House of Representatives election XNUMX to XNUMX constituencies in the prefecture "Long-term stable division" The governor gives an opinion to the council [Ehime]
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On the other hand, regarding the reduction of the fixed number itself, he has expressed a negative opinion that "it will be difficult for the voice of the region to reach the country."
The number of single-seat constituencies in the House of Representatives is being reviewed in the country to correct the one-vote gap, and Ehime will be reduced by one to three ... → Continue reading
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Number of members
Number of members(Ginteisuu) is the number of members of the Diet when there are no vacancies.MemberIt is the upper limit of the number of people.The number of members does not always match the number of members because there will be vacancies due to retirement or death after the election.The upper limit is the maximum number of people stipulated by law.
ConstituencyThe number of members elected from the constituency is the number of members elected from the constituency.Also called simply a constant.
Allocate a fixed number of members to each regionConstant allocationIt's called (Constant).Single-seat constituency systemIn the case of, the constant is set to 1, so the question is where and how many constituencies should be set up.OldMiddle-election systemSuch asLarge constituency systemThen, the question of how to set up constituencies and the question of how much fixed number should be allocated to each constituency are mixed.
The same number may be distributed to each constituency (United States SenateIn many cases, the allocation in each state) is proportional to the population.Even in the latter case, it may be adjusted depending on political considerations.In addition, the allocation often does not change even if the population changes.
One vote disparity
In dealing with political issues that will not eliminate the vulnerable and the minority opinions will not be erasedNational election(Japan;House of Representatives general election,House of Councilors ordinary election), There are various debates about what is appropriate for the number of members of the constituency.
It is considered that the number of members in each constituency should be appropriate for the population or the number of voters in the constituency.For example, if you need to make a definite judgment on a two-choice political issue, set the number of members in each constituency to 1.Single-seat constituency systemIn the case of adopting, it is considered appropriate to divide the number of voters into the average population or the number of voters per constituency divided by the number of MPs.However, in reality, voting work is carried out on the scale of municipalities, and it is difficult to bring all constituencies close to the average population or the number of voters.In constituencies with a large population or voter, the value of one vote is light, and in constituencies with a small number of voters, the value of one vote is heavy.Furthermore, it has been pointed out that even if a certain limit is exceeded or a "reversal phenomenon" occurs due to the adoption of the "one-person quota system", it is against the equality of voters.
Proportional constant distribution method
There are cases where the total constant is determined first, and there are cases where the total constant is determined as a result of determining the constant in each area.The following is the case where the total constant is determined first.
Some of the methods listed belowProportional representationSome are also used to distribute the number of winners of each party.
- Divide the population of the area by a number X and first determine the integer part of the quotient.Next, add one by one in order from the area with the largest decimal part of the quotient, and continue until the total constant is reached. For X, the population per member, that is, the value of total population ÷ total constant is used (called Hamilton's formula).It has been used in the past in the United States.
- Areas of any size do not benefit, they are proportional allocations.
- However, because it is a coincidence of numbersAlabama paradoxThere is a big problem of producing.
- Divide the population of each area by a number X, truncate the quotient after the decimal point, and find an X whose sum is equal to the total constant.Specifically, divide the population of each area by 1, 2, 3, 4, ... in order, distribute in descending order of the number obtained, and continue until the total constant is reached.Also known as the Jefferson style.It has been used in the past in the United States.
- Areas with a large population will benefit significantly.
- Divide the population of each area by a number X and round off the decimal point of the quotient to find an X whose sum is equal to the total constant.Specifically, the population of each area is divided by 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, ... in order (the same is true even if divided by 1, 3, 5, 7, ...), and the population is distributed in descending order of the number obtained. And continue until the total constant is reached.Also known as Santo Rage type or Webster type.It has been used in the past in the United States.
- Areas with a slightly smaller population benefit, but are generally close to proportional.
- Adams style
- Divide the population of each area by a number X, round up the decimal point of the quotient, and find an X whose sum is equal to the total constant.Specifically, divide the population of each area by 1 / ∞, 1, 2, 3, ... in order, distribute in descending order of the number obtained, and continue until the total constant is reached.There will always be one or more allocations to all areas.The same result can be obtained by first allocating 1 and then allocating the rest by the D'Hondt formula.
- Areas with a small population benefit.On the other hand, the maximum / minimum disparity in the population per member is small.
- Huntington type
- Set a fixed number for each area so that the relative difference (ratio) of the population per seat does not decrease even if one seat is moved from one area to another.Specifically, the geometric mean, ie 1 / ∞, 1, 1, 1.414, ...Divide by ..., and distribute in descending order of the number obtained and continue until the total constant is reached.Also known as Hill equation or equal ratio equation.There will always be one or more allocations to all areas.United States House of RepresentativesIt is used for distribution to each state.
- Areas with a small population benefit.It is sometimes said that the larger one is profitable (Shigeki Nishihira), but he overlooked the fact that he had to allocate 1 first.
- Dean style
- Find an X whose population per member is as close as possible to a certain number X.Specifically, the harmonic mean, ie 1 / ∞, 1, 1.333, 2.400, ...Divide by ..., and distribute in descending order of the number obtained and continue until the total constant is reached.There will always be one or more allocations to all areas.
- Areas with a small population benefit.
International comparison of the number of MPs
Senate of the Netherlands (House of Representatives) Is the number of MPs per million people
Source: "Population per parliamentarian in OECD countries, number of parliamentarians per capita (1)"
Local assemblyFor, the number of MPs per million people is
- Switzerland:7571 people
- Germany:2500 people
- Sweden:1608 people
- France:866 people
- The United States of America:586 people
- Japan:500 people
- United Kingdom:383 people
- South Korea:80 people
Source: "About the ideal way of local assembly".
Problem of reducing the number of MPs in Japan
In Japan, the activities required and the required number of members of the national, prefectural, and municipal governmentsAnnual fee(Member compensation)balance of(cost) Is often regarded as a problem..There are some personal opinions that the calculation of rational parliamentary compensation should be based on the number of votes obtained..Ritsumeikan UniversityAssociate ProfessorMasato KamikuboHe pointed out that the number of parliamentarians in Japan is not large compared to other developed countries, and said, "It is clear that'bureaucratic control'will be strengthened if the number of parliamentarians is further reduced.".
May 2012, at that timeYoshihiko NodaPrime Minister (Democratic Party of Japan:Noda Third Remodeling Cabinet) And the oppositionLDP OfShinzo AbeIncluding the issue of constant reduction, which is a reform in which the members of the House of Representatives themselves cut themselvesconsumption taxTax increase bill is discussed and in exchange for enactmentDissolution general electionAs a result of being doneSelf-public coalition OfFirst Abe CabinetWas established..However, in December 2014, the Liberal Democratic Party's Prime Minister Abe asked whether to postpone the consumption tax hike without fulfilling the promised fixed number reduction.Re-dissolution general electionWent..After that, every time there is a national electionOne vote disparityThe election invalidity confirmation has been raised.
Number of MPs in Japan
Member of Parliament (Member of the House of Representatives / Member of the House of Councilors)
As of 2022 (4rd year of Reiwa)Public office election lawIn Article 4House of Representatives The465(Small district289 elected membersProportional representation176 elected members),House of Councilors The248(Proportional representation100 elected membersConstituency148 elected members), The number of seats in the House of Councilors26rd House of Councilors ordinary electionMatches the constant with the re-election at.
Japanese House of Representatives single-seat constituency
- One seat is first allocated to each prefecture, and the rest is allocated by the maximum remainder method (one-person quota method).There are criticisms because prefectures with a small population are extremely profitable.Supreme CourtJudged that the elections for members of the House of Representatives in 2009 and 2012 were unconstitutional, and demanded the abolition of the one-person quota system.
Regarding the constant, each prefectureOrdinanceIt is supposed to be determined in.PreviouslyLocal Autonomy Law Article 90Although the upper limit was set according to the population, the upper limit was abolished by the 2011 revision of the Local Autonomy Law.
Municipal assembly member
For the fixed number, of each municipalityOrdinanceIt is supposed to be determined in.PreviouslyLocal Autonomy Law Article 91Defines the upper limit according to the populationGreat Heisei mergerOn the occasion,Special merger lawAccording to the provisions of Article 6, only the first term of the municipality after the merger was allowed to be increased to twice the upper limit, but the upper limit was abolished by the 2 revision of the Local Autonomy Law.
- Mitsuaki Ichimura, "Numbers in the Election System (46-11, 49)", "Election Time Signal" 3-1997-2000-XNUMX, XNUMX-XNUMX
- ML Barinsky / HP Young, "Fair Representative System-One Man-Aiming to Realize One Vought-", translated by Yasushi Koshiyama and translated by Tetsuo Ichimori, Chikura Publishing, 1987.
- Shigeki Nishihira, "Mechanism of Election in Statistics" Kodansha Bluebacks, 1990.
- ^ Noriaki Sasaki "Population per Parliamentarian in OECD countries, number of parliamentarians per capita (1)"
- ^ Concept Japan "About the Ideal Local Assembly" (April 2008, 4, 23th JI Forum Material)
- ^ Should the number of lawmakers still be reduced? (Toyo Keizai ONLINE 20130222, Masahiro Matsui)
- ^ How many Diet members do you need in Japan?
- ^ Problem of Tondemo Local Assembly (Discover December 2014, ISBN: 12-978-4-7993-1611)
- ^ Are the number of MPs in Japan and the annual expenses of members "too much / too high"? (Diamond Online H240201）
- ^ Living ☆ Commentary "What happened? Reform to cut yourself" (NHK commentary committee room)
- ^ What happened to the reforms and promises to the people (Kyoto Shimbun editorial H26.11.25)
- ^ "Public office election law". elaws.e-gov.go.jp. 2022/4/8Browse.
- ^ "FAQ:". www.sangiin.go.jp. Q. Why is the House of Councilors fixed at 245? 2022/4/8Browse.
- ^ Electoral System Council Report