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🏛 | Mr. Nobuteru Ishihara's constituency branch receives "subsidy for corona measures".


Nobuteru Ishihara's constituency branch receives "subsidy for corona measures".

If you write the contents roughly
"I couldn't win the revival even in proportion, but in addition to that, Corona's subsidy.

Employment provided by the constituency branch, represented by Nobuteru Ishihara, Special Advisor to the Cabinet of the Liberal Democratic Party, to businesses whose income has declined due to the Corona disaster ... → Continue reading


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Overlapping candidacy system

Overlapping candidacy systemWhat is (Choufu Kurikko Hoseido)?House of Representatives general electionAdopted inelectionAn election system that allows you to run for the same time.


Public office election lawArticle 87 prohibits duplicate candidacy in two different public office elections at the same time.

However,1994 Due to the revision of the law, the election of members of the House of RepresentativesProportional representationin the case of,Small districtIt is stipulated that you can run for candidacy in duplicate (Article 86-2, Paragraph 4 of the Public Offices Election Act)Political partyCandidates can run for both "single-seat constituency elections" and "proportional representation elections" with the permission of.However, under the Public Offices Election ActPolitical party requirementsIf you run for "other political organizations" that do not meet the above requirements, you cannot duplicate.

A list of proportional representations allows political parties to rank multiple duplicate candidates in the same order.In this case, the ratio of the number of votes of the losing candidate to the number of votes of the winner in the single-seat constituency (Loss rate), And the ranking of the proportional list is decided from the candidates with the highest defeat rate.

Duplicate candidates are in proportional districts even if they lose in single-seat constituenciesResurrection winningTherefore, there is a phenomenon that there are multiple members based on a single single-seat constituency to which one seat is assigned, depending on the district.In the election system, the single-seat constituency system in which votes are held at the same time and the proportional representation system are equal systems that stand side by side and are in a mutually complementary relationship.Therefore, the expression "proportional revival" that is originally the result of the single-seat constituency system is inappropriate, but as mentioned above, the result of the single-seat constituency may affect it, and the proportional representation system is effectively subordinate. It has become.In addition, the word "proportional revival", which is widely used by the mass media, has strengthened this impression.Therefore, candidates who have "revived" will be labeled as "winning even though they lost in the single-seat constituency" even after winning.

1996 House of Representatives electionThen, 10 people in the single-seat constituency[1]CandidatesLegal votesEven less than (one-sixth of the total number of valid votes) has been revived, and two of them[2] Deposit forfeiture pointIt was noted as a systematic problem that even less than (10/1 of the total number of valid votes) was revived and won.further2000 In February, one loser who received less than the deposit forfeiture point[3]Is a proportional representationAdvance winninghave done.From this reflection2000 House of Representatives electionFrom now on, candidates whose votes in the single-seat constituency were less than the deposit forfeiture point will no longer be allowed to win the revival.Resurrection elections where the number of votes in the single-seat constituency is less than the legal number of votes will continue after the 2000 House of Representatives election[4]It recognized.Proportional candidates who are elected in the single-seat constituency and proportional candidates who received less than the deposit withdrawal point in the single-seat constituency are excluded from the proportional list of the election, and the lower-ranked candidates are moved up. ..

Resurrection winning

Movement of each political party

Duplicate candidacy under the parallel system of proportional representatives of the House of RepresentativesHouse of Councillors electionIn addition, each political party has a slightly different policy for duplicate candidacy, which is prohibited in the election of public officials.


LDPIn principle, duplicate candidacy is the basis, but in principle, candidates aged 73 and over are not officially recognized in the proportional district.Retirement ageDue to the internal rules of the system, candidates of the target age who are forced to run for single-seat constituencies only, and candidates for single-seat constituencies that appeal to cut off the retreat of the revival election such as the president class, etc. Candidates are run only in the ward (however, if they are proportional single-member candidates, they are often officially recognized even if they are 73 years old or older).It is admitted as a matter of course to list duplicate candidates with higher list rankings than other duplicate candidates in order to expand the support votes, and candidates and parties who have moved the constituency from the original ground are the priority constituencies. Candidates who ran for the constituency that was positioned as1996 OfSuzuki Muneo-Ryuji Fukaya-Shinichi Eto,2000 OfTadao Iwasaki-Hiroshi,2003 OfKunio Hatoyama-Tokuichiro Tamazawa-Koichi Hirata-Tatsuya Ito・ Iwasaki,2005 OfMasatada Tsuchiya-Satsuki Katayama-Yukari Sato-Abe Toshiko-Makiko Fujino-Tomomi Inada-Kyoko Nishikawa-Sanae Takaichi・ Tamazawa, etc.) are ranked high in the list. In 1996, among the duplicate candidates, the former candidates were placed in the same rank at the top, and the former and new candidates were placed in the same rank with several proportional single candidates underneath.

2009 House of Representatives electionBeforeMakoto KogaElection chairperson"Since the opponent is strong, the method of giving the winning range and certifying the candidate has been done with one wisdom, but is it a plus for expanding the party? There is also an aspect of taking a step back without fighting. There is, and it is necessary to think carefully. "Masayoshi YoshinoBecame two people).After this, all duplicate candidates were ranked the same from the 2 House of Representatives election to the 2012 House of Representatives election. The 2017 House of Representatives electionSaitama 7 WardsCandidate forHideyuki Nakano Proportional North Kanto blockHe ran for duplicate and was listed in the 36th place, but he was elected in the single-seat constituency.[5]..Other duplicate candidates were listed in the same order.

In the party, the members who lost the election in the constituency more than once in a row and revived proportionally are placed in the position of "provisional branch chief", and every spring, the party member acquisition situation etc. are examined and it is decided whether to make it a formal branch chief. ing.Regarding the relevant candidates, in principle, we were considering a policy of not allowing duplicate candidacy with proportional representation in the next House of Representatives election.[6]However, there are no cases in which duplicate candidacy was not accepted for this reason.

IncumbentLDP PresidentOf these, those who ran for duplicate2000 House of Representatives election OfIshikawa 2 wardsWon overwhelminglyMori(Mori has been running for five consecutive times in 73, 1996, 2000, 2003, and 2005, when he was under the age of 2009 since the introduction of the single-member district proportional representation system, and all won the single-member district. doing).

Political parties supported by Soka Gakkai

Budding party

Budding partyIs welcoming the 1996 House of Representatives electionParty leaderMetIchiro OzawaAccording to the policy of, one in the proportional districtProportional blockThe policy was to allow only one person per candidate.This willTokyo 5 Ward OfSachiyo Nomura(6th in Tokyo block),Chiba 10 ward OfHiroshi Sudo(8th in South Kanto block),Hyogo 9th Ward OfIchizo Miyamoto(Kinki block 11th),Okayama 4 wards OfJune Kato(3rd place in China block),Fukuoka 4 wards OfJunji Higashi(8th place in Kyushu block) was one of the few candidates for duplicate candidacy.The exception isProportional Hokuriku Shin-Etsu blockSo, in Ishikawa 2nd districtYasuo IchikawaとFukui 3nd districtTwo people, Atsuyuki Matsuda, are running for duplicate (both are in 2th place in the same ranking).There were no duplicate candidates in the other blocks of Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kita-Kantou, Shikoku, and Tokai.As a result, among the candidates who lost the bid in the single-seat constituency, there were many cases where they were rejected because they did not overlap proportionally even though the defeat rate exceeded 4% (as a typical example).Chiba 4 ward OfYoshihiko NodaHowever, the difference was 105 votes, and the defeat rate was 99.86%.), And Yasuo Ichikawa and Mutsuki Kato were revived.Koichiro AinoIt was only elected in advance due to his death), and the fact that he was below the current seats contributed to the sluggish growth of the party.

After all, the New Frontier PartyOppositionAs the first partyRegime changeFailed, 14 months and 11 days after the voting date of the House of Representatives election mentioned above.1997 May 12WithPolitical Party Subsidy LawBased on, it was split into multiple political parties.


New Frontier Peace formed by the New Frontier Party ・ Komeito (composed of members of the House of Councilors, prefectural and local governments) ・ Reunited by those who left the Ozawa Liberal Democratic Party (which belonged to the New Frontier Party before the formation of the New Frontier Party) in 1999 From October 10, he formed a coalition government with the Liberal Democratic Party together with his colleague Ozawa Liberal Party-Conservative (New) Party, and further promoted election cooperation.

In the 2000 House of Representatives election, there were seven duplicate candidates.South Kanto block OfIsamu Ueda(Kanagawa 6 Wards)・Shigeyuki Tomita(Chiba 2 ward), The two "list" ranks are the same, 2rd place,Tokyo block OfYamaguchi Natsuo(Tokyo 17 Ward)・Otohiko Endo(Tokyo 4 Ward)・Yuriko Ohno(Tokyo 20 Ward), 3rd place with the same "Roster" ranking, 3 duplicate candidates in 2 proportional blocks, and they were in the same rank as each other (others)Shikoku blockIn 2st placeKochi 1 ward OfIshida Minoru,Northern Kanto blockIn 3st placeSaitama 6 Wards OfWakamatsu Kaneshige).However, all seven of the duplicate candidates were defeated in the single-seat constituency, and only two were Ueda and Wakamatsu who were revived as proportional representatives.

Since then, he has not run for duplicates since the 2003 House of Representatives election, and has been running for either a single-seat constituency or a proportional representation.After that, in the 2021 House of Representatives electionChina blockからHiroshima 3 wardsMoved inSaito TetsuoAs an exceptional response, a duplicate candidacy with the Chinese block was considered at one point, but in the end it became a candidacy only for the single-seat constituency and was elected.[7].

Democratic Party

Formed in 1996Democratic PartyIn 1996, 2000, and 2003, duplicate candidates were placed in the same rank as possible in the proportional list, and in the past several cases were allowed to differ in the list rank among duplicate candidates, but in 2005 It was completely abolished from the House of Representatives election.However, it has been partially revived in the 2014 House of Representatives election.

In the past, there were some duplicate candidates at the top of the "list" (the 2000 House of Representatives election was changed from the single-seat constituency of the New Frontier Party).Saito GotoDuring the New Frontier Party era, he was forced to run for a proportional single-seat candidate from the ward next to the single-seat constituency he originally wanted.Koriki JojimaIn the same Tokyo as Jojima, the former Democratic Party era was a proportional independent candidateYukihisa Fujita-Ishige, Candidate in a different constituency than the one in the old Democratic eraAkira Nagatsuma, In the 1996 House of Representatives electionPunchI changed the country from the constituency that was rejected as an incumbent to the next districtNoboru UsamiWas not given preferential treatment.

The 2003 House of Representatives election is just beforeMinyu mergerI was forced to change countries because the Liberal Party joined inTakeshi Hidaka-Yuzuru Tsuzuki, 1996 Change country from the constituency that ran as a candidate for the former Democratic PartyChuji Ito-Yoshio Hachiro, 1996 Change country from the constituency that ran as a candidate for the New Frontier PartyToshio Mitsui-Hiroyuki Nagahama-Kazuya Tamaki7 people), since 2005, it has not been accepted at all.In addition, as a general rule, it is a policy not to allow proportional representation higher ranks, and in the 2005 general election, there were proportional representation top candidates.Hokkaido block(Seiji Osaka)[8]とSouth Kanto blockThere were only two people (Hiroyuki Nagahama) (Nagahama was in the middle of his tenure21rd House of Councilors ordinary electionHe ran for the House of Representatives and automatically retired (lost).Osaka has run for the next 2009 general election in duplicate and has been elected in the single-seat constituency).

In the 2009 general electionDemocratic whirlwindIn response to this, it was expected that a large number of single-seat constituency candidates would be elected and there would be a shortage of proportional district candidates from the outlook for the predominance of the election campaign.As an exampleTohoku blockThen, all the single-seat constituency candidates were ranked first (except for Ichiro Ozawa mentioned above), and all the Democratic single-seat constituency candidates were double-seat candidates, and seven people were listed below.As a result, 1 people were elected in Tohoku, and 7 independent candidates were elected after deducting 7 proportional revival.

In the 2012 general election, a large number of single-seat constituency candidates were defeated due to a great headwind to the Democratic Party, and ministers and party leaders could not make a proportional revival.In addition, the votes are broken due to the rush of political parties.Hokkaido blockAnd other than the Tohoku block, the voter turnout came in third.

In the 2014 general electionNew party earthTransferred fromTakako SuzukiIn Hokkaido block, the zoning has changed significantlySaga 2 wardCandidate fromHiroshi OgushiTheKyushu blockEach of them was given preferential treatment to the first place in the list.

IncumbentDemocratic Party RepresentativeThose who ran for duplicate in 1996Tokyo 18 Ward OfNaoto Kan(Co-representative at that time[9]), 2000Hokkaido 9th district OfYukio Hatoyama, 2012Chiba 4 ward OfYoshihiko Noda, 2014Tokyo 1 Ward OfMari EedaThere are four people.Suga ran for multiple candidates in 4, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2009, and 2012, and was a single-member candidate only in 2014, and was elected as a single-seat constituency except in 2005 and 2012 (2014). Proportional revival in both year and 2012).Hatoyama is a double-member candidate in 2014, 1996, 2000, and 2003, and a single-member candidate in 2005, all of which are single-seat constituencies.Noda was defeated as a single-seat constituency candidate in 2009 when he was incumbent as the above-mentioned New Frontier Party, and after joining the Democratic Party, he ran for multiple times in 1996, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, and 2012 six times. You have won consecutive single-seat constituencies.Kaieda has been a duplicate candidate in all lower house elections from 2014 to 6, won in the single-seat constituencies in 1996, 2014 and 2000, and was revived in 2003 and 2009, but in 1996. And in 2012, when he ran as an active party leader, he was unable to make a proportional revival and was rejected.

Constitutional Democratic Party
Former Constitutional Democratic Party (2017-2020)

2017 10 of the month48th House of Representatives general electionFormed just beforeConstitutional Democratic PartyAll of the single-seat constituency overlapping candidates are ranked first except for the Shikoku block, which has no single-seat constituency candidates.Hokkaido 6th district OfTakahiro SasakiAll but were candidates for duplication.

New Constitutional Democratic Party (2020-)

2020 Formed in SeptemberConstitutional Democratic PartyIn the 2021 House of Representatives election, all candidates for single-seat constituencies were ranked first.Mie 3 wards OfKatsuya OkadaAll but the candidates were duplicate candidates.Also, unlike the Liberal Democratic Party, there is no age limit for proportional overlapping candidates except for candidates who have turned proportionally independently due to the decrease in division, so it is different from the Liberal Democratic Party, which was defeated by a prominent elderly representative.Ichiro OzawaIs 79 years old (Iwate 3rd districtLost in →Tohoku blockResurrection),Kishiro NakamuraIs 67 years old (Ibaraki 7th districtLost in →Northern Kanto blockResurrected in proportion).

Hope party

In the 2017 House of Representatives election, the representative of the Kinki blockYuriko KoikeHad a close relationship withKazunori InoueWas given preferential treatment over other duplicate candidates.

National Democratic Party

Formed in September 2020National Democratic PartyIn the 2021 House of Representatives election, all duplicate candidates were ranked the same.

Japan Communist Party

Communist partyThen.2005 general electionUntil then, duplicate candidates were not ranked in the same order, and the list consisted of a mixture of proportional single candidates and duplicate candidates.In addition, many of the single-seat constituencies were not proportional and were single-seat constituencies alone.

However, in 2009, instead of reducing single-seat constituency candidates, it increased duplicate candidacy.Furthermore, in proportional districts other than Tokyo, the same ranking was set for the first time in the lower rank candidates.

In the subsequent general elections, the subordinate candidates of the duplicate candidacy were listed in the same order, but in the 2021 general election, all of them were ranked and listed in the list.

Social Democrats

Social Democratic PartySo, although there are many duplicate candidates, there are two exceptions (2 exceptions) to make a difference in the "list" ranking among duplicate candidates (1996 House of Representatives election OfProportional tokyo blockとProportional South Kanto blockExcept for 2 times).

In 2005, due to concerns that all of the duplicate candidates could not be elected below the deposit forfeiture line due to the decline in the party power, a proportional single candidate may be set up in the lower ranks.Northern Kanto block OfFumihiro Himori, Tokyo blockNobuto HosakaWon at the bottom of each proportional single. (Hosaka is a seat inherited from the Liberal Democratic Party, where all the candidates were elected. Details will be described later.)

Everyone's party

Everyone's partyIn the 2009 House of Representatives election, the northern Kanto blockKoichi YamauchiExcept for, all were duplicate candidates.The difference in the "list" ranking among the duplicate candidates was ranked first due to the change of saddle from the incumbent House of Councilors.Keiichiro AsaoOnly the South Kanto block where other candidates are ranked second in the same rank.

In the 2012 House of Representatives election, with the exception of Yoshimi Watanabe, all the candidates for the single-seat constituencies were running in duplicate, and all were in the same rank.In addition, Yamauchi was the only proportional independent candidate as before.

A political party based on the Osaka Restoration Association

Japan Restoration Party (2012-2014)
Member of the Diet (including transfer from another party) at the time of the dissolution of the House of Representatives in the 2012 House of Representatives electionHiroshi Ueno,Takashi Ishizeki,Keito Ozawa,Masato Imai,Naoto Sakaguchi,Matsuno Yorihisa,Kenta Matsunami,Takashi Tanihata) And was a member of the House of Representatives at the time of dissolutionAkira NishinoTo succeedKoichi Nishino, Furthermore, a member of the local assembly who belongs to the Ishin no Kai (Hidetaka Inoue,Kei Miki,Nobuyuki Baba,Yasuto Urano),Spirit of Japan PartyDismissedTokyo Restoration SocietyWas the representativeHiroshi Yamada, Each block was given preferential treatment in the order of registration in the list among the duplicate candidates.
Restoration Party
In the 2014 House of Representatives election, all duplicate candidates were ranked the same.
Nippon Ishin no Kai (2016-)
In the 2017 House of Representatives electionHitoshi Aoyagi,Mori Natsue, Kana Haioka was given preferential treatment in the proportional list among the duplicate candidates in each block (however, the proportional revival was won only in the forest and the other two were lost). In the 3 House of Representatives election, all duplicate candidates were ranked the same.

Liberal Party, People's New Party, New Party Nippon, Japan Future Party (Party of Life), New Party Daichi, Reiwa Shinsengumi

Liberal party(1998-2003)
Candidates are nominated in the 2000 House of Representatives election, and duplicate candidates are ranked or have the same ranking in the proportional list.
New National Party
Candidates are nominated in the 2005 House of Representatives election and the 2009 House of Representatives election.The ranking of duplicate candidates varies, and in the 2005 Hokuriku block, they were elected in single-seat constituencies.Minsuke WatanukiRookie of single independent candidate onMasaaki ItokawaWinning with. Political critic who was the single independent candidate in the Tokyo block in 2009Keiichiro NakamuraAnd placed duplicate candidates in 2nd place. (Both lost)
There were no duplicate candidates in the 2012 House of Representatives election.
New Party Japan
Candidates were nominated in the 2005 House of Representatives election and the 2009 House of Representatives election, and in 2005, he was in the previous position at Kinki Block, which had multiple candidates.Makoto Taki(Nara 2nd district) was placed in 1st place and the proportional district was elected.The South Kanto block arranged two newcomers who ran for duplicate in the same order. In 2, the party representative at Kinki BlockYasuo Tanaka(Hyogo 8th district, single-seat constituency elected), in Tokyo blockYoshio Arita(Tokyo 11th district, defeated) was placed in 1st place.
Japan Future Party-Party of life
Candidates are nominated in the 2012 House of Representatives election.Basically, duplicate candidates are given the same ranking, but in the Tohoku / North Kanto block, former candidates are given preferential treatment in the proportional list ranking over new candidates.[10].
In the 2014 House of Representatives election, all duplicate candidates were ranked the same.
New party earth
In the 2005 House of Representatives election and in 2009 and 2017, he was only a proportional candidate because he did not meet the party requirements, but in the 2012 House of Representatives election.National political partyWhen the party requirements were met, all the candidates in the single-seat constituency were proportionally overlapped and ranked the same.
New team selected
Candidates are nominated in the 2021 House of Representatives election.All duplicate candidates were ranked the same.note that,Tokai blockOne seat was supposed to be allocated to the constituency, but both of the two registered members of the list are candidates for overlapping with the single-seat constituency, and in the single-seat constituency.Deposit moneyHe lost his eligibility to win because he was less than the confiscation point (because the vote rate was less than 10%), and he lost his seat as a party.The seat is the runner-upKomeitoAllotted to the former positionYasuhiro NakagawaWas elected.

New Party Sakigake, Liberal League, New Socialist Party, Democratic Reform Party, Reform Club (New Party Reform), Next Generation Party (Japanese Heart), Party for Violation of Article 72 of the Law on Law against NHK

New party
In the 1996 House of Representatives election, candidates were duplicated in the Kita Kanto block, Hokuriku Shinetsu block, Kinki block, and Kyushu block.In Kinki and Kyushu, duplicate candidates with the same ranking were set up.
Free Union
Candidates are nominated in the 1996 House of Representatives election and the 2000 House of Representatives election.All duplicate candidates are ranked the same in the proportional list.
New Socialist Party
Candidates are nominated in the 1996 House of Representatives election.There is an example in which one person each from the Tokyo block and the China block is given the top preferential treatment, but basically the duplicate candidates are ranked the same.
Democratic Reform Party
Candidates are nominated in the 1996 House of Representatives election.Duplicate candidacy in Kinki blockRyuichi DoiWas the only candidate, but Toi was elected in the single-seat constituency.
Reform Club / New Party Reform
The Reform Club was the only candidate for the 2009 House of Representatives electionShingo NishimuraHowever, he ran for the first place in Kinki and 1th district in Osaka, but was rejected.
There were no duplicate candidates in the 2012 House of Representatives election. In the 2014 House of Representatives election, he was only a proportional candidate because he did not meet the party requirements under the Public Offices Election Act.
Next-generation party, the heart of Japan
In the 2014 House of Representatives electionHiroshi Yamada(Tokyo block) andTakao Fujii(Tokai block) was given preferential treatment over other duplicate candidates and ranked first alone.
There were no duplicate candidates in the 2017 House of Representatives election.
In violation of Article 72 of the Party Attorney Act, which is being tried with NHK
In the 2021 House of Representatives election, one candidate was set up in each block, and candidates were duplicated in blocks other than Kita-Kantou, Minami-Kantou, and Kyushu. Lost.


Strong Points

Candidates who are not duplicate candidates are not guaranteed to be revived in proportional representation, so they will be elected in single-seat constituency elections.VotersThere is a merit that you have to be enthusiastic about appealing to.

In addition, since each single-seat constituency is always included as part of the proportional representation constituency, the more duplicate candidates there are, the more advantageous it is to carry in the constituency. ..

Furthermore, if the "list" ranking of duplicate candidates in the same proportional block is the same and the competition is made at the defeat rate, even if the single-seat constituency system ("single-seat constituency") cannot be won, another Just fight better than the candidateLoss rateIt is easy to maintain the hope that it can be revived with.In other wordsClose battle・ There is an advantage that it is easy to inspire the morale of the struggling candidates.

From the standpoint of the elector (voter), the possibility of a revival election in the proportional representation election can be considered in advance, so in the single-seat constituency election.Death voteIt can be said that it is a mechanism that can relieve the problem with a certain probability.Also,Article 67 of the Constitution of JapanSince it is stipulated in the Diet that "The Prime Minister will appoint this from among the members of the Diet by a resolution of the Diet."Party leaderIn the case of "the person selected by the people as the next prime minister cannot become the next prime minister due to the defeat in the constituency", "No matter how much the party that won the House of Representatives electionHead nominationIf the party leader runs for duplicate, the problem of "cannot be nominated by" will be resolved to some extent.However, the defeat of the single-seat constituency, a person who has shown one public opinion as "a person who is not suitable for a'national representative'", is a candidate for the prime minister, and there are doubts about his appointment.The Social Democratic Party in the 1 House of Representatives election is an example of a party leader losing a single-seat constituency and making a proportional revival.Takako DoiHowever, Doi was not voted in the nomination election because he resigned as leader immediately after the election.On the other hand, the single-seat constituency was defeated and a proportional revival was made.Mari EedaBecame the leader of the Democratic Party of Japan and got a vote in the nomination election for the leader.


It is believed that duplicate candidates listed on the top of the list of major political parties are almost guaranteed to win the revival.

For example, Liberal Democratic Party candidates have fallen below the 1996% voter turnout (which has become one of the requirements for a resurrection election since 10), which is the deposit forfeiture point, in the single-member constituency elections of the House of Representatives since 2000. Absent.The lowest voter turnout of LDP candidates in the lower house election single-seat constituency election was in the 1996 lower house election.Iwate 4rd districtIgata Koichi's vote rate is 10.39%.Therefore, in the case of multiple candidates for the LDP, the condition of 10% or more of the total number of valid votes can usually be met almost certainly.

Therefore, in the case of duplicate candidates who are listed at the top of the list of proportional representation elections, there is a demerit that the enthusiasm for winning in the single-seat constituency system and the appeal to voters will be weakened.

In addition, if the number of duplicate candidates or single top candidates listed in the top of the list of proportional representation elections increases, many other (same rank) duplicate candidates will be revived due to the defeat rate in single-seat constituency elections. It has also been pointed out that the chances of winning are relatively reduced.

For example,2000 House of Representatives electionThen, since it was the first election after shifting from the medium-sized constituency system, the Liberal Democratic Party was ranked high in the list centered on the elders by adjusting the constituency.Proportional representationSince there were many single candidates, the revival election of other duplicate candidates of the same rank wasHokkaido 9th district OfHirofumi Iwakura(Proportional Hokkaido),Kanagawa 14 Wards OfTaei Nakamoto(Proportional South Kanto),Chiba 8 ward OfYoshitaka Sakurada(Proportional South Kanto),Hyogo 1th Ward OfKeisuke Sunada(Kinki proportional) 4 people (laterAdvance winningDid12 wards of Osaka・ Kinki proportionalTomokazu KitagawaThere were only 5 people if you included.In addition, because the above-mentioned New Frontier Party has significantly reduced the number of candidates for proportional duplication, there are several losers with a sekihairitsu rate of 90% or more who have lost to the LDP candidates mainly in the single-seat constituencies.

The members of parliament are constitutionally "representatives of all the people" and not representatives of the constituencies, but as a matter of fact, the votes obtained in the next election are of great concern.Normally, the members who have won the resurrection will aim for candidacy from the constituency in the next election, so the members of the constituency and the members of the resurrection will work for the benefit of the constituency, and the candidates for the constituency will be rejected. Causes unfairness with constituencies that have not won the resurrection.

Furthermore, by determining the ranking of the revival election based on the defeat rate, candidates with the highest number of votes will be defeated even if they are candidates of the same political party, and candidates with fewer votes will be elected.One vote disparityThe distortion is carried over to the proportional representation frame.


The same ranking of duplicate candidates is optional

If duplicate candidates are ranked the same, from the voter's point of view, they can partially participate in the ranking of the proportional list through elections.From the standpoint of a political party organization, there is a big disadvantage that it is extremely difficult to predict who will be revived and won in the sekihairitsu match of duplicate candidates in the same rank.As mentioned above, it is up to the political party to rank the duplicate candidates in the same order, so it is often the case that the political party avoids placing the duplicate candidates in the same rank.

Komeito, the Communist Party, and the former New Frontier Party avoid placing duplicate candidates in the same rank on the "list" as long as they are in the "list" proportional representation election (restricted list). It is based on the judgment of the party headquarters that the person who wants to be elected should be surely elected.

Therefore, in political parties that do not rank duplicate candidates in the same rank, the ranking does not change due to the defeat rate, and voters cannot partially participate in the ranking of the proportional list through elections.In the past, there are many cases in which candidates with a lower sekihairitsu rate were given preferential treatment in proportional order within the same proportional block, so they were revived and won (article "Article"Loss rate21 people from the Liberal Democratic Party, 12 people from the Communist Party, 6 people from the Democratic Party, 6 people from the Ishin no Kai, 2 people from the Social Democratic Party, 1 person from the Party of Hope, 1 person from the Liberal Party, and 1 person from the Future Party. A total of 49 people are applicable).

Resigned as a member of the House of Representatives and ran for a by-election in the House of Representatives

In the case of a member who was revived as a proportional representative election instead of a single-seat constituency election due to the double-member constituency system, if the other member elected in the single-seat constituency loses his job for some reason, he himself resigns from the position of a member of the House of Representatives and is elected as a substitute election ( There are times when you run for the House of Representatives single-member district system election.In this case, a very strange phenomenon occurs in which a person who should have resigned from the House of Representatives is running for the election of a member of the House of Representatives immediately after resigning from the House of Representatives.

However, due to the following factors, it is possible to resign as a member of the House of Representatives and run for a by-election in the House of Representatives.

First, even if a proportional representation member resigns, the runner-up candidate of the same party will be elected in advance, so even if the proportional representation member who resigned loses in the by-election, the party organization will be concerned with the seating power of the Diet. There are no disadvantages (there are disadvantages if there is no runner-up candidate who can win by-elections, but such cases are limited to winning elections more than the party expected, and there are few examples in the past).

In addition, if a political party has a candidate other than the proportional representation revival in a by-election, and that candidate is elected, one political party has two prospective candidates in a single-seat constituency where only one is elected. It is expected that the official adjustment of the next general election will be difficult.Therefore, in order for the party executives (party executives) and the proportional representation revival themselves to eliminate the issue of official adjustment in advance, the party headquarters supports and supports the candidacy of the proportional representation revival in the by-elections. The resurrected person also declares his candidacy until he resigns from the post of member of the House of Representatives without waiting for the next election of the House of Representatives.

This example is from 2002Fukuoka 6 wardsBy-electionKazunari Koga(Democratic Party), 2004Saitama 8 WardsBy-electionAtsushi Kinoshita(Democratic Party), 2008Yamaguchi 2th districtBy-electionHideo Hiraoka(Democratic Party), 2010Hokkaido 5th districtBy-electionNobutaka Machimura(Liberal Democratic Party), 2016Kyoto 3 wardsBy-electionKenta Izumi(Democratic Party) 5 times.When Issei Koga resigned, at that timeMinsuke WatanukiChairman of the House of RepresentativesHowever, he did not accept the request for resignation because he considered that the request for resignation was "to run for the by-election".However, even if the chairman did not accept it, there was no problem with the candidacy itself because the member of the Diet would lose his job when he submitted the candidacy for the by-election.Of these five, Hideo Hiraoka, Nobutaka Machimura, and Kenta Izumi were elected, but Issei Koga and Atsushi Kinoshita were defeated.

Restriction of duplicate candidacy due to political party requirements

As mentioned above, legally duplicate candidacy is limited to candidates for political parties that meet the party requirements.For this reason, it has been pointed out that candidates for political organizations that do not meet the requirements are unfair because their chances of winning are narrower than those of major political parties.For example, we have won candidates for proportional districts.New party earthDid not meet party requirements until 2011, so candidates for the party could not run twice in the 2005 and 2009 House of Representatives elections.

Problem of moving seat acquisition destination due to lack of candidates

Since the priority is given to winning in the single-seat constituency for duplicate candidates, if a political party wins more than expected, most of the duplicate candidates will be elected in the single-seat constituency and the remaining candidates will be proportional representations. It may not be possible to meet the number of seats won.In addition, if all duplicate candidates listed in the proportional block list lose the right to win the proportional revival below the deposit forfeiture point, they may lose the party's seat in that block.

In the past, in the former example, it occurred in the Liberal Democratic Party (Tokyo block) in 2005, the Democratic Party in 2009 (Kinki block), and the Constitutional Democratic Party (Tokai block) in 2017, respectively, and in the latter example, the Your Party in 2009 ( Tokai and Kinki blocks) and the 2021 Reiwa Shinsengumi (Tokai block), both of which are allocated to the next-ranked party in proportion to the seat acquisition allocation due to the shortage of candidates for proportional list registration of the target party. Is moving.Of course, this destination is determined regardless of the policy distance from the party from which it was moved, so the Social Democratic Party candidate may be elected on behalf of the LDP, or the LDP candidate may be elected on behalf of the Constitutional Democratic Party.As a solution to this problem, there are alternatives such as allowing the addition of candidates or making them vacant, but each has its own problems and has not yet been solved.


Notable case

Parliamentarians with many revival elections

Among theseKeiji Kudada(Kyoto 1 wards) Candidates for proportional duplication in all the times from the 41st time when the system was changed to the single-member district system proportional representation system to the latest 49th time, and in all the times, the proportional revival was elected (41st). All but the Japanese Communist PartyProportional Kinki blockListed in the first place in the list.The 1st was the 41rd place).In the middle-sized electoral district system eraFormer Kyoto 1nd districtI won once.

Legend: NameTaiziIs an incumbent member of the House of Representatives, "Small-seat" is elected in the single-seat constituency, "Heavy-seat" is defeated in the single-seat constituency Advance winning, "heavy loss" means losing in the single-seat constituency and losing even in proportional overlap (complete losing), and "small losing" means running in the single-seat constituency only and losing.

Number of times
NameConstituency41 times42 times43 times44 times45 times46 times47 times48 times49 timesRemarks
9 timesKeiji KudadaKyoto 1 wardsHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyProportional revival at all times after the transition to the single-seat constituency system
9 times in a row
6 timesTomoko AbeKanagawa 12 Wards-HeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavySmall allowanceSmall allowance
5 timesNagaoka KeikoIbaraki 7th district---HeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavySmall allowance
5 timesHideki MakiharaSaitama 5 Wards---HeavyHeavy dropHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy4 times in a row
5 timesYasuko KomiyamaSaitama 7 Wards-Small dropSmall allowanceHeavySmall allowanceHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyThe 42nd is independent
4 times in a row
5 timesTomohiro YamamotoKyoto 2 wards
→Kanagawa 4 Wards
---HeavyHeavy dropHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyCandidates for the 44th and 45th from Kyoto 2nd district
4 times in a row
5 timesAbe ToshikoOkayama 3 wards---HeavyHeavyHeavyHeavySmall allowanceHeavy
4 timesYosuke KondoYamagata 2 ward-Small dropHeavyHeavySmall allowanceHeavyHeavyHeavy drop-The 42nd is independent
4 timesIzumi YoshidaFukushima 5 ward-Heavy dropHeavyHeavySmall allowanceHeavyAllocationHeavy drop-Including one 47th advance winning
4 timesKazuyuki NakaneSaitama 6 Wards---HeavyHeavy dropSmall allowanceHeavyHeavyHeavy3 times in a row
4 timesNorihiro NakayamaKanagawa 9 Wards----Heavy dropHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy4 times in a row
4 timesHitoshi MatsubaraTokyo 3 WardSmall dropSmall allowanceSmall allowanceHeavySmall allowanceHeavyHeavyHeavySmall allowanceThe 41st time does not overlap proportionally
4 timesMasato ImaiGifu 4 ward----HeavyHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy drop
4 timesYutaka BannoAichi 5 Wards
→Aichi 8 Wards
Small dropHeavySmall allowanceHeavySmall allowanceHeavy dropHeavyHeavy dropHeavyThe 41st is Aichi 5th district, no proportional overlap
4 timesMitsuo OkamotoAichi 9 Wards--HeavyHeavySmall allowanceHeavy dropHeavyHeavyHeavy drop
4 timesKeisuke TsumuraOkayama 2 wards--HeavySmall allowanceSmall allowanceHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy drop
4 timesMichiyoshi YukiOkayama 4 wards--Heavy dropSmall allowanceSmall allowanceHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy4 times in a row
4 timesToshifumi KojimaHiroshima 6 wards----Heavy dropHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy4 times in a row
4 timesJunya OgawaKagawa 1 ward--Heavy dropHeavySmall allowanceHeavyHeavyHeavySmall allowance
4 timesGoto regularKochi 1 wardHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy-----December 2005, 12 Resignation of Congressman
Died August 2016, 11
4 timesYoshikawaOita 2 ward-----HeavyHeavyHeavyHeavy4 times in a row
4 timesHiroshi KawauchiKagoshima 1 WardsHeavyHeavyHeavyHeavySmall allowanceHeavy dropHeavy dropSmall allowanceHeavy drop
4 timesMasamine AkamineOkinawa 1st district-HeavyHeavyHeavyRatioHeavySmall allowanceSmall allowanceSmall allowanceThe 45th is a proportional Kyushu block single independent candidate
4 timesMiyazaki MasahisaOkinawa 2st district-----HeavyHeavyAllocationHeavyIncluding one 48th advance winning
4 times in a row

Resurrection winning in the lower constituency

The revival of the lowest ranking in the single-seat constituency is the revival of the 5th place in the single-seat constituency (eg,Shozo Azuma,Nobuto Hosaka,Ryushi Tsuchida).

3 winners

Due to duplicate candidacy, there may be three winners from a single-seat constituency where only one is elected.To date, there have been no cases of four winners in the same single-seat constituency.

Usage Guide

  • Of the constituencyTaiziIs the constituency where all the candidates were elected (including the advance), the golden background of the constituency is the constituency where three people were elected by the advance election, and the gray background of the constituency is due to lack of members due to resignation etc. , The constituency that is no longer a member of the same constituency during the term of office.
  • WinnersTaiziIs a single-seat constituency winner.
  • The party abbreviations are "Liberal Democratic Party": Liberal Democratic Party, "Emerging": Emerging Party, "Democratic": Democratic Party, "Komei": Komei Party, "Community": Japan Communist Party, "Social Democratic Party": Social Democratic Party, "Freedom": Liberal Party, " "Japan Innovation Party": Japan Innovation Party, "Japan Innovation Party": Japan Innovation Party, "Your Party": Everyone's Party, "Hope": Hope Party, "Constitutional": Constitutional Democratic Party, "National Democratic Party": National Democratic Party, "Reiwa": Reiwa Shinsengumi, "Unaffiliated Association": Represents an unaffiliated association.
  • "Small-seat" is won in the single-seat constituency, "heavy-seat" is lost in the single-seat constituency, but it is revived due to proportional duplication, "sold-out" is an advanced election, and "supplementary" is a by-election.
41th House of Representatives general election(1996 )(7 constituencies → 8 constituencies by early election)
Kanagawa 10 WardsEiji Nagai
(Budding・ Small allowance)
Tokyo 6 WardTetsuto Iwakuni
(Shin-Shin / Small)
Tokyo 22 WardTatsuya Ito
(Shin-Shin / Small)
Shiga 1 wardKawabata Tatsuo
(Shin-Shin / Small)
Nara 1 WardSanae Takaichi
(Shin-Shin / Small)
(LDP・ Heavy)
Michio Ochi
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Sadao Yamahana
(Democracy / Heavy)
One eye
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Tsuji Daiichi
(Communist / Heavy)
Masahiro Nakaji
(Communist・ Heavy)
Hiroki Ishii
(民主・ Heavy)
Nobuto Hosaka
(Corporate citizen・ Heavy)
Tsutomu Yamamoto
(Democracy / Heavy)
Satoru Ienishi
(Democracy / Heavy)
Hiroshima 2 wardsToshinobu Awaya
(Shin-Shin / Small)
Okinawa 1st districtTaiichi Shiraho
(Shin-Shin / Small)
Shimane 1st DistrictHiroyuki Hosoda
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Jin Hinokida
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Saneyoshi Furuken
(Communist / Heavy)
Daikichi Ishibashi
(Democracy / Heavy)
Tadashi Akiba
(Social Democratic Party / Heavy)
Mikiro Shimoji
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Yoshiko Nakabayashi[Note 1]
(Communism / allocation)
42th House of Representatives general election(2000 )(6 constituencies)
Saitama 13 WardsShinko Tsuchiya
(Technical group・ Small allowance)
Kanagawa 6 WardsMotohisa Ikeda
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Kanagawa 7 WardsTsuneo Suzuki
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Kanagawa 14 WardsHirohisa Fujii
(Freedom / Small allowance)
Tokyo 6 WardHiroki Ishii
(Democracy / Small allowance → Death)
→Yoko Komiyama[Note 2]
(Democracy / Compensation)
Yuriko Takeyama
(自由・ Heavy)
Isamu Ueda
(Fairness・ Heavy)
Nobuhiko Sutou
(Democracy / Heavy)
Taei Nakamoto
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Nobuto Hosaka
(Social Democratic Party / Heavy)
Fumihiro Himori
(Social Democratic Party / Heavy)
Ryushi Tsuchida
(Freedom / heavy allowance)
Takeshi Hidaka
(Freedom / heavy allowance)
Yoko Hara
(Social Democratic Party / Heavy)
Yoshio Suzuki
(Freedom / heavy allowance)
Hyogo 8th WardFuyushiba Tetsuzo
(Komeito / Small)
Yoko Fujiki
(Communist / Heavy)
Renko Kitagawa
(Social Democratic Party / Heavy)
43th House of Representatives general election(2003 )(4 constituencies)
Saitama 8 WardsMasanori Arai[Note 3]
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance → Resignation)
→Masahiko Shibayama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Compensation)
Kanagawa 12 WardsKazuhiro Nakatsuka
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Tokyo 4 WardNakanishi Kazuyoshi[Note 4]
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance → Resignation)
Kyoto 1 wardsIbuki civilization
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Atsushi Kinoshita[Note 5]
(Democracy / Heavy allowance → Retirement)
Ikuzo Sakurai
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Noboru Usami
(Democracy / Heavy)
Kazuya Tamaki
(Democracy / Heavy)
Tetsuya Shiokawa
(Communist / Heavy)
Tomoko Abe
(Social Democratic Party / Heavy)
Yamaguchi Tomio
(Communist / Heavy)
Keiji Kudada
(Communist / Heavy)
44th House of Representatives general election(2005 )(2 constituencies → 3 constituencies by early election)
Kanagawa 8 WardsKenji Eda
(Independent / Small)
Former Yamanashi 3rd districtTakeshi Hosaka
(Independent / Small)
Tokushima 2nd districtShunichi Yamaguchi
(Independent / Small)
Tetsuto Iwakuni
(Democracy / Heavy)
Saito Goto
(Democracy / Heavy)
Akira Shichijo
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Mineyuki Fukuda
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Jiro Ono
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Miho Takai[Note 6]
(Democracy / Distribution)
45th House of Representatives general election(2009 )(3 constituencies)
Ibaraki 7th districtKishiro Nakamura
(Independent / Small)
Saitama 8 WardsKatsutoshi Onozuka
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Kyoto 1 wardsTomoyuki Taira
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Kazumi Yanagita
(Democracy / Heavy)
Masahiko Shibayama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Ibuki civilization
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Nagaoka Keiko
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Tetsuya Shiokawa
(Communist / Heavy)
Keiji Kudada
(Communist / Heavy)
46th House of Representatives general election(2012 )(10 constituencies)
Miyagi 1rd districtToi Doi
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Tochigi 2rd districtKimiya Nishikawa
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Chiba 1 wardTajima Kaname
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Chiba 9 wardMari Akimoto
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Chiba 13 wardTakaki Shirasuka
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Kazuko Gun
(Democracy / Heavy)
Akio Fukuda
(Democracy / Heavy)
Hiroaki Kadoyama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Soichiro Okuno
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Yasuhiko Wakai
(Democracy / Heavy)
Hiroki Hayashi
(Everyone・ Heavy)
Yuji Kashiwakura
(Everyone / Heavy)
Takashi Tanuma
(Restoration Society・ Heavy)
Yuzuru Nishida
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Tamotsu Shiiki
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Kanagawa 9 WardsHiroshi Kasa
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Former Yamanashi 3rd districtSaito Goto
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Nagano 1 WardsTakashi Shinohara
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Nagano 3 WardsYoshiyuki Terashima
(Democracy / Small allowance)
Aichi 12 WardsShuhei Aoyama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Norihiro Nakayama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Shinichi Nakatani
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Yutaka Komatsu
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Ide Yoshio
(Everyone / Heavy)
Yasuhiro Nakane
(Democracy / Heavy)
Tsuyoshi Shiina
(Everyone / Heavy)
Katsuhito Nakajima
(Everyone / Heavy)
Takahito Miyazawa
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Kiuchi Hitoshi
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Kazuhiko Shigetoku
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
47th House of Representatives general election(2014 )(5 constituencies)
4 wards of OsakaYasuhide Nakayama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
10 wards of OsakaKiyomi Tsujimoto
(Democracy / Small allowance)
11 wards of OsakaYukari Sato
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Fukuoka 9 wardsAsahiko Mihara
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Okinawa 1st districtMasamine Akamine
(Communist / Small allowance)
Yoshimura Hirofumi[Note 7]
(Restoration Party・ Heavy allowance → resignation)
Kazuhide Okuma
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Hirofumi Hirano
(Democracy / Heavy)
Rintaro Ogata
(Democracy / Heavy)
Konosuke Kuniba
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Tadashi Shimizu
(Communist / Heavy)
Kenta Matsunami
(Japan Innovation Party / Heavy)
Nobuhisa Ito
(Japan Innovation Party / Heavy)
Shozo Mashima
(Communist / Heavy)
Mikiro Shimoji
(Japan Innovation Party / Heavy)
48th House of Representatives general election(2017 )(3 constituencies → 4 constituencies by early election)
Kyoto 3 wardsKenta Izumi
(希望・ Small allowance)
Fukuoka 10 wardsKozo Yamamoto
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Okinawa 1st districtMasamine Akamine
(Communist / Small allowance)
4 wards of OsakaYasuhide Nakayama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Yayoi Kimura
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Takashi Joii
(Hope / Heavy)
Konosuke Kuniba
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Tadashi Shimizu[Note 8]
(Communism / allocation)
Mori Natsue
(Restoration Society・ Heavy)
Takaaki Tamura
(Communist / Heavy)
Mikiro Shimoji
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Eibu Minobe[Note 9]
(Ishin no Kai / Recruitment)
49th House of Representatives general election(2021 )(8 constituencies)
Kanagawa 10 WardsTanaka
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Tokyo 1 WardMiki Yamada
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
Kyoto 1 wardsKatsume Yasushi
(Liberal Democratic Party / Small allowance)
5 wards of OsakaToru Kunishige
(Komeito / Small)
Hyogo 1th WardNobuhiko Isaka
(Constitutional Democratic Party)
Ryuna Kanamura
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Mari Eeda
(Constitution・ Heavy)
Keiji Kudada
(Communist / Heavy)
Takeshi Miyamoto
(Communist / Heavy)
Masahito Moriyama
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Atsushi Suzuki
(National democracy・ Heavy)
Taisuke Ono
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Sachiko Horiba
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Akiko Oishi
(Reiwa・ Heavy)
Yuichiro Ichitani
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Hyogo 6th WardKoichiro Ichimura
(Ishin no Kai, Koto)
Nara 1 WardSumio Mabuchi
(Constitutional Democratic Party)
Tokushima 1nd districtHirobumi Niki
(Independent / Small)
Masaki Ogushi
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Shigeru Kobayashi
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Masazumi Gotoda
(Liberal Democratic Party / Heavy)
Shu Sakurai
(Constitutional Democratic Party)
Kiyoshige Maekawa
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)
Tomoyo Yoshida
(Ishin no Kai / Heavy)

  1. ^ Seiji MasamoriIn November 1997, he was elected in advance due to the resignation of a member of the Diet.
  2. ^ Koki Ishii died on October 2002, 10 (Koki Ishii stabbed case).After that, it came into effect on April 2003, 4.By-electionYoko Komiyama was elected.
  3. ^ Public office election lawResigned as a member of the Diet on January 2004, 1 because he was arrested on suspicion of violation (acquisition).Then in the by-election on April 29 of the same yearMasahiko Shibayama(Liberal Democratic Party) won.
  4. ^ Outside the hospitalForced obscenity OfCurrent offenderResigned as a member of the Diet on March 2005, 3 because he was arrested in Japan.By-elections were not held because the proceedings for invalidation of the election were pending.
  5. ^ He retired on April 2004, 4 (automatic unemployment) because he ran for a by-election due to Masanori Arai's resignation.The advance winners accompanying thisHonda Taira(Saitama 12 WardsCandidate from).Kinoshita was defeated in the by-election.
  6. ^ Goto regularIn November 2005, he was elected in advance due to the resignation of a member of the Diet.
  7. ^ 2015 Osaka Mayoral ElectionResigned on October 2015, 10 due to candidacy.The advance winners accompanying thisTamotsu Shiiki(2 wards of OsakaCandidate from).Yoshimura was elected Mayor of Osaka.
  8. ^ Takeshi Miyamoto 12 wards of OsakaDue to retirement (automatic unemployment) due to running for a by-election, he was elected in advance in April 2019.
  9. ^ Takashi TanihataIn November 2020, he was elected in advance due to the resignation of a member of the Diet.

All candidates in the prefecture are elected

The following two cases were the only cases in which all the candidates in the prefecture were elected.

WinningOkinawa 1st districtOkinawa 2st districtOkinawa 3st districtOkinawa 4st district
Small allowanceMasamine Akamine(Communist Party)Hironori Teruya(Social Democratic Party)Tamaki Denny(Party of life)Toshinori Nakazato(Independent)
RatioKonosuke Kuniba(LDP)Miyazaki Masahisa(LDP)Natsumi Higa(LDP)Saimei Kozaburo(LDP)
Mikiro Shimoji(Japan Innovation Party)
WinningSaga 1 wardSaga 2 ward
Small allowanceKazuhiro Haraguchi(Constitutional)Hiroshi Ogushi(Constitutional)
RatioKazuchika Iwata(LDP)Furukawa Yasushi(LDP)


Two winners in the same constituency enter the cabinet
Due to duplicate candidacy, it is possible that two members of parliament who were elected in conflict in a single-seat constituency where only one was elected will join the same cabinet as a cabinet member.
2011 yearsKan 2st remodeling cabinetThen, the Democratic Party of Japan who fought for the seat in Tokyo 1st districtMari Eeda(Electoral district elected) and left the Liberal Democratic PartyKaoru Yosano(Proportional revival election) both entered the cabinet as ministers.
Proportional duplication and political party posters
When a party leader or other influential party candidate overlaps with a proportional block, the party's face using the candidate's face is used in the proportional block.Election posterCannot be pasted.This is also the case for proportional single candidates.[12].
In the revival winningVice-chairman of the House of RepresentativesAppointed to
64th Vice-ChairSeijiro Eto, 65th Vice-ChairHirotaka Akamatsu, 66th Vice-ChairKawabata Tatsuo, 67th Vice-ChairMari Eeda.

Resurrection winners with low turnout

PlacecandidatePolitical partyElection yearConstituencyVoting rate
1Nobuto HosakaSocial Democrats1996 Tokyo 22 Ward5.89%
2Tadasu Kikuchi■Social Democrats1996 Shizuoka 7 wards8.47%
3Hajime FukadaSocial Democrats1996 Saitama 6 Wards9.18%
4Mori NatsueJapan Restoration Party2017 Kyoto 3 wards10.03%
5Tomoyo YoshidaJapan Restoration Party2021 Tokushima 1nd district10.10%
6Tetsuya ShiokawaJapan Communist Party2003 Saitama 8 Wards10.21%
7Kazuko SaitoJapan Communist Party2014 Chiba 4 ward10.53%
8Ryushi TsuchidaLiberal party2000 Kanagawa 6 Wards10.83%
9Kentaro Ishihara■Liberal party2000 Fukushima 1 ward10.89%
10Yamaguchi TomioJapan Communist Party2003 Tokyo 4 Ward10.92%
11Satoru IenishiDemocratic Party1996 Nara 1 Ward11.61%
12Seiko KitazawaSocial Democrats1996 Nagano 2 Wards11.84%
13Atsushi SuzukiNational Democratic Party2021 Kanagawa 10 Wards11.85%
14Shozo AzumaLiberal party2000 Tokyo 15 Ward12.10%
15Yoshio SuzukiLiberal party2000 Tokyo 6 Ward12.28%

* Indicates an advance election (2000) due to the lack of high-ranking members of the proportional candidate.

Candidates after 10 who could not win the revival because the voter turnout was less than 2000%

TimesYearsProportional sectionPolitical partycandidateVoting rateAdvance winning candidate
422000 KinkiLiberal partyJuntaro Toyoda(Kyoto 4 wards)8.06%Kazuhiro Nakatsuka
442005 North KantoSocial DemocratsTomihisa Tsuchiya (Gunma 1th district)4.58%Fumihiro Himori
Mutsuko Yamaguchi (Tochigi 3rd district)4.11%
Rei Saruta (Ibaraki 3th district)2.20%
TokyoJapan Communist PartyYoshiharu Wakabayashi(Tokyo 22 Ward)9.82%Ryo Kasai
Social DemocratsNaoto Nakagawa(Tokyo 9 Ward)5.25%Nobuto Hosaka
452009 TokaiEveryone's partyTsuyoshi Sato (Shizuoka 1 wards)8.30%Kayoko Isogai(Democratic Party)
KinkiEveryone's partyKoichi Yoshino (9 wards of Osaka)5.70%Koichi Tani(LDP)
Social DemocratsTomoko Ichirai (Hyogo 8th Ward)7.50%Ryoichi Hattori
Takakage Fujita (Kyoto 2 wards)2.90%
492021 TokaiNew team selectedMisako Yasui(Aichi 10 Wards)9.06%Yasuhiro Nakagawa(Komeito)
Ryu Sugaya (Aichi 15 Wards)6.96%

Similar systems in other countries

GermanyHouse of RepresentativesGerman ParliamentElection (Single-election district proportional representation combined system) Also has a duplicate candidacy system.This is different from the method of determining the winners of the single-seat constituency and the proportional representation separately like Japan, the number of seats of each party is decided according to the votes of the proportional representation, and the winner in the single-seat constituency is prioritized there. Since it is a method of applying to the target, duplicate candidates are used positively and positively.

As an example, over the yearsGerman Prime MinisterServed ascallHe was the Foreign Minister of the Cole CabinetGenscherAlthough popular nationwide, the ground was weak and he suffered defeats in single-seat constituencies in most elections, but continued to win thanks to duplicate candidacy.[13].


  1. ^ Nobuto Hosaka(Social Democratic Party, proportional representation Tokyo block) ・Hajime Fukada(Social Democratic Party, Proportional Representative North Kanto Block) ・Satoru Ienishi(Democratic Party, Proportional Representation Kinki Block) ・Seiko Kitazawa(Social Democratic Party, proportional representation Hokuriku Shinetsu block) ・Takashige Hiraga(Communist Party, proportional representation Tokai block) ・Shigeru Ito(Social Democratic Party, Proportional Representation South Kanto Block) ・Naoaki Haruna(Communist Party, proportional representative Shikoku block) ・Takeshi Omori(Communist Party, proportional representation South Kanto block) ・Tsutomu Yamamoto(Democratic Party, Proportional Representation Kinki Block) ・Hideo Kijima(Communist Party, proportional representation Hokuriku Shinetsu block)
  2. ^ Nobuto Hosaka, Hajime Fukada
  3. ^ Tadasu Kikuchi(Social Democratic Party, proportional representation Tokai block.Maejima Hideyuki(Advance winning due to the death of)
  4. ^ In the 2000 House of Representatives election, there were several revival winners from the Liberal Party, Social Democratic Party, and Communist Party who received less than the legal number of votes in the single-seat constituencies. In the 2003 House of Representatives election, there were two revival winners from the Communist Party who received less than the legal number of votes in the single-seat constituencies.In subsequent elections, no one was elected to revive with less than the legal number of votes,2014 Of47th House of Representatives general electionChiba Prefecture 4st WardCandidate from the Communist Party and lost with less than the legal number of votesKazuko Saito Deposit moneyHe won the revival because he exceeded the confiscation point by 1217 votes.Also2017 Of48th House of Representatives general electionKyoto Prefecture 3st WardCandidate from the Nippon Ishin no Kai and lost with less than the legal number of votesMori NatsueHas won the revival because it exceeded the deposit forfeiture point by 49 votes.
  5. ^ Was the branch manager until the last timeSaichi KamiyamaMeasures to transfer to a single candidate for the proportional north Kanto block.On the other hand, Kamiyama was listed in the 33rd place in proportion alone, but was rejected.Liberal Democratic Party, newcomer in Saitama XNUMXth district Incumbent, Mr. Kamiyama is proportionally alone -Sankei News February 2020, 12
  6. ^ Proportional duplication of continuous proportional resurrection "not tolerated" Liberal Democratic Party, final adjustment with new policy --Sankei News Viewed November 2017, 11
  7. ^ Proportional duplication of Komeito Secretary-General and Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Saito "Consideration until just before" -Sankei News February 2021, 10
  8. ^ Hachiro was the party's representative of Hokkaido in August 2005.Mayor of NisekoSince he requested Osaka to run for the first place in proportion to his current position, he declined to run for duplicate.
  9. ^ Immediately after the 1996 House of Representatives election, he was nominated for the Democratic Party's prime minister.
  10. ^ There are exceptions, and in the Tohoku block, Aomori 4th districtNoriko NakanowatariWas in 9th place, the same as a newcomer, despite his previous job
  11. ^ "[House of Representatives election XNUMX] Okinawa is elected by all nine constituency candidates with proportional revival". Sankei Shimbun(July 2014, 12). https://www.sankei.com/politics/news/141215/plt1412150107-n1.html 2018/11/15Browse. 
  12. ^ Kyushu blockKanzaki martial arts(Komeito), South Kanto blockShizu Kazuo(Japanese Communist Party), Tokyo blockTaro YamamotoThere is an example of (Reiwa Shinsengumi).
  13. ^ reference Shujiro Kato"Japanese Elections-What Changes Should Change Politics-" p106–107 (2003 Chuokoron-Shinsha) ISBN 4121016874

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