal" Vol. 57, No. 9, National Federation of Election Commissions, September 2008, pp. 9- 1, ISSN 22-0488.

Related item

外部 リンク

103 locations within the prefecture


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