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🏛 | Request for examination by the national government "Threat local autonomy" to appeal at the National Governors' Association


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Request for examination by the government "Threat local autonomy" to appeal at the National Governors' Association

 
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In the prefectural assembly, Governor Toguchi, a member of the Communist Party, introduced a report from an advisory body of the US federal parliament that pointed out the possibility of China attacking a base in Okinawa in the event of a Taiwan emergency, and Governor Tamaki was questioned. Has expressed its intention to work on deterrence by promoting exchanges with China and appealing in letters.
 

Governor Tamaki said at the prefectural assembly on the 8th that the government had filed a request for examination, which is a system to rescue the people over the relocation of Henoko. → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Taiwan emergency

Taiwan emergencyWhat is (Yuji Taiwan)?Republic of China(Taiwan) And large-scale invasion of TaiwanNatural disastersAn emergency situation such as the occurrence of.Especially on the continental side (People's Republic of China)ofPLARefers to the situation where Taiwan invades Taiwan.

The Government of the People's Republic of China advocates Taiwan as a nation.One inseparable""Core benefits", And against the Taiwan independence group,"Non-peaceful meansThat is, the direct military action was legalized domestically.Anti-state division lawWas established in 2005.Taiwan from the United States for defenseAegis ship,F-16 series fighterI strongly oppose the purchase of.

Movement over Taiwan emergency

Taiwan Strait Missile Crisis

1996 Made inPresidential election of the Republic of ChinaLee Teng-huiWhen the dominant observations flow,PLAAs a threat to the electionMilitary exercisesWas forced.KeelungIn the offshore areamissileIntimidating acts such as shooting in, the tension increased at a stretch around Taiwan.PLADeputy Chief of Staff, General Kumamitsu,US Department of Defense"Taiwan issue" to Assistant Secretary of Defense Charles FreemanU.S. ForcesIf China intervenes, ChinaUS West CoastTonuclear weaponsShoot in.America TheTaipeithanLos AngelesShould be worried about him, "he said, strongly restraining US military intervention.[1][2].

US NavyOn the other handTaiwan StraitToPacific FleetNormal power aircraft carrier "Independence"WhenAegis Cruiser"Bunker hill”, Etc.Carrier strike group (currently: carrier strike group),furtherPersian GulfWas deployed inNuclear carrier"Nimitz"The escort fleet was dispatched.After that, underwater talks between the United States and China, China shelved the extension of military exercises, and the United States withdrew its troops from the strait.After that, the Chinese army (in 1996, the main fighter wasSu-27,J-8,J-8II) Is accelerating the modernization of the military.

At this timePresidentAs a result of the election, Taiwan independence-oriented Lee Teng-hui is especially TaiwaneseHead ministerHe won a landslide, boosted by his antipathy towards the continent.

21st century

Anti-Secession Law (2005)

2005 , Mainland China affirms armed invasion of Taiwan as an optionAnti-state division lawWas enacted.In response to thatChinese PLAIs said to be close to(Chinese versionTsinghua UniversityThe director of the Japan Institute of International Affairs wrote a book entitled "Forecasting the Taiwan Independence of International Affairs" in which "Taiwan independence is2008 OfBeijing OlympicsIt is highly likely that Taiwan will declare its independence at the opening ceremony, "he said." It is necessary to defeat that intention with a preemptive military attack. If a military conflict occurs in the Taiwan Strait, Japan's domestic demand will expand to the limit. However, foreign investment will also flow in. If Taiwan succeeds in military containment, China will become the world's second-largest power. "[3].

2005 May 7,National Defense UniversityProfessor·Chinese PLAMajor GeneralZhu ChenghuBut,"Wall Street JournalAnd 'Financial TimesIn front of the media of each country, such asAmericaIntervenes in a Taiwan emergencyChugoku TheNuclear warI said I wouldn't quit[4], "Weak powers should defeat strong powers with the utmost effort"[5]In exchange for hundreds of cities in the United StatesXi'anHe said he was willing to destroy all the cities in the east.[5]..In addition, "(China consistently) does not use nuclear weapons first" is the basic policy of military strategy, and it is non-nuclear.Conventional weaponEven if it becomes a war bynuclear weaponsHas declared that it will not be used, but has stated that "non-preemptive use of nuclear weapons" is "a principle that applies only to wars with non-nuclear countries" and "this kind of policy changes often".[4].

Japanese govermentShows a neutral position on this Taiwan issue,2005 At the "Japan-US Security Conference" attended by the ministers in charge of foreign affairs and defense of Japan and the United States, the two governments announced a common strategic goal between Japan and the United States, "I hope for a peaceful solution to the Taiwan issue." Cooperated to express "interest" in the Taiwan issue.

2006 May 10,Chen Shui-bianPresidentBut,National Day of the Republic of ChinaVisited Taiwan to attend the ceremonyNika congressional round-table conferenceMeet with the members ofnorth koreaOn the same dayUnderground nuclear testWhile strongly condemning the implementation of the above, strengthening military exchanges between Japan and the United States, with both countriesSemi-military allianceEmphasized the need to build[6].

PLA's "Six Wars" Plan (2013)

2013 October,Chinese governmentAlthough not the official view ofChugokuof"Chinese newspaper webAnd 'Bunhui] Etc.Chugoku The2020 から2060 An article was published saying that "Rokuba War (Six Wars)" will be held.[7][8][9][10]..According to this "Rokuba War (Six Wars)" planChugoku The2020 から2025 OverTaiwanGet back,2028 から2030 OverEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn the war withNansha IslandsRecapture,2035 から2040 OverSouth Tibet(Arunachal Pradesh) To getIndiaWage a war with2040 から2045 Over尖 閣 諸島OkinawaTheJapanRecapture from2045 から2050 OverOuter Mongolia(Mongolia) Are merged,2055 から2060 OverRussian Empire Qing Dynasty160 million square kilometers of land stolen fromOuter Manchuria,Sixty-four tons of Koto,Pamir Plateau) To recover the land[7][8][9][10].

Australian National UniversityResearcher Geoff Wade commented on some of the articlesRadicalistThere is an opinion that it is only my personal opinion,ChugokuThe state newspaper also reports,Chinese governmentCan be considered approved at a very high level ofChugoku"Recovery of Lost Land" Plan Already1938 Pointed out that it was claimed by[8].

2020 year~

In 2020TaiwanThe increased activity of the PLA in the surrounding area is also a problem, and the number of PLA sorties tracked by Taiwan in the same year reached a record high of about 380.[11].

2021 May 3,(English editionUS Indo-Pacific Army"The biggest concern is China's military developments against Taiwan," the commander said of the Indo-Pacific security environment.[12].

2021 May 4,Yoshii KanPrime MinisterJoe BidenUS PresidentAnnounced "The Japan-US Alliance that Shapes the Free and Open Indo-Pacific"[13].Free and Open Indo-Pacific StrategyIn this statement based on尖 閣 諸島,South China SeaClaims on China's maritime interests inTaiwan Straitproblem,Hong Kong,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionEtc. in ChinaHegemonyIt is clearly stated as follows as corresponding to the movement[14].

The Japan-US alliance that shapes the free and open Indo-Pacific

(Omitted)Japan-US AllianceFor universal values ​​and common principlescommitmentPromote a common vision of promoting free and open Indo-Pacific and inclusive economic prosperity based on.The United States and Japan respect sovereignty and territorial integrity, and are committed to peaceful conflict resolution and opposition to intimidation.Both Japan and the United StatesUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the SeaPromote common norms in the ocean, including the freedom of navigation and flight described in. (Omitted)

The United States alsoUS-Japan Security TreatyArticle 5尖 閣 諸島Reconfirmed that it applies to.Both Japan and the United States oppose any unilateral action to undermine Japan's administration of the Senkaku Islands. (Omitted)

Prime Minister Suga and President Biden exchange views on the impact of China's actions on peace and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region and the world, and are in line with a rules-based international order, including the use of economic and other intimidation. Not shared concerns about China's actions. (Omitted) Both Japan and the United StatesEast China SeaOppose any unilateral attempts to change the status quo in.

Both Japan and the United StatesSouth China SeaReiterates its opposition to China's allegations and activities regarding illegal maritime interests in the United Nations, and guarantees freedom of navigation and flight in a manner governed by international law and in line with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Reaffirmed the strong common interests in the open South China Sea.

Both Japan and the United StatesTaiwan StraitWhile emphasizing the importance of peace and stabilityCross-strait problemPromote a peaceful solution.

Both Japan and the United StatesHong Kongas well as the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionShare serious concerns about the human rights situation in Japan. (Omitted)

Both Japan and the United States are the stronger Japan-US-Australia India to build the free, open, accessible, diverse and prosperous Indo-Pacific that everyone wants.Quad) Will continue to collaborate with allies and partners, including Australia and India.Japan and the United States are in the Indo-PacificASEANSupports the unity and centrality of the ASEAN and the "ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific".

From the provisional translation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "Japan-US Global Partnership in a New Era," a joint statement by the leaders of Japan and the United States on April 2021, 4.[13]

Mainland China side against thisInternal affairsHowever, he repelled, saying, "Strong dissatisfaction and decisive opposition."[15].

2021 May 4,Nobuo KishiMinister of DefenseIs in OkinawaJapan Ground Self-Defense ForceYonaguni Camp"When you come to Yonaguni, Taiwan is very close to the opposite bank. The peace and stability of Taiwan is linked to the peace and prosperity of the region and the international community."[16].

2021 May 6,America's(English edition(English editionIs "SDFHas the phrase "Taiwan defense is Japan's defense".I think Japan will act accordingly, "he said, recognizing that Japan would participate in Taiwan's defense in the event of a Taiwan emergency.[17].. about this South KoreaMediaof"(Korean version"In modern history South KoreaIf Taiwan has something in common, it is that it was once under Japanese colonial rule.However, in South KoreaAnti-Japanese sentimentTaiwan has almost no anti-Japanese sentiment, compared to the fact that it is very strong.Rather, there is a "worship day" feeling of worshiping Japan.Taiwan'sModernizationBecause Japan made a big contribution to the situation. "International economyJapan and Taiwan are showing the best compatibility on the stage of.In the international economy, Taiwan often coalesces with Japan and hits the back of Korean companies.Taiwan is ourcommon senseThen it is a country with some parts that I do not understand. "Suzerainty that was colonized Of(I.e.Is it? Japan is embarking on such protection of Taiwan.Japan is if China is TaiwanInvasionIf we do, we will not hide our inner feelings to protect Taiwan against this. "[17].

2021 May 6,Yasuhide NakayamaState Minister of Defense America Ofthink tankIsHudson InstituteIn the lecture, "Taiwan Thefriendis not it.we兄弟And家族"[18]..Also, TaiwanCountryWas expressed[18].

2021 May 7,Financial Times』Assuming that Japan and the United States are in TaiwanSouth China Sea,East China SeaReported that they are conducting joint exercises at[19]..Japan and the United States also carry out desk training, and for a series of exercises and training, "Top secretIs included,Trump administrationFrom the end of the term, we started full-scale strategy planning for Taiwan emergencies, etc.South China SeaConducted joint exercises under the name of "disaster relief training"尖 閣 諸島Even off the coast, "everything between NakadaiConflictI practiced in preparation for[19]..A former U.S. official said, "The ultimate goal is that Japan and the United States have'integrated'about Taiwan.War planIs to formulate. "[19].

2021 May 7ToTaro AsoDeputy Prime MinisterIf China invades TaiwanJapanese goverment Security lawRecognized as a "survival crisis" defined byRight of collective self-defenseRecognizing that there is a possibility of exercising, "It is perfectly safe to say that if a big problem (in Taiwan) occurs, it will be related to the survival crisis. Then, Japan and the United States will work together to defend Taiwan. I have to do it. "[20].

2021 May 7,ShaanxiBaoji City OfPolitical and Legal CommissionWill leave Japan in the event of a Taiwan emergencyNuclear attackVideo to doインターネットInsists that it is okay to use nuclear weapons "exceptionally" if Japan plunges into a Taiwanese emergency.[21]..The video says, "If Japan intervenes by force in our attempt to liberate Taiwan, even one soldier, one aircraft.Military aircraft, One shipwarship"We should not just destroy it, but start a full-scale war against Japan," he said. "First, drop the nuclear bomb." "Again.Unconditional surrenderI will continue to drop as many shots as I can until I do, and hit Japan's defense power, "Taiwan StraitBy striking thoroughly "until we can no longer devote our troops to Japan" and intervening in the internal affairs of other countries, we will be reminded of what we will encounter, and for that purpose, "by making Japan an exception to the non-use of nuclear preemption, we will be with Japan. I can warn the world. If Japan intervenes in Japan's internal affairs, including the unification of its homeland, nuclear weapons will be used and will continue to be used until Japan surrenders unconditionally. "[22]By conducting a nuclear attack, China尖 閣 諸島Regained from Japan,OkinawaCan be released from Japanese rule[22]..This videoTaiwanMediaof"Free time] Is "Mourning madness (Difference) ”[23].

2021 May 9, At a roundtable discussion on cooperation between Japan and Taiwan held by the Taiwan National Policy Research Institute Education FoundationYasuhide NakayamaState Minister of DefenseSaid that Japan and Taiwan are "just a stone's throw away", and if something happens, "it's not another person. It's your own." "(Taiwan's peace and stability) isn't a person." "Taiwan and Japan are just a stone's throw away, and Japan treats Taiwan's peace and stability as if it were its own country, and cannot do anything else."LDP OfMasahisa SatoThe chairman of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that "Taiwan emergency is Japan emergency"[24][25][26].. On the contraryMinistry of Foreign Affairs of China OfZhao LijianSpokesmanHe said he protested against the Japanese side, saying, "Random remarks," "strong dissatisfaction and decisive opposition," and "immediately stop interfering with China's internal affairs."on the other hand,Taiwan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Of(Chinese versionThe relationship between Taiwan and Japan is friendly and intimate, saying that the spokesman expressed a favorable view of the future and welcomed friends from all walks of life to continue to pay attention to the peace and stability of the Straits of Taiwan.自由,Democracy,human rights,Rule of lawHe mentioned that he shares basic values ​​such as, and that he has a close economic relationship and is an important partner with each other. I said that I will make it something[24][25][26].

2021 May 10,Taiwan Ministry of National Defense Of(Chinese version"Military tensions in the Taiwan Strait are the most serious in the last 40 years," he explained at a parliamentary meeting on the same day.He also predicted that China would pay less to attack Taiwan by 2025, allowing it to launch a full-scale attack on Taiwan.[27][28]

2021 October, Taiwan Foundation for DemocracypollThen, in the event of a Taiwan emergency, 58.0% answered "promising" and 35.2% answered "no prospect" when asked "Do you think Japan will send troops to cooperate in Taiwan defense?"U.S. Forces65.0% of the respondents said that they were "promising", highlighting the high expectations of Japan and the United States for military assistance to Taiwan.[29].

2021 May 12,LDP OfShinzo AbeIn a public forum hosted by a think tank in Taiwan, the former Prime Minister said, "Taiwan contingency is Japan.Japan-US AllianceIt's an emergency.President Xi Jinping should never misunderstand this perception, "he said, restraining China from increasing military pressure on Taiwan.[30].

footnote

  1. ^ "Nuclear martial arts beauty-Zhu Chenghu's unreasonable first place". (Chinese version(November 2007, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2005, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20070309104025/http://news.boxun.com/news/gb/china/2005/07/200507170020.shtml 
  2. ^ "A nuclear attack statement by a senior Chinese military official has ripples in the international community.". Epobody(November 2005, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2005, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20051227212257/https://www.epochtimes.jp/jp/2005/07/html/d47136.html 
  3. ^ Susumu Yabuki (September 2005, 9). “Nationalism Heat Stroke China“ Bubble University Professor ””. . オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2005, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20051214161013/http://www.21ccs.jp/china_watching/DirectorsWatching_YABUKI/Directors_watching_14_1.html 
  4. ^ a b Yoshihisa Furumori (September 2005, 7). "Don't taboo talking about the 3rd" Chinese military "-" The biggest threat "is approaching for Japan's security-". Nikkei BP. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2007, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20071013194758/http://nikkeibp.co.jp/sj/2/column/i/03/ 
  5. ^ a b "US Congress calls for withdrawal of nuclear attack remarks and dismissal of Maj. Gen. Zhu Chenghu". Epobody(November 2005, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 1.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210126085611/http://www.epochtimes.jp/jp/2005/07/html/d53825.html 
  6. ^ “President Chen: Emphasizing the Need to Build a Semi-Military Alliance with Japan and the United States”. Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office(November 2006, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2009, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20091202101640/http://www.roc-taiwan.org/ct.asp?xItem=44500&ctNode=3591&mp=202&nowPage=63&pagesize=50 
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ a b c Geoff Wade (November 2013, 11). “China's six wars in the next 50 years”. Australian Institute for Strategic Policy. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20131127105158/http://www.aspistrategist.org.au/chinas-six-wars-in-the-next-50-years/ 
  9. ^ a b PK Chakravorty (November 2013, 11). “Responding to Chinese Article on the-Six Wars China is Sure to Fight in the next 50 Years”. (English edition. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141101055339/http://www.claws.in/1108/responding-to-chinese-article-on-the-six-wars-china-is-sure-to-fight-in-the-next-50-years-p-k-chakravorty.html 
  10. ^ a b “Clarifying when China's war against Japan and Russia will begin”. Russian voice(November 2014, 1). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 1.. https://web.archive.org/web/20140109033401/http://japanese.ruvr.ru/2014_01_06/126925942/ 
  11. ^ The tense situation in China and Taiwan, the US is concerned about fragile Taiwan's defense capabilities Wall Street journal, Alastair Gale, April 2021, 4
  12. ^ https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20210324/k10012932451000.html
  13. ^ a b US-Japan Summit Joint Statement April 3, 4rd year of Reiwa Ministry of Foreign Affairs.NHK [Full Text] Joint Statement by US-Japan Leaders 2021 years 4 month 17 Date 13 when 03 minutes
  14. ^ Emphasis on unity between China and Japan and the United States A sense of crisis over supremacy-summit talks Jiji Press March 2021, 04 17:19
  15. ^ China-US-Japan Joint Statement Interferes with Domestic Affairs and Repels- "Strong Dissatisfaction and Resolute Opposition" David Wainer, Isabel Reynolds, Bloomberg, April 2021, 4 18:10 JST
  16. ^ “Accelerating the“ southwest shift ”to China, preparing for the“ Taiwan emergency ”by the Ministry of Defense”. Newsletter(November 2021, 5). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210730060401/https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021043000851 
  17. ^ a b “식민 종주 국의 의리? 대만 방어 하기 위해 일본 이 나선다”. (Korean version(November 2021, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210603030853/https://www.news1.kr/articles/?4327318 
  18. ^ a b Okada Mitsuru (September 2021, 7). "The risk of" removing the ladder "to Japan, which is closer to Taiwan and continues to stimulate China." Signs of change "in US policy toward China.". Business insider. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210711220122/https://www.businessinsider.jp/post-238454 
  19. ^ a b c “Part of the joint exercise activities between Japan and the United States in a Taiwan emergency“ top secret ”-English newspaper coverage”. Newsletter(November 2021, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210701115235/https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021070101180 
  20. ^ "If China invades Taiwan, Mr. Aso" Defense together in Japan and the United States "... Mention limited collective self-defense rights". Yomiuri Shimbun(November 2021, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210705135715/https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20210705-OYT1T50277/ 
  21. ^ John B. Fenn (August 2021, 7). "Chinese military critics argue that Japan should be an exception to" no first use of nuclear weapons "-the video once deleted resurfaces.". Newsweek. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210715104108/https://www.newsweekjapan.jp/stories/world/2021/07/post-96706_1.php 
  22. ^ a b John B. Fenn (August 2021, 7). "Chinese military critics argue that Japan should be an exception to" no first use of nuclear weapons "-the video once deleted resurfaces.". Newsweek. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210715093817/https://www.newsweekjapan.jp/stories/world/2021/07/post-96706_2.php 
  23. ^ “Mourning madness! Chinese military criticism. Free time(November 2021, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210713170214/https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/3602604 
  24. ^ a b “China protests with State Minister of Defense remarks”. Newsletter(November 2021, 9). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 9.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210911010724/https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021090900991 
  25. ^ a b “Ministry of Foreign Affairs expresses strong dissatisfaction with Japanese politicians' remarks about Taiwan”. China International Broadcasting(November 2021, 9). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 9.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210909154907/http://japanese.cri.cn/20210909/af72b3b0-f701-4b5f-2cc0-d3efe2efd63f.html 
  26. ^ a b “Japanese politicians express interest in Taiwan's security one after another Ministry of Foreign Affairs“ Welcome ””. Focus taiwan(November 2021, 9). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 9.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210909132122/https://japan.cna.com.tw/news/apol/202109090004.aspx 
  27. ^ “Full-scale invasion of Taiwan, China's potential by XNUMX, mentioned by Taiwan's Minister of National Defense”. CNN.co.jp(July 2021, 10). https://www.cnn.co.jp/amp/article/35177676.html 
  28. ^ “Taiwan's Defense Minister,“ China will be able to invade in 2025 ”Increase defense budget”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2021, 10). https://www.asahi.com/amp/articles/ASPB76674PB7UHBI00K.html 
  29. ^ “Taiwan“ Japan cooperates with troops ”58% against Chinese armed attack”. Tokyo Newspaper(November 2021, 11). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20211102153108/https://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/140523 
  30. ^ "Taiwan emergency is Japan-US emergency Liberal Democratic Party, Mr. Abe, restraining China". Newsletter(November 2021, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20211201081033/https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021120100874&g=pol 

Related item

Japanese local council

Japanese local council(Japanese only)Japan OfLocal governmentPlaced inParliamentPoint to.Although there are about 3 local councilors in Japan, it has been pointed out that the local council has deteriorated and is unnecessary because it is less likely to be noticed by the media and the public than the parliament and parliamentarians.[1][2][3][4][5].

Overview

Local public bodies where parliament is placed

Under the Local Autonomy Law, a parliament is usually placed in a local public body (Article 89).Parliaments are also set up in special local public entities such as special wards.

Local autonomy and parliament

Local councils existed before the war, but they were not elected.Imperial Japanese ConstitutionThere was no provision for local autonomy.Long time agoMunicipal system-Municipal systemBased on this, a city council, a town council, and a village council were established in each municipality.A specific example isTokyo City Council,Higashi Ward (Osaka City)See.Second World Warrear,The Constitution of JapanBecame the current name and organization. However, even today,Commonly knownThe names of city councils, town councils and village councils are used as In addition,Five big cities(Kyoto City,Osaka,Nagoya city,横 浜 市,Kobe CityParliament ofGovernment-designated cityThe city council is called the "city council" by the agreement of the city presidency.[6].

Second World Warrear,Article 93 of the Constitution of JapanTo the ordinary local public bodies that are stipulated in theLegislative bodyIt is clarified that it should be placed as a basis. However, in the towns and villagesOrdinanceInstead of a parliament, instead of this is a general assembly of votersMunicipal general meetingCan be provided (Article 94as well as the Article 95). However, the fact that the general assembly wasKanagawaAshigarashimoAshinoyu Village(CurrentHakone townPart of) andTokyoUtsuki Village(CurrentHachijo(Part of)).

In addition, unlike the Diet, the Diet is said to be the supreme body of state power and the only legislative body (Article 41 of the Constitution).On the other hand, in the local autonomy systemEmiratiBecause not only the members of the parliament of ordinary local public bodies but also the heads are directly elected by the residents.Local council is not the highest body of local public bodies..In addition, the local assembly has the right to enact and amend or abolish ordinances within the scope of the law, but the heads of ordinary local public bodies also have the right to enact and amend and abolish rules.[Note 1] Therefore, it is not the only legislative body.For this reason, the non-arrest privilege and the immunity to speak in the hospital, which are granted to members of the Diet, are not granted to members of the local assembly.

Parliament of ordinary local public bodies

組織

The fixed number of members of the parliament of local public bodies is to be stipulated by the ordinance (Article 90as well as the Article 91).

Prior to the partial revision of the Local Autonomy Law in 1999, the Local Autonomy Law stipulated a fixed number of members of the Diet, but from the perspective of increasing the self-determination power of local governments, the Ordinance Constant System was adopted in the same year. .. Initially, it was said that the number must be set within the range that does not exceed the upper limit set by the Local Autonomy Law, but the 2011 revision of the Local Autonomy Law removed the upper limit.

The ordinary local public assembly must elect one chairman and one vice-chairman from the members (Article 103(Item 1).

election

Japanese nationalityBeing elected by a direct election with residents who are 18 years of age or older and who have been registered as residents in the constituency for 3 months or more after registration. In principleSingle note non transfer type OfLarge constituency system(Voters in multiple constituencies vote for one candidate, simply win the candidate from the highest number of votes), but there are also constituencies with a constant one. In the case of prefectural assembly, as a rule, select from multiple electoral districts with the basic unit of city or county. In principle, municipalities and Tokyo's special wards are single electoral districts,Government-designated cityIs elected from multiple electoral districts that are elected by administrative district. Since the term of office of the local council and the mayor is often the same throughout Japan, these elections will be held at the same time throughout the country.Unified local electionsHas a great influence on the political affairs of national politics.

Term

The term of office of members of the ordinary local public assembly is four years (Article 93 paragraph 1). The term of office of members of the local public assembly starts from the day of the general election (Public office election lawArticle 258 text). However, if the general election by the expiration of the term is held before the expiration date of the members of the assembly of the local government, if the predecessor has been in office until the expiration date, from the day after the expiration date of the predecessor , When all the predecessor members have disappeared after the election date, start counting from the day following the day when all members of the predecessor have disappeared (Public Office Election Act Article 258 proviso). About the substitute member of the member of the assembly of the local public body, he/she remains in office for the remaining term of the predecessor (Article 260, paragraph 1 of the Public Office Election Act). In addition, a newly elected member due to a change in the number of members of the parliament of local governments will remain in office until the expiration date of the member elected by the general election (Public Office Election Act Article 260, Paragraph 2).

In addition, due to the dissolution of parliament and the request for dismissal of members of the Diet, the status of members may be lost before the expiration of the four-year period. However, as will be described later, the dissolution of parliament has high hurdles, so it is unlikely that dissolution will take place. However, if the local government is abolished due to a merger, etc., the assembly itself will disappear. The legislator loses its position.

Authority

In the constitution, as a Japanese local government systemEmirati(A system in which the head of a local government is selected separately from the members of the parliament by the public election of residents). The heads of ordinary local governments and the parliament are both equal on behalf of the residents, and it is expected that local autonomy will be smoothly managed by exercising their own authority and controlling each other. However, the head of an ordinary local government isArticle 147In addition to ), he has powerful authority in the real world, such as preparing budgets, making proposals, and holding executive powers. Therefore, the presence of the local council tends to be weaker than that of the chief.[Note 2]In such a situation, the local council is not necessary when there is a problem, such as the high cost of the members of the Diet, the overseas inspections by dispatching the members like a sneak peak and the improper use of the government affairs research expenses, etc. The extreme theory such as or came to be seen.

However,DecentralizationAs local governments expand their voluntary legislative powers, the need to strengthen legislative functions such as enactment of ordinances. There is also a growing need to properly monitor the mighty powers of the chief. In this way, in order to realize decentralization, it is indispensable for local councils to exercise their authority appropriately.

Voting case

Ordinary local government councils must vote in the following cases (Article 96). The voting cases are specifically listed in the Local Autonomy Law, and the general powers of the heads of local governments are generally listed (Article 149), which is different from the widely assumed presumption of authority. For this reason, it is said that the restricted enumeration principle is adopted for the parliamentary voting cases. However, given that voting cases can be added arbitrarily by ordinance, voting cases are not necessarily limited to those listed in the Local Autonomy Law.

  • Enactment, revision and abolition of regulations
  • budgetDecision
    It does not prevent the budget from being increased and amended (Article 97, Paragraph 2). However, it is said that it cannot be modified to violate the authority of the chief to submit, and there are certain restrictions. It is understood that there is no limit to the reduction adjustment.
  • SettlementCertification
  • Thing about levy collection of local tax or collection of contribution, usage fee, subscription fee or fee
  • Conclusion of contracts specified by ordinance in accordance with the standards specified by Cabinet Order
  • Acquisition or disposal of real estate trust, other real estate trusts, and other properties specified by ordinance in accordance with standards specified by Cabinet Order
  • Receiving a donation or gift with a burden
  • Waiver of rights, except as required by law or ordinance
  • Exclusive use specified by the regulations of public facilities
  • Prosecution, etc.
  • Setting the amount of damages as the authority of the assembly
  • Comprehensive coordination of activities of public bodies within the area of ​​local public bodies
  • Matters belonging to the authority of the Parliament by other laws or Cabinet Orders (including regulations based on these)
  • In addition to the above, ordinary local public bodies may add cases to be decided by the parliament with respect to cases related to ordinary local public bodies (excluding those related to legally entrusted affairs) by ordinance.

Voting rights belonging to authority

Ordinances of ordinary local public bodies must hold elections belonging to their authority by law or by a Cabinet Order based thereon (Article 97(Item 1). Election of chairman and vice-chairman (Article 103(1) and election of members of the Election Commission (Article 182This is the case in paragraph 1).

Inspection right and audit request right

  • Censoring documents and statements related to the affairs of the ordinary local public body, requesting the report of the head, committee or member of the ordinary local public body, and inspecting the management of the affairs, the execution of votes and the receipt and payment. it can(Article 98(Item 1).
  • The Audit Committee may be requested to audit the affairs of the ordinary local government and request a report on the results of the audit (paragraph 2 of the same Article).

Right to express opinions

The ordinary local public assembly shall provide a written opinion on the case relating to the public interest of the ordinary local public body.国会Or related administrative agency[7]Can be submitted to (Article 99).

It should be noted that the statement of opinion is for deciding and expressing the will of the assembly, which is an institution of the local government,It does not determine or express the collective will of local governments.Therefore, only the members of the Diet have the right to propose the opinion, and the heads of local governments do not.

Right to investigate

The ordinary local public body's assembly may investigate the affairs of the ordinary local public body and request the appearance and testimony of the elector and other related persons and the submission of records (Article 100). The committee entrusted with exercising the right to investigate is from the provisions of the Local Autonomy Law.Hyakujo CommitteeAlso called.

It is the authority established during the postwar reforms, with reference to the National Assembly's right to investigate the political situation. However, it is said that the parliamentary authority to investigate the national affairs can be exercised not only by the House of Representatives but also by the committee. A parliamentary vote to that effect is required.

  • Exclusions
    Self-government affairs: affairs that belong to the authority of the Labor Commission and the Expropriation Commission and are specified by a Cabinet Order.
    Legal outsourced affairs: Specified by a Cabinet Order due to other reasons such as possible danger to national security.

petition

A person who intends to petition a parliament of an ordinary local public entity must submit the petition by referring to the members (Article 124). In addition, if there is no introduction of a member of the DietPetitionThat.

The council of the ordinary local public body is the petition adopted by the ordinary local public body.Enforcement agencyThose who find it appropriate to take the measures in (XNUMX) may send them to them and request a report on the progress and results of the processing of the petition (Article 125).

The enforcement agency must process the petition in good faith (Petition Law Article 5), but is not legally bound by the petition.

The petition can be submitted even if the municipality does not have a resident card.

Convocation and session

The local council is divided into regular meetings and extraordinary meetings, and adopts a session system. That is, Parliament operates only during the session (with the exception of the Commission's closing review).

The activities of the parliament will be started when the head convenes the parliament, but once the parliament is convened, the establishment and extension of the session and the opening and closing of the parliament are to be determined by the parliament (Article 101~Article 102).

  • Convocation (Article 101)
    The chief convenes (section 1).
    The chairman may, after a resolution of the parliamentary steering committee, or more than a quarter of the number of members, request the chairman to convene an extraordinary session by indicating the case to be submitted to the meeting ( Sections 4 and 1).
    It was decided that the chairperson could convene if the chairman does not respond to the request for convening due to the 24 revision.[8].
  • Regular meeting
    It is convened every year as many times as specified by the ordinance (Article 102).
    Prior to the 16 revision, it was set as "the number of times specified by the regulations within four times a year", but there is no such limitation now. However, many local councils still hold regular meetings four times a year.
    Revised in 24, it was made possible to have a full year session by ordinance[8].
  • Extraordinary meeting
    Only required cases will be convened.

Chair and Vice Chair

  • Election
    Election one by one from the members of the Diet (Local Autonomy Law, Article 1, Paragraph 103)[9].
  • Term
    The term of office of the Vice-Chairman is four years, which is the same as the term of office of members of the Local Autonomy Law (Local Autonomy Law, Article 4, Paragraph 103).[9]..Most parliaments often take turns in a year or two.The Vice-Chairman can resign with the permission of the parliament (Local Autonomy Law, Article 1).[9].
  • Chairman's authority
    • Right to maintain order[9]
    • Right to organize proceedings[9]
    • Administrative authority[9]
    • Parliamentary representation[9]
    • Right to speak in the committee
      Attend the committee and speak (Article 105[9].
    • Casting vote
      Whether the bill is acceptable depends on the majority of the members present, but if the number is the same, the chairman can decide (Article 116). As in the Diet, the chairman does not participate in voting, so in municipal councils with a small number of occasions, there are occasions where "the chairman puts out the chairman's position because the leader loses the vote".[Note 3].
  • Chairman's official residence
    The chairman's office will be abolished in Niigata prefecture during 2021, and Miyazaki prefecture will be the only prefecture that owns the chairman's office.[10].

Committee

The committee is a deliberative body that uses specialized knowledge and experience to make preliminary examinations on matters to be discussed by the parliament.

Standing Committee by Ordinance to promote the voluntary activities of ParliamentArticle 109) ・ Parliamentary Steering Committee (Article 109-2)・Special Committee (Article 110) Can be installed.

Each committee may submit a bill to the Parliament regarding matters related to the affairs of the relevant ordinary local government belonging to that section among the cases to be voted by the Parliament. However, this does not apply to the budget (Articles 109, 109-2, 110).

  • Standing Committee
  • Congress Steering Committee
    • After the decision of the Parliamentary Steering Committee, the chairperson may request the head of the ordinary local government to call an extraordinary meeting indicating the cases to be submitted to the meeting (Article 101 paragraph 2).
    • Investigation and examination items (Article 109-2)
      1. Matters concerning the operation of the assembly
      2. Matters concerning the assembly rules of the assembly, ordinances regarding committees, etc.
      3. Matters concerning the chair's consultation
  • Special committee
    A special member is appointed by the parliament and remains in office while the case submitted to the committee is being deliberated (Article 110, paragraph 2).
    The Special Committee will examine the cases submitted by the Parliamentary resolution only during the session. However, regarding the specific case submitted by the vote of the Parliament, it is still possible to examine this even during the closing period (Article 110, paragraph 4).

Conference

  • As a general rule, the parliament cannot hold a meeting unless more than half of the members are present (113 article).
  • When there is a request from more than half of the members of the parliament of ordinary local public bodies, the chairman shall hold the meeting on that day (114 article).
  • When a majority of two-thirds or more of the attending members vote by the initiative of the chairman or three or more membersSecret meetingCan be held (115 article).
  • Minutes(123 article
    Must be signed by the chair and at least two members.
  • A person who wants to petition the parliament must submit the petition with the introduction of a member of parliament (124 article).

Dismissal of parliament, dismissal of parliamentarians

  • More than three-quarters of the members of the parliament can attend, and with the consent of more than four-fifths of the members present, it can be voluntarily dissolved (Special Law on Dissolution of Local Government Assembly).
  • If the distrust of the chief is passed, the chief can dissolve the parliament within 10 days (Article 178).

Relationship with the head of a local public body

  • The head of an ordinary local government, which is the head of the executive body, is responsible for re-deliberating the illegal decisions of the parliament.VetoIs allowed (Article 176-Article 177).
    • If there is an objection to the vote, the chief may refer to it again (Article 176, paragraph 1). In that case, if there is a re-voting decision, the decision will be finalized (paragraph 2 of the same Article). Consent of two-thirds or more of the attending members is required for re-voting on the ordinance or budget (paragraph 3 of the same article).
    • When the head of the parliament finds that the voting or election exceeds the authority or that there is a violation of laws and regulations, he/she must refer to the reconsideration or re-election (Article 176, paragraph 4). If the re-election or re-election is found to be in violation of laws and regulations, the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications or the prefectural governor may be requested to examine it, and if the decision is unsatisfactory, it may be brought to the court.
    • The chief must delete certain expenses (compulsory expenses, disaster recovery expenses, etc.) and resubmit the vote for reduction.
  • For lengthNo confidence vote(Article 178, paragraph 1)
    When more than two-thirds of all members of the parliament attended and more than three-quarters of the members voted for no confidence in the parliament, the parliament took less than 3 days from the date of notification. Can be dissolved. If he does not disband, he will lose his job 2 days after being notified of the vote of no confidence, but the unemployed chief can run for elections that accompany his loss. In the event of dissolution, more than two-thirds of the total members of the parliament will be present in the assembly that was convened for the first time after the dissolution, and if there is a majority vote with no confidence, the head will be unemployed on the date of notification. And you cannot dissolve parliament again. Even in this case, the unemployed chief can run for elections that accompany unemployment. It should be noted that this non-confidence vote is the greatest weapon against the head with great power. Because even if the chief exercises the right to dissolve in the first non-confidence vote, there will be no big difference in the composition of parliament after the election.[Note 4] In addition, since the second non-confidence vote has much looser requirements than the first, it is highly likely that the chief will lose his or her job when the first non-confidence vote is passed.
  • To the head about matters belonging to the authority of the parliamentPunishmentAuthorized to do (Article 179).

Compensation and other benefits

  • Member compensation(Article 203
  • Expense reimbursement (payment of expenses required for work ex travel expenses, etc.)
  • Term-end allowance (can be paid by the regulations.)
  • State affairs activity expenses(As part of the cost for investigating and researching, it can be paid to parliamentary groups or members of parliament by ordinance.) (Article 100)

Local councilors in Japan are relatively more rewarded than local councilors in other countries. this is"Public office election law"Or"Political Funds Control LawBased on this, the contributions from individuals and companies to local councilors are strictly regulated, which results in higher administrative costs, but conversely, as in other countries (especially Europe and the United States), parliamentarians are bought with money. It is a certain stop to prevent that.

  •  Parliamentary pension (abolished June 2011, 6)

Chapter 11 of the Local Government Employee Mutual Aid Association Act stipulated a pension for members of the local assembly. However"Great Heisei mergerHas caused the number of local assembly members to decrease sharply[Note 5], Which was gradually reduced from 2007, but was finally abolished on June 2011, 6. However, payments to members who have already retired are still being made with reductions. The current lawmaker is basicallyNational pensionHave joined. However, those who belong to a company other than the member of the parliamentary office and have joined the welfare pension do not. By the way, the parliamentary pension was sometimes seen as “privileged”Employee pension,Mutual aid associationThe multiplication rate was worse than that of. However, you can receive a pension in 3 years 12 years[Note 6] The thing was an advantage.

Parliament of special local public entities

special area

The organization of the special wards of Tokyo is equivalent to that of the city unless otherwise specified by law (Local Autonomy Law, Article 283, Paragraph 1). Consists[11].

Union / Wide Area Union

Some office associationsMembers of parliaments of special local governments as unions of local governments, such as and regional unions, are either elected from the members of the constituent local governments by mutual election, or serve as members of the union body.

The theory of parliamentary merger and parliamentary reduction due to scandals and deterioration of the quality of parliamentarians

  • Some courts have confirmed that they are "sightseeing trips" for inspections by some parliamentary committees.[2] , Suspicion of reusing the text of the inspection report is pointed out[12]The incident is happening.
  • The decline of the local council is remarkably declining in the turnout.Increase in the number of non-voting winners-Capacity crackIncreasing number of local elections and compared to parliamentariansscandalIt has been pointed out that there is an increasing need to reduce or abolish local councilors by merging municipalities with local councils as described above, saying that there are problems such as difficulty in discovering fraud.[3][4][5].. In April 2020, in the nation's first Internet game addiction countermeasures ordinance, the opinions in favor of public comments by the Kagawa Prefectural Assembly and the prefectural governor were inflated, and the scientific basis of the ordinance was weak and the problem of the enactment process was approached. rice fieldKSB Seto Inland Sea BroadcastingThe "Verification Game Ordinance" produced by the company won the national excellence award in the TV news program category. From the judges of the "National Association of Commercial Broadcasters Award"Deterioration of the local council that wields popular beliefsIt is evaluated as "excellent investigative journalism that makes you feel the role and responsibility of the news media by highlighting it with careful coverage."[1].
  • From the people / citizensI don't know what's being talked about and what's decided in CongressIs the basis, and it is pointed out that "I do not know what Congress is doing"[5].

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ The “Ordinance” referred to in Article 94 of the Constitution is understood to include the rules established by the Chief.
  2. ^ For example, it was pointed out that even among the residents, many people could say the name of the chair of the local government but not the name of the chairman.
  3. ^ In recent years 2007OsakaChihaya Akasaka VillageCongress and 2018OkinawaYonaguni TownThere is an example of parliament (see each relevant item).
  4. ^ Election rights of the local assembly are limited to those who have the right to vote within the constituency
  5. ^ 2004 to 2011 in 7 years from 5 to 1[1]And decreased to 6%.
  6. ^ At that time, a minimum of 25 years was required to qualify for the welfare pension. It is now 10 years.

Source

  1. ^ a b "KSB production program "Verification Game Ordinance" is National Association of Commercial Broadcasters Award | KSB News | KSB Setonaikai Broadcasting”(Japanese). KSB. 2021/10/22Browse. Expecting a sequel, with the evaluation of the "Private Broadcasting Federation Award" judge as "excellent investigative journalism that highlights the deterioration of the local council, which wields popular beliefs, and makes us feel the role and responsibility of the news media." There was also a voice to do. ”
  2. ^ a b Miyagi Prefectural Assembly New Zealand inspection fee lawsuit The prefecture does not appealNovember 2017, 11 Hebei Shimpo Online
  3. ^ a b "Even if you become a member of the Diet, your monthly income is 16 yen, and a veteran member like a gerontocracy ...”(Japanese). Contemporary business. 2021/11/20Browse.
  4. ^ a b "Problems of Tondemon Local Representatives" p32-33. Toshihide Aikawa 2014
  5. ^ a b c Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “[Honne of XNUMX members] I don't need the local council anymore! ?? | Featured remarks”(Japanese). NHK Political Magazine. 2021/10/22Browse.
  6. ^ Yokohama City Yokohama City Council Q & A FAQ
  7. ^ The relevant administrative agencies include administrative agencies of national governments as well as local governments.
  8. ^ a b Policy News/Trends of countries, etc. A law to revise a part of the local government law is enacted.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Outline of the local assembly system ⑧ ~ Management of the assembly ~ Retrieved June 2021, 5, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
  10. ^ Prefectural council chairman's official residence, to own only this prefecture Management fee 200 million yen per year Miyazaki Daily News, Viewed May 2021, 5.
  11. ^ Mechanism of metropolitan administration / capital and wards Municipalities [capital and special wards] Tokyo, viewed May 2021, 5.
  12. ^ Okayama Prefectural Assembly Overseas inspection report reused Copy the same conversion mistakeMarch 2018, 1 Mainichi Newspaper

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