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🏛 | Swiss referendum supports the use of "COVID certificate"

Photo COVID certificate.Have a paper document or digital certificate from the app (Keystone / Laurent Gillieron)

Swiss referendum in favor of using "COVID certificate"

If you write the contents roughly
There were also concerns about data protection issues.

In Switzerland, the vaccine passport "COVID certificate" is ... → Continue reading


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Wikipedia related words

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Information privacy

Information privacy(Privacy,English: Information privacy) IsデータCollection and diffusion,Technology, General expectations for privacy and their surroundingslegalProblems andPoliticalThe relationship that exists between problems[1].Data privacy(English: data privacy[2]orData protection(English: data protection) Is also called.

Information privacy is difficult, because it seeks to balance personal privacy intent and protection of personally identifiable information with the use of data.[3].Computer security,(English editionandInformation securityTo address this issue in all areassoftware,hardwareAnd human resources are invested.

Regulatory framework

Regulations of each country, etc.

Regulatory authorities in each country

  • National Data Protection Authority of the European Union and the European Free Trade Association
  • Australian Information Commission Secretariat (Australia)
  • Privacy Commissioner (New Zealand)
  • National Committee for Informatics and Freedom (CNIL, France)
  • Federal Commission for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (Germany)
  • Personal Data Privacy Commissioner Office (Hong Kong)
  • Data Protection Commissioner (Ireland)
  • Data Protection Regulatory Agency (Isle of Man)
  • National Privacy Commission (Philippines)
  • Personal Information Protection Commission (Singapore)
  • Personal Data Protection Agency (Turkey) (KVKK, Turkey)
  • Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner (Switzerland)
  • Information Commissioner's Office (ICO, UK)
  • Spanish Data Protection Agency (AEPD, Spain)

Information type

Concerns about privacypersonal informationThere are various types.


In the UK in 2012, the Secretary of State for EducationMichael goveBut,(English editionHe said that it is a "rich dataset" and that its value can be "maximized" by making it more openly accessible, including private companies.(English editionThe magazine, Kelly Five Ash, said this could take advantage of "children's school life, including exam results, attendance, teacher ratings, and even features."There, the data will not be anonymized by the government before it is transmitted, but will be responsible for the anonymization of the information that the third party publishes.As an example, Gove once requested the use of data on "analysis of sexual exploitation," which was previously rejected, but may also be permitted under amended privacy regulations.[7].

Financial relations

Information about an individual's financial transactions, including information about total assets, stock or fund holdings, outstanding debt, purchase history, etc., may be sensitive.If a criminal accesses information such as account information or credit card numbers, the individual isscam,SpoofingCan be a victim of.Information about the purchase history can reveal much of a person's behavioral history, such as where the individual visited, who was contacted, what product was used, what the activity was, or what habits or medications were being taken.In some cases, companies have used this information to customize it to their personal tastes.Ads(Targeted advertising) Is possible[7].

Internet related

In recent years, the ability to control what information about oneself is revealed on the Internet and who is allowed access to that information has become a major concern.In particular,電子 メ ー ルIt is a problem that a third party saves or reads the website without consent, or that the third party tracks the access history of another person's website.In addition, the collection, storage and sharing of users by visited websites is also an issue.

VariousSearch engineWith the appearance ofData MiningThe use of has made it much easier to collect and combine personal data from a variety of sources.[8][9][10].. America'sFederal Trade CommissionHas a collection of guidelines on fair practices that are widely accepted in the electronic market for information practices.(English editionIt is offered as.

E-mail encryption is effective in avoiding excessive exposure of personal information. Activities on the Internet, such as browsing Web pages, can be performed in a form that is difficult to track by "anonymization".If the anonymization system is unreliable, so-called open source(English edition( I2P,TorEtc.) are available. VPN (Virtual private network) Is also a type of anonymization device that protects activities on the Internet.This includes obfuscating and encrypting web traffic so that others cannot view or mine it.[11].

As the amount of information distributed on the Internet increases, not only e-mail but alsoSocial networking servicesNew privacy concerns have arisen in.People are now tagged and important information is exposed in photographs (which may be intentional or unintentional by others), and refers to such a situation.(English editionCame to be called.Location information may be unintentionally published.For example, when posting a photo in the background of a specific store.Care must be taken when publishing information on the Internet, but the range of information disclosure varies depending on each social networking service.[12]..If the security settings are weak and the information to be published is not scrutinized, the search may collect and collate completely disjointed information to profile the individual.In the worst caseNet stalker(English editionI was damaged by[13]Will run the risk of losing credibility[14].

Location information

Mobile device location tracking feature (Location information serviceAs) progresses, issues related to user privacy arise.Location data is one of the most sensitive data currently collected[15]..A list of potentially sensitive professionals and personal information that can be inferred about individuals who only know their mobility traces was recently published by the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[16]..These include the movement of competitors' sales force, attendance at specific churches, and the presence of individuals at motels and abortion clinics.Recent MIT research by Monjoy et al.[17][18]Showed that four spatiotemporal points (approximate location and time) are sufficient to uniquely identify 150% of the 95 million people in the mobility database.This study further shows that these constraints are retained even when the resolution of the dataset is low.Therefore, even coarse or blurry datasets have little anonymity.

Medical relations

People may not want their medical records to be revealed to others because of the confidentiality and confidentiality of what information can reveal about their health.For example, you may be concerned that it may affect your insurance coverage and employment.Or it may be because you don't want others to know about any medical or psychological condition or treatment that may be embarrassing to you.Revealing medical data may reveal other details about personal life[19]..There are three main categories of medical privacy.Information (degree of management of personal information), physical (degree of physical access to others), psychological (doctor respects patient's cultural beliefs, inner thoughts, values, emotions and religious practices) To allow the patient to make personal decisions)[20]..Physicians and psychiatrists in many cultures and countries have standards for doctor-patient relationships, including confidentiality.In some cases, the privileges of doctors and patients are legally protected.These practices are practiced to protect the dignity of the patient and to give the patient the freedom to disclose the complete and accurate information necessary to receive the correct treatment.[21]..To view the law on managing the privacy of personal health information in the United States(English editionand(English editionSee.Australian law 1988 AustraliaPrivacy Act and State-Based Health Recording Act.

Political relations

Election methodSince its birth in ancient timesPolitical privacyHas been a concern.Secret votingIs the simplest and most prevalent way to keep political views unknown to anyone but the voters.This is modernDemocracySo it ’s almost universal.CitizenIt is considered the basic right of the right.In fact, the otherPoliciesThis type of privacy exists very often, even if the right does not exist.Unfortunately, using a digital voting machine can lead to several forms of fraudulent voting and privacy breaches.[22].


一般 的 なPoliciesRights, especially the legal protection of data privacy, vary widely around the world[23].

Laws and regulations related to privacy and data protection are constantly changing, and it may be important to continually reassess data privacy and compliance with security regulations to keep up with changes in the law. ing[24]..Within academia,Ethics CommitteeFunctions to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to ensure both the privacy and confidentiality of the subject in the study.[25].

PoliciesConcernsPersonally identifiable informationOr otherConfidential informationWhenever is collected, stored, used, and eventually destroyed or deleted,Digital formatOr it exists in some other way.Inappropriate or non-existent disclosure controls can be the root cause of privacy issues.(English editionincludingInformed consentMechanisms are important in communicating to data subjects various uses of personally identifiable information.Data privacy issues can arise in response to information from a variety of sources, including:[26].

Protecting privacy in information systems

Because different types of information systems with different privacy rules are interconnected and information is shared.(English editionNeed to coordinate, enforce, and monitor more and more privacy policy rules (and laws),CommercialThere are two categories of technologies that address the privacy protection of IT systems: communications and enforcement.

Policy communication
  • P3P – Platform for privacy settings. P3P is a standard for communicating privacy practices and comparing them to personal preferences.
Enforcement of policy
  • XACML-The Extensible Access Control Markup Language and its privacy profile are standards for expressing privacy policies in machine-readable languages ​​that software systems can use to enforce policies on enterprise IT systems.
  • (English edition --The Enterprise Privacy Authorization Language is very similar to XACML, but not yet standard.
  • WS-Privacy-"Web Service Privacy" is Web serviceSpecifications for communicating the privacy policy in.For example, privacy policy information in a web service messageSOAPYou can specify how to embed it in the envelope.
Protecting privacy on the internet

On the Internet, many users provide a lot of information about themselves.If the connection is not encrypted (HTTPSNone), unencrypted email,Email serverAdministrator, andInternet service providerIt can be read by such as.Network traffic for that connectionEavesdroppingThe party who does it can know the contents.The same thing(English edition,Instant messagingThis applies to all types of traffic generated on the Internet.To avoid giving away personal information too far away, emails can be encrypted and traceless through other online activities as well as browsing web pages.(English edition, Or an open source distributed anonymizer, so-called(English edition..The well-known open source mixnet includes I2P – Anonymous Network andTorIs included.

Improving privacy through personalization

Computer privacy is(English editionCan be improved by.Currently, security messages are designed for the "average user."That is, send the same message to all users.Researchers believe that individual messages and security "nudges" based on individual user differences and personality traits can be used to further improve individual individual compliance with computer security and privacy. ing[27].


  1. ^ Uberveillance and the social implications of microchip implants: emerging technologies.Michael, MG, Michael, Katina, 1976-. Hershey, PA. (30 September 2013). ISBN 978-1466645820 . OCLC 843857020 
  2. ^ Ian Austen (June 2011, 6). “Canadian Inquiry Finds Privacy Issues in Sale of Used Products at Staples”. The New York Times. https://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/22/canadian-inquiry-finds-privacy-issues-in-sale-of-used-products-at-staples 2019/5/14Browse. 
  3. ^ Vicenç Torra (2017), “Introduction”, Data Privacy: Foundations, New Developments and the Big Data Challenge, Studies in Big Data, 28, Springer International Publishing, pp. 1–21, two:10.1007 / 978-3-319-57358-8_1, ISBN 9783319573564 
  4. ^ https://ec.europa.eu/info/law/law-topic/data-protection_en
  5. ^ https://www.pdpc.gov.sg/Legislation-and-Guidelines/Personal-Data-Protection-Act-Overview Retrieved 20 Oct 2019
  6. ^ Republic Act No. 10173: Data Privacy Act of 2012
  7. ^ a b Fiveash, Kelly (November 2012, 11). “Psst: Heard the one about the National Pupil Database? Thought not”. . https://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/11/08/national_pupil_database_regulation_overhaul_in_private_sector_data_grab/ 2012/12/12Browse. 
  8. ^ Bergstein, Brian (June 2006, 6). “Research explores data mining, privacy”. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/surveillance/2006-06-18-data-mining-privacy_x.htm 2010/5/5Browse. 
  9. ^ Bergstein, Brian (June 2004, 1). “In this data-mining society, privacy advocates shudder”. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://www.seattlepi.com/business/154986_privacychallenge02.html 
  10. ^ Swartz, Nikki. “US Demands Google Web Data”. Information Management Journal. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141219105358/http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/21472572/u-s-demands-google-web-data  Vol. 40 Issue 3, p. 18
  11. ^ "VyprVPN Protects Your Privacy and Security | Golden Frog". www.vyprvpn.com. 2019/4/3Browse.
  12. ^ Schneider, G .; Evans, J .; Pinard, KT (2008). The Internet: Illustrated Series. Cengage Learning. P. 156. ISBN 9781423999386. https://books.google.com/books?id=E1fQdrzxAPoC&pg=PA17-IA137 2018/5/9Browse. 
  13. ^ Bocij, P. (2004). Cyberstalking: Harassment in the Internet Age and How to Protect Your Family.Greenwood Publishing Group. Pp. 268. ISBN 9780275981181. https://archive.org/details/cyberstalkinghar00boci/page/268 
  14. ^ Cannataci, JA; Zhao, B .; Vives, GT (2016). Privacy, free expression and transparency: Redefining their new boundaries in the digital age. UNESCO. P. 26. ISBN 9789231001888. https://books.google.com/books?id=tGC_DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA26 2018/5/9Browse. 
  15. ^ Ataei, M .; Kray, C. (2016). “Ephemerality Is the New Black: A Novel Perspective on Location Data Management and Location Privacy in LBS”. Progress in Location-Based Services 2016. Springer. Pp. 357–374. ISBN 9783319472898. https://books.google.com/books?id=_BdADQAAQBAJ&pg=PA360 2018/5/9Browse. 
  16. ^ Blumberg, A. Eckersley, P .. “On locational privacy and how to avoid losing it forever.”. EFF. 2018/5/9Browse.
  17. ^ de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; César A. Hidalgo; Michel Verleysen; Vincent D. Blondel (March 25, 2013). “Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility”. Scientific Reports 3: 1376. bibcode2013NatSR ... 3E1376D. two:10.1038 / srep01376. PMC 3607247. PMID 23524645. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607247/. 
  18. ^ Palmer, Jason (March 2013, 3). “Mobile location data'present anonymity risk'”. BBC News. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21923360 2013/4/12Browse. 
  19. ^ Aurelia, Nicholas-Donald; Francisco, Matus, Jesus; SeungEui, Ryu; M, Mahmood, Adam (1 June 2017). The Economic Effect of Privacy Breach Announcements on Stocks: A Comprehensive Empirical Investigation. http://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2011_submissions/341/. 
  20. ^ Serenko, Natalia; Lida Fan (2013). “Patients' Perceptions of Privacy and Their Outcomes in Healthcare”. International Journal of Behavioral and Healthcare Research 4 (2): 101–122. two:10.1504 / IJBHR.2013.057359. http://aserenko.com/IJBHR_Serenko_Fan.pdf. 
  21. ^ "If a patient is below the age of 18-years does confidentiality still works or should doctor breach and inform the parents? 15years girl went for ... --eNotes". eNotes. 2018/2/21Browse.
  22. ^ Zetter, Kim (February 2018, 2). “The Myth of the Hacker-Proof Voting Machine” (English). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/21/magazine/the-myth-of-the-hacker-proof-voting-machine.html 2019/4/3Browse. 
  23. ^ Rakower (2011). “Blurred Line: Zooming in on Google Street View and the Global Right to Privacy". brooklynworks.brooklaw.edu.As of August 2017, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2017/10/5Browse.
  24. ^ Robert Hasty, Dr Trevor W. Nagel and Mariam Subjally, Data Protection Law in the USA. (Advocates for International Development, August 2013.)"Archived copy”. As of May 2015, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2013/10/14Browse.
  25. ^ "Institutional Review Board --Guidebook, CHAPTER IV --CONSIDERATIONS OF RESEARCH DESIGN". www.hhs.gov (September 2017, 10). 2017/10/5Browse.
  26. ^ Program Management Managing Multiple Projects Successfully.. Mittal, Prashant .. Global India Pubns. (2009). ISBN 978-9380228204 . OCLC 464584332 
  27. ^ "The Myth of the Average User: Improving Privacy and Security Systems through Individualization (NSPW '15) | BLUES". blues.cs.berkeley.edu. 2016/3/11Browse.


Related item

Computer Science
Researchers in this field

外部 リンク

International organizations, etc.
Latin America
North America


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