Executives of the ruling and opposition parties appeal for support in Saitama Prefecture
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In the afternoon, Akira Koike, the secretary general of the Communist Party, made a speech in front of JR Kawaguchi Station, criticizing the self-government government as "a government that has broken democracy."
On the XNUMXth, executives from the ruling and opposition parties entered Saitama Prefecture one after another and fought a fierce tongue-and-groove battle.In the morning, Toshimitsu Motegi of the Liberal Democratic Party ... → Continue reading
Saitama Prefecture's TV station, "Tele-Tama, which is good for you," delivers "news that is good for you," such as daily incidents, accidents, and topics of the town.
Wikipedia related words
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Coalition government(Renritsuseiken) is more than onePolitical partyでadministrationTo be in charge of.AlsoCabinetIs made up of multiple political partiesCoalition cabinetSay (Cabinet).However,First Hashimoto CabinetThe organization is likeLDPAlone,External cooperationIn the form ofSocial Democratic Party,New partyA pattern in which a political party like this joins a coalition government is also conceivable.Therefore, the organization is independent, but it cooperates outside the cabinet.Ruling partyIf there isNews (Chinese)And so onCoalition governmentIt may be distinguished by saying.In many casesParliamentary Cabinet SystemIn a country that takesParliamentAlone withinmajorityIt is established when you cannot control.AlsoPolitical party system Two-party systemIf it is, it is difficult to establish because one political party often controls the majority alone.Multi-party systemIf it is, it is easy to establish because it is often less than the majority of a single political party.
Coalition governments of each country
The United Kingdom
Since the democratization in 1978, the cabinet has been organized by a single political party for a long time, but in January 2020SanchezLed by the prime ministerSpanish Social Labor Party(PSOE) andUnidas PodemosCoalition government withSecond Government of Pedro) Was established.
Proportional representationIn countries that have adopted, even large political parties often cannot get a majority, for example.The Federal Republic of GermanyThe post-war cabinets are all coalition governments.
KiesingerAdministration and the firstMerkelWhen two major political parties, which are usually in a competitive relationship, form a coalition government for some reason, such as the administration,Grand coalition".
The German coalition government is called by a parallel name of the symbol colors of each political party. The symbol colors of the five major political parties areGerman Christian Democratic Union / Christian Social Alliance Is black,LDPIs yellow,German Social Democratic PartyIs red,Alliance 90 / The Greens PartyIs green,Left PartyIs red (purple red).2009 Federal ElectionAs a result, the ruling party was reorganized from the previous "black-red" left and right grand coalition to the center-right "black-yellow" coalition.
LebanonThen.Third Harry LeePrime Minister serves as party leaderFuture movementA coalition government of pro-US anti-Syrian parties such as is currently in power.Rafique Harry LeeBy anti-Syrian opposition after the assassination of former prime ministersCedar revolutionThe administration was reversed and a grand coalition was formed.AgainstHezbollah,AmaruThe pro-Syrian faction of the opposition is aiming to seize power.
in Japan,Prewar,Post-war turmoil,1955 (Showa30 years)MaintenanceでLDPMany coalition governments were seen until the establishment of.Since then, the LDP's sole administration has continued for a long time.So-called55 yearsThe first coalition government was born after that1983 With the Liberal Democratic Party (58)New freedom clubIt is a coalition with.1979 Immediately after the general election of the House of Representatives (54)2st Ohira CabinetAt the time of inaugurationHakuchu DietIn the end, he sought to form a cabinet coalition with the New Liberal Club, but in the end it was closed due to the opposition within the ruling party and the line conflict within the New Liberal Club.
But,1986 (Showa 61)Disguised as deadbyDouble electionThe Liberal Democratic Party is absolutely in the publicMany stableAfter securing and merging the coalition partner's New Liberal Club, the LDP's sole administration continued for a while.Also,1989 (HeiseiFirst year)15rd House of Councilors ordinary electionSo, even if the Liberal Democratic Party combined the non-elected seats, it did not reach the majority and suffered a big defeat, but initially the opposition party, especiallyKomeitoとDemocratic PartyMake a compromise withPrivate sector routeHe maintained the Liberal Democratic Party's sole administration.
The situation changed completely8 party coalitionBecame1993 (5)Hosokawa CabinetAfter that.Since then, some political parties have won a single majority or an absolutely stable majority in the House of Representatives, but no political party has a single majority in the House of Councilors, and the situation of having to form a coalition has become chronic.
As a result,2005 The so-calledPostal electionsLiberal Democratic Party gets a large number of absolutely stable seats in the House of RepresentativesKomeitoOr2009 (21) Big winDemocratic PartyAlso,Futenma base relocation problemAnd in budgetingSocial DemocratsとNew National PartyThere was a scene where he got stuck before his claim, and the minority parties also came to have a certain voice.
In addition, the fate of the administration was often influenced by the administration of the proceedings over the processing of important matters in the House of Councilors, and some people had a relatively strong presence and influence in the House of Councilors.Liberal Democratic PartyMikio AokiAnd DemocraticAzuma KoshiishiIs the representative.
|Conservative coalition government|
|2st Nakasone Cabinet||LDP-New freedom club|
|Non-LDP and non-communist coalition government|
|Hosokawa Cabinet||Japan New Party-Japanese Socialist Party-New Party-Komeito-Democratic Party-New party-Social Democratic Union-Democratic Reform Party|
|Haneda Cabinet||Japan Renewal Party, Komeito, Japan New Party,Liberal party・ Democratic Socialist Party ・ Social Democratic Federation ・Reform meeting|
|Murayama Cabinet||Japan Socialist Party, Liberal Democratic Party, New Party Sakigake (Under Secretary of StateonlyFree Union）|
|First Hashimoto Cabinet||LDP·Social Democrats・ New Party Sakigake|
|Self-reliant coalition government|
|Obuchi First Remodeling Cabinet||LDP·Liberal party|
|Self-public coalition government|
|Obuchi First Remodeling Cabinet||Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Democratic Party, Komeito PartyReform club）|
|Self-public insurance coalition administration|
|Second Mori Cabinet|
Second Mori Cabinet
|Liberal Democratic Party, Komei Party,Conservative party・ (Deputy Secretary of State onlyReform club(Up to the first))|
|1st Koizumi Cabinet||Liberal Democratic Party, Komei Party,Conservative New Party|
|First self-public coalition administration|
|2st Koizumi Cabinet|
3st Koizumi Cabinet
|Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito|
|First Abe Cabinet||Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito|
|Fukuda Yasuo Cabinet||Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito|
|Aso Cabinet||Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito|
|Minsha United Nations Administration|
|Yukio Hatoyama Cabinet||Democratic Party・ Social Democratic Party ・New National Party|
|Civil union government|
|Yukio Hatoyama Cabinet||Democratic Party / People's New Party|
|Naoto Kan Cabinet||Democratic Party / People's New Party|
|Noda Cabinet||Democratic Party / People's New Party|
|Second self-public coalition administration|
|First Abe Cabinet|
First Abe Cabinet
First Abe Cabinet
|Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito|
|Yoshihide Suga Cabinet||Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito|
|The 1nd Kishida Cabinet|
The 2nd Kishida Cabinet
|Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito|
Process until the formation of a system
In most cases, two or more parties form a coalition, in which no party alone can control the majority.At this time, the first party often formed a coalition with other parties,administrationIs established.Regarding what kind of combination of political parties will form a coalition in such casespoliticsMuch research has been done in.
The most classic theory isWilliam RikerWas built by.In the rider's model, simultaneous formation is regarded as a zero-sum game (zero sum game, a game in which the total gain of participants is 0).Here, the political party as an actor acts rationally, that is, its own interests.utilityas well as the PreferenceSuppose you act to maximize.In that case, the political parties will act to maximize the share of the gains from the coalition, specifically the acquisition of the post of the administration as much as possible.On the other hand, political parties as actors share their gains with others in order to take power.Therefore, the smaller the number of parties to share the gain, the better, and the smaller the number of political parties participating in the coalition, the better.In other words, from these assumptions, Riker showed that even if any party is missing, it is most likely that a coalition of political parties that divides the majority will be established.Such a combination,Minimum Victory AllianceThat is.Here, I will set a simple example and try to explain it.
- Party A: 270
- Party B: 230
- Party C: 60
- Party D: 40
The total number of seats here is 600, and the majority is 301.Naturally, it is assumed to be a simultaneous formation game under the parliamentary cabinet system.Party A, the first party, has 1 seats and has not reached the majority, and must form a coalition to establish a government.If a coalition is formed with another political party here, the majority will be reached, so it is desirable for A to form a coalition with two political parties from the viewpoint of gain.However, if you form a coalition with a political party with a large number of seats, such as Party B, the share will decrease.By forming a coalition with Party D, which has the fewest seats, it is possible to maximize the share, although it is only 270, which is more than half.On the other hand, it is rational for other political parties to join the administration and give a share.In such a case, Party A orders the preference relationship from the options in the order of coalition with Party D> coalition with Party C> coalition with Party B.Therefore, first of all, the coalition with the D partyNegotiationI hope. For the B, C, and D parties, a two-party coalition is preferable to a three-party coalition in order to maximize their own gains, so the coalition with the A party is most desirable.Therefore, the minimum victory alliance between Party A and Party D is established.
By the way, in particular, the B party can be interpreted differently. If Party B forms a coalition with Party C and Party D, Party B will be able to obtain the post of prime minister, and since it is the first party in the coalition government, it will be able to obtain a lot of gains.If Party B evaluates this gain higher than the gain in the case of a two-party coalition with Party A, Party B wants a three-party coalition.However, from the perspective of their own gains, Party C and Party D prefer a two-party coalition with A to a three-party coalition proposed by Party B.Therefore, even in this case, the minimum victory alliance between Party A and Party D is established.
Also, in many countries, the first party is in charge of the administration.CustomOrRulesHas been established.In this case, parties B, C, and D cannot negotiate independently.Therefore, there are only options to agree in negotiations and join the administration and not to participate in the administration.All parties choose to join the administration if these two options are available.As a result, the minimum victory alliance of the A party and the D party will be established.
Riker wrote this theoryThe Theory of Political Coalitions(1962 ).This isGame theoryIs one of the first works to apply to political science.Because game theorystrategyThis is because it is a useful means for analyzing the situation.A strategic situation refers to a situation in which there are multiple actors, and the selection / action of one actor affects the selection and gain of another actor.If a political party is an actor, the process of establishing a government corresponds to this strategic situation.
It was the inheritance and development of the theory of the Riker's Minimum Victory Alliance.Robert AxelrodIt is an analysis of.Axelrod, like Riker, assumes the rationality of the political party, but from the perspective of maximizing the share.policyI added a target element.This is because the policy itself is an expression of political party preference.In other words, political parties set up specific policies and gain profits and utilities by implementing them.Therefore, Axelrod said that a system of equations such as the post that can maximize both the share of the system and the realization of the policy will be derived as a result.More precisely, it can be obtained from a combination of shares such as posts and the degree of policy realization.gainIt is a framework that enables maximization of.thisMinimum Victory AllianceThat is.Specifically, it is a coalition of large and small political parties that has a seating capacity closer to the majority, such as the minimum victory alliance.However, this is also a combination that reduces the policy differences between the two parties that form a coalition at the same time.
Even in the formation of a coalition government that is actually seen, it can be said that the minimum victory alliance in a broad sense, including the minimum consolidated victory alliance as seen in the above theory, is almost established.But rarelyスイス OfMagic formulalikeGrand coalitionThere is a coalition of large political parties that are said to be, and in that case, the policy differences of the political parties that make up the coalition are large.For example2005 OfBundestag electionAs a result ofGermanyThen the grand coalitionMerkelThe administration was born.First, I will show the result of this election here.
|Parliamentary name||Seats after re-election||Seats before re-election||Increase or decrease|
|■Christian Democratic Union-Christian Social Alliance (CDU / CSU)||226||248||.|
|■Social Democrats (SPD)||222||251||.|
|■Alliance 90 / The Greens Party (Grüne)||47||51||-4|
First, according to the theory of the minimum victory alliance in a broad senseadministrationLet's predict the process of establishment.The CDU / CSU, which became the first party, first seeks a coalition with the FDP, which has the least policy difference, but the total number of seats is 1, which is less than the majority of both parties.Next, Alliance 287 / The Greens Party, and the Left PartyprotocolWill be done.However, the policy difference between Alliance 90 / The Greens and the Left is greater than the policy difference with SPDs.Therefore, it is naturally expected that it will be difficult to form a coalition with one of the two parties.In fact, the CDU / CSU went into coalition talks with the FDP, which was predicted to be a coalition before the election, and the Greens.But mainly with the CDU and FDP and Alliance 90 / The GreensEconomic policyThe gap above was large and this was unsuccessful.In the end, the environment for establishing the minimum victory alliance in a broad sense, that is, the minimum consolidated victory alliance, was not established, and a grand coalition was established.But first, the search for a three-party coalition of CDU, FDP, and Alliance 90 / The Greens indicates that the parties will act rationally and seek the smallest Victory Alliance first.This indicates that a minimum Victory Alliance (Minimum Victory Alliance) is desirable for political parties and that they will make every effort to form a Minimum Victory Alliance.From this, it can be said that the theory of the minimum victory alliance in a broad sense is valid.
On the other hand, when adopting a proportional representation system,Political allianceThere are cases in which the election is held.in this caseCenter rightとCenter leftOften divided into two major coalitions.Also, if one party alliance exceeds the seats of another party or party alliance, this party alliance will form a coalition as it is.For exampleイタリア,スウェーデンIs a typical example.In Sweden2006 In the general electionModerate party-Central party-Liberal party-Christian Democratic PartyThe four-party coalition of right-wing parties, "Union for Sweden," won 349 seats, which is the majority of the 178 seats, and a four-party coalition government was born.However, the moderate party with the largest number of seats in the "Union for Sweden" has 97 seats, which is the first party.Social Democratic Labor PartyIt is the second party, less than (130 seats).In other words, it is very different from the normal simultaneous formation pattern in which the first party plays a central role in forming a coalition after the election results are finalized.Rather, here is a political alliance, that is, a "coalition for Sweden" and a center-left social democracy.Green party-Left PartyEach of the political alliance is considered a monolithic unit, a single actor in the process of regime.In this sense, this case does not take the typical process of establishing a coalition government, even though it is a coalition government.Two-party systemIt can be said that it is close to the process of establishing a single government in which the framework of the administration is decided as it is as a result of the election as seen in the case of.
Coalition government policy process
- ^ "The first change of government in 13 years in the UK, the birth of a coalition government of the Conservative Party and the Liberal Democratic Party“Reuters” May 2010, 5.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "British general election of 2010 | United Kingdom" (English). Encyclopedia Britannica. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “Half of the first coalition ministers after democratization”. Tokyo Newspaper(July 2020, 1) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “Belgium is finally inaugurated as a provisional government for a year and a half”(November 2011, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2011, 12. NovemberBrowse.
- Cabinet (Japan)
- Cabinet-Inauguration ceremony-Certification Officer Appointment Ceremony
- External cooperation
- United Nations Cabinet
- Twisted Diet
- Grand coalition
- Dalian Initiative (Japan 2007)
- Citizens' Union Administration Concept
- Coalition Government Concept
- Company public route,Private sector route,Company,Middle Road New Party Concept
- Non-LDP and non-communist coalition government,Non-LDP
- In-house coalition
- Minsha United Nations Administration,Civil union government
- Secretary of State-Deputy Minister-Minister of Parliament
- Minister for Special Missions
- Minister of non-profit
- Civilian minister