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🏛 | Saitama Prefectural Federation of the LDP for the Upper House election this summer


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The Saitama Prefectural Federation of the LDP will hold a rally for the Upper House election this summer

 
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At the end of the rally, all the participants skipped the sword and vowed to win the Upper House election.
 

Before the Upper House election this summer, the Liberal Democratic Party Prefectural Federation will hold a rally in Saitama City on the XNUMXst, aiming for the election of prospective candidates ... → Continue reading

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House of Councilors ordinary election

House of Councilors ordinary election(Sangiingintsujosenkyo)[Annotation 1]IsJapanese ParliamentarianOut ofHouse of CouncilorsTo choose a member of the DietJapanese electionIs.Member of the House of Councilors (fixed number: 245)[Annotation 2])ofTermIs 6 years and half are re-elected every 3 years (Article 46 of the Constitution of Japan).

1947/(Showa22) February1th Upper House electionEvery three years since then, in the Christian era3Multiple years ofYear of the tiger[Annotation 3],Year of the Snake[Annotation 4],Year of the monkey[Annotation 5],Year of the pig[Annotation 6]).

1956/After (Showa 31), the voting date is set in June or July (6).1986/After that, July).

The House of Councilors general election refers only to elections every three years due to the expiration of the term of office, and other elections.Re-election,By-electionIs "Regular electionIs not included.

Overview

House of CouncilorsIs organized by elected members representing all the people, like the House of Representatives (Article 43 of the Constitution of Japan1).

The House of Councilors election is usually held within 30 days before the expiration of the term (Public office election lawArticle 32, paragraph 1).However, if the period for which a regular election should be held is during the opening of the House of Councilors or within 23 days from the closing date of the House of Councilors, the term will expire within 24 days after 30 days from the closing date of the House of Councilors (Public Offices Election Law, Article 32, Paragraph 2). It may be done later.

The House of Councilors election is a national election on a nationwide scale, but it is not called a "general election" because it is not elected all at once and half of the members are re-elected. Elections are called "ordinary elections" (however, the public announcement of elections for members of the House of Councilors is stipulated.Article 7 of the Constitution of JapanIn issue 4, about "general election", "Member of Parliament Of"Publicize the enforcement of the general election", and announce the basic election to elect the members of the Diet of each House regardless of the general public.The emperor's act of stateSince it is understood that this is the purpose of the election, it is generally understood that the "general election" in Article 7-4 of the Constitution includes the general election of members of the House of Councilors.[1][Annotation 7]).Members of the House of Councilors who are eligible for election are called re-elected members, and members of the House of Councilors who are not eligible for election are called non-elected members.According to the Public Offices Election Law, the deadline for regular elections for members of the House of Councilors must be announced at least 17 days in advance (Public Offices Election Law, Article 32, Paragraph 3).[Annotation 8].

Electionvote(Article 35 of the Public Offices Election Act).In the election of members of the House of Councilors, one vote is voted for each member elected in the constituency and each member elected in proportional representation (Article 36 of the Public Offices Election Act).Unless there are special provisions regarding the management of election affairs for members of the House of Councilors, the election of members elected to the constituency is prefectural.Election Management CommitteeManages and elects proportional representation membersCentral Election CommissionManages (Article 5 of the Public Offices Election Act).Voting right-Right to vote・ For details on the election system, see the following sections.

If the House of Representatives is dissolved and a general election for members of the House of Councilors is to be held during the general election for members of the House of Councilors, both the House of Representatives election and the House of Councilors election will be held at the same time (Same day election).In addition, if there is a vacancy in the House of Representatives during the Diet session from March 3, a by-election will be held at the same time.

The term of office of the elected members of the House of Councilors is six years (Article 46 of the Constitution of JapanFirst stage).The term of office of members of the House of Councilors shall be calculated from the day following the expiration of the term of office of members of the House of Councilors in the previous ordinary election (the text of Article 257 of the Public Offices Election Act).However, if the ordinary election is held the day after the expiration of the term of office of the members of the House of Councilors in the previous ordinary election, it will be calculated from the date of the ordinary election (Public Offices Election Law, Article 257, proviso).

When a general election for members of the House of Councilors is held, within 30 days from the start of the term of office.Extraordinary meeting(Extraordinary Diet session) must be convened (Diet lawArticle 2-3, Paragraph 2 text).However, within that periodRegular meeting(Ordinary Diet session)Special meetingThis does not apply if the (Special Diet) is convened, or if the period is the period during which the general election of members of the House of Representatives should be held due to the expiration of the term of office (Article 2-3, Paragraph 2 of the Diet Act).

Right to vote and eligibility for election

The qualifications of members of the House of Councilors and their voters are stipulated by law (specifically, the Public Offices Election Act, etc.) (Article 44 of the Constitution of JapanText).

Voting right

  • Japanese peopleThose who are 18 years of age or older have the right to vote for members of the House of Councilors (Public Offices Election Law, Article 9, Paragraph 1).
    • The revised Public Offices Election Law was enacted in June 2015, and the voting right age was reduced from 6 years old to 2016 years old or more from June 6 (18 years old)[2].
  • Exceptionally, for those who do not have the right to vote, Article 11, Paragraph 1, Article 252 of the Public Offices Election Act,Political Funds Control LawThere are provisions in Article 28.

Right to vote

  • Japanese nationals over the age of 30 have the right to be elected by members of the House of Councilors (Public Offices Election Act, Article 10, Paragraph 1, Pillars and No. 2).
  • Exceptionally, those who do not have eligibility for election are stipulated in Articles 11 and 11-2 and 252 of the Public Offices Election Act and Article 28 of the Political Funds Control Act.

Election method

  • Matters concerning the general election of members of the House of Councilors, such as the number of members, constituencies, and voting methods, are stipulated by law (Public Offices Election Act, etc.) (Article 43 of the Constitution of JapanItem 2Article 47).
  • Number of membersThere are 245 people (2022 people from 248), but since half of them are re-elected,ConstituencyWith 74 seatsProportional representationDivided into 50 seats (Public Offices Election Law, Article 4).As a general rule, there is one constituency in each prefecture.Proportional representation is unified nationwide (in this respect, it is different from the proportional representation system of the general election of members of the House of Representatives consisting of 2 blocks nationwide).
  • Political parties and political groups running for proportional representation elections must meet one of the following provisions.
    1. There must be at least 5 members of the House of Representatives and members of the House of Councilors belonging to the political party / organization.
    2. The total number of votes of the party / political organization is valid in the most recent election of the members of the House of Representatives in the small election district or the proportional representative election, or in the election of the members of the House of Representatives in the regular election. Must be at least 2% of the total number of votes.
    3. In the general election of members of the House of Councilors, there must be 10 or more candidates for the political party / political organization.
  • Constituency and proportional representationOverlapping candidacy systemHas not been adopted.

Constituency system

Fixed number as of 2019: 147 people(2022 people from 148)

  • Voters vote by writing one candidate's name on their own.
  • Winners are elected from the person who gets the most votes until the number of members elected in the ordinary election is reached.However, one-sixth or more of the total number of valid votes divided by the fixed number must be obtained (Legal vote).
First year of Reiwa25th electionList of election districts applied from
Number of re-electionsNumber of constituenciesConstituency
61 constituencyTokyo
44 constituencySaitama,Kanagawa,Aichi,Osaka
34 constituencyHokkaido,Chiba,Hyogo,Fukuoka
24 constituencyIbaraki,Shizuoka,Kyoto,Hiroshima
132 constituencyAomori,Iwate,Miyagi,Akita,Yamagata,Fukushima,Tochigi,Gunma,Yamanashi,Niigata
Toyama,Ishikawa,Fukui,Nagano,Gifu,Mie,Shiga,Nara,Wakayama
Tottori prefecture/Shimane prefecture,Okayama,Yamaguchi ,Tokushima prefecture, Kochi prefecture,Kagawa,Ehime,Saga,Nagasaki
Kumamoto,Oita,Miyazaki,Kagoshima,Okinawa
2523th electionNumber of re-elections in
Clicking the link will take you to the article for each prefectural constituency.Bold letters are constituencies with two or more people.
2824th electionNumber of re-elections in
Clicking the link will take you to the article for each prefectural constituency.
Bold letters are constituencies with two or more people. * Is an electoral district that is a joint district with neighboring prefectures (the number of elections for the two prefectures is 2).

Comparison of the number of voters

Electoral list-Overseas electionNumber of registered persons in the personal list (as of October 2021, 10)[3]
ConstituencyconstantNumber of registrantsOne vote disparity
(Fukui Prefecture Election DistrictComparison with)
01Hokkaido constituency64,492,222x2.342
02Aomori Prefecture Election District21,081,134x1.691
03Iwate Prefectural Assembly21,041,830x1.63
04Miyagi Prefecture Election District21,929,935x3.019
05Akita Prefecture Election District2843,111x1.319
06Yamagata Prefectural Election District2907,625x1.42
07Fukushima Prefecture Election District21,577,551x2.467
08Ibaraki Prefectural Election District42,421,838x1.894
09Tochigi prefectural constituency21,629,358x2.548
10Gunma Prefecture Election District21,618,487x2.531
11Saitama Prefecture Election District86,169,431x2.4120
12Chiba Prefectural Election District65,283,351x2.755
14Kanagawa Prefecture Election District87,725,541x3.021
19Yamanashi Prefectural Assembly2688,711x1.077
13Tokyo constituency1211,542,928x3.009
15Niigata Prefecture Election District21,879,381x2.94
16Toyama Prefectural Election District2881,848x1.379
17Ishikawa Prefectural Election District2947,426x1.482
18Fukui Prefecture Election District2639,353x1.000
20Nagano Prefecture Election District21,731,242x2.708
21Gifu Prefecture Election District21,658,181x2.594
22Shizuoka Prefecture Election District43,054,514x2.389
23Aichi Prefecture Election District86,138,633x2.4
24Mie Precinct21,483,224x2.32
25Shiga Prefecture Election District21,155,366x1.807
26Kyoto Prefectural constituency42,108,884x1.649
27Osaka Prefecture constituency87,341,224x2.871
28Hyogo Prefecture Election District64,585,011x2.39
29Nara Prefecture Election District21,136,302x1.777
30Wakayama Prefectural Election District2802,995x1.256
31-32Tottori Prefecture/Shimane Prefecture Election District21,027,058x1.606
33Okayama Prefecture Election District21,572,018x2.459
34Hiroshima prefectural constituency42,327,415x1.82
35Yamaguchi Prefectural constituency21,143,947x1.789
36-39Tokushima Prefecture/Kochi Prefecture Election District21,223,653x1.914
37Kagawa Prefectural constituency2813,434x1.272
38Ehime Prefectural Election District21,144,191x1.79
40Fukuoka prefectural constituency64,241,570x2.211
41Saga Prefectural constituency2676,127x1.058
42Nagasaki Prefecture Election District21,116,961x1.747
43Kumamoto Prefecture21,458,757x2.282
44Oita Prefectural constituency2957,462x1.498
45Miyazaki Prefecture Election District2903,225x1.413
46Kagoshima Prefecture Election District21,341,565x2.098
47Okinawa prefectural constituency21,178,744x1.844

Proportional representation

Fixed number as of 2019: 98 people(2022 people from 100)

  • Adopted a proportional representation system with all prefectures as constituencies (Public Offices Election Law, Article 12, Paragraph 2).
  • Voters vote by writing the name of one candidate who candidacy (Personal vote).However, instead of writing the name of one candidate who ran for the election, the elector can also vote by writing the name of one candidate, such as the party reporting the list of the House of Councilors.Party votes).
  • Of each "Political party notifying the House of Councilors list"Number of winnersAdds all the individual votes and party votes of each candidate for each political party, etc.Don't typeIs determined by.
  • Who in each "House of Councilors list notification party, etc."WinningWhether or not a person is a person depends on the order of the number of individual votes for each political party, etc.Number of winnersIt is decided by the method of winning up to (Non-binding list method).In the general election of members of the House of Representatives, a proportional representation system of the restricted list system is adopted, which is different from the regular election of members of the House of Councilors.
  • 2019/7 Of25st House of Councilors electionFrom part of the proportional district1983/から1998/Was adopted untilRestraint list ceremony(Closed list type) is "Specific frameAs a result, both the restricted list type and the non-binding list type will be mixed in the proportional zone.

History of the House of Councilors election

1947/(22)
(Act No. 22 of 11) Promulgated.Nationwide systemIs adopted.National district: 100 people, local district: 150 people, total number 250 people.
1950/(25)
The Public Offices Election Law (Law No. 25, April 4, 15) will be enforced (the House of Councilors Election Law will be abolished).
1970/(46)
Okinawa returnPrepared forOkinawa Residents Participation in National Government Special Measures LawDue to the enactment, the fixed number has increased by 2 and the total fixed number is 252.
1980/(55)
The first House of Councilors election on the same day (36th House of Representatives general election, 12th House of Councilors regular election).
1983/(58)
Nationwide systemInstead of adopting a proportional representation system targeting "all prefectures" (Strict restraint roster ceremony).
1992/(4)
For the first time with all prefecturesSame dayVoting(16th House of Councilors election).
1995/(7)
The number of constituencies was corrected for the first time as a member of the House of Councilors election, increasing by 8 (2 each in Miyagi, Saitama, Kanagawa, and Gifu) and decreasing by 8 (4 in Hokkaido, 2 in Hyogo, and XNUMX in Fukuoka).
1996/(8)
1992年(平成4年)の第16回参議院通常選挙の定数配分の最大格差1対6.59につき、最高裁が違憲の問題が生ずる程度の投票価値の著しい不平等状態にあったと判断(最大判平8・9・11民集50巻8号2283頁)。ただし、格差がこの程度に達した時から選挙までの間に国会が議員定数配分規定を是正する措置を講じなかったことをもってその立法裁量権の限界を超えるものと断定することはできないとして違憲とはしなかった。
1998/(10)
Extension of voting time (Absentee ballot-Early votingThe reasons for absentee voting and early voting were alleviated (14th House of Councilors election).
2001/(13)
Revised proportional representation system (Unrestrained roster ceremony).6 reductions in the constituency (2 each for Okayama, Kumamoto, Kagoshima) and 4 reductions in the proportional district to a total of 242 people.
2007/(19)
Increased by 4 in the constituency (2 each in Tokyo and Chiba) and decreased by 4 (2 each in Tochigi and Gunma).
2012/(24)
2010/The Supreme Court judged that the maximum disparity in the fixed allocation of the 22th House of Councilors election (16) was 1 to 5.00, and that the voting value was extremely unequal to the extent that unconstitutional issues arose.However, he did not make it unconstitutional because he could not conclude that the limit of the discretionary power of the Diet would be exceeded if the Diet did not take measures to correct the provisions for allocating the number of MPs before the election.
2013/(25)
Increased by 4 in the constituency (2 each in Kanagawa and Osaka) and decreased by 4 (2 each in Fukushima and Gifu).During the electionInternet election campaignWas lifted.
2015/(27)
Decrease the voting age from 20 years old or older to 18 years old or older[2].
2016/(28)
Increased by 10 in the constituency (2 each in Hokkaido, Tokyo, Aichi, Hyogo, Fukuoka) 10 decreased (2 each in Miyagi, Niigata, Nagano, 2 each in Tottori / Shimane and Tokushima / Kochi).first time,Upper House Joint Election DistrictWas introduced.
2019/(First year of Reiwa)
Revised proportional representation system (conventional non-binding list type is now binding list type)Specific frameAdd).Increased by 2 in the constituency (2 in Saitama) and 4 in the proportional district.

(Note) Regarding the judgment of the one-vote disparity, in the Supreme Court case

  1. Presence or absence of significant inequality
  2. Whether the state has continued for a considerable period of time

If it conflicts with 1, it is considered as "unconstitutional", and if it conflicts with both 1 and 2, it is concluded as "unconstitutional". Make further decisions about[4](About "unconstitutional" and "unconstitutional state" in the proceedings of the number of MPsOne vote disparitySee also).

List of House of Councilors regular elections

TimesCabinet at the time of implementationVoting dayDayVoter turnoutconstantRe-electionExpiration dateRemarks
1 timesYoshida 11947 (Showa 22)/4/20Sunday61.12%250-1953/(28)5/2Half (lower winners)1950/(Showa25 years)5/2Term expired
(Article 102 of the Constitution of JapanAnd special provisions under related regulations)
2 timesYoshida 31950 (Showa 25)/6/472.19%1251956/(31)6/3Elections after the expiration of the term
3 timesYoshida 41953 (Showa 28)/4/24Friday63.18%1959/(34)5/2
4 timesIchiro Hatoyama 31956 (Showa 31)/7/8Sunday62.11%1962/(37)7/7Elections after the expiration of the term
5 timesKishi 21959 (Showa 34)/6/2Tuesday58.75%1965/(40)6/1
6 timesIkeda 21962 (Showa 37)/7/1Sunday68.22%1968/(43)7/7
7 timesSato 11965 (Showa 40)/7/467.02%1971/(46)7/1Elections after the expiration of the term
8 timesSato 21968 (Showa 43)/7/768.94%1974/(49)7/7Okinawa Prefecture held on November 1970, 11National affairs participation electionTwo people in[Annotation 9]Increased from 250 to 252 by election
9 timesSato 31971 (Showa 46)/6/2759.24%2521261977/(52)7/10
10 timesKakuei Tanaka 21974 (Showa 49)/7/773.20%1980/(55)7/7
11 timesFukuda Yoshio1977 (Showa 52)/7/1068.49%1983/(58)7/9Elections after the expiration of the term
12 timesOhira 21980 (Showa 55)/6/2274.54%1986/(61)7/7Same day election(36th House of Representatives general election)
13 timesNakasone 11983 (Showa 58)/6/2657.00%1989/(XNUMX)7/9
14 timesNakasone 2 Kai 21986 (Showa 61)/7/671.36%1992/(4)7/7Showalast.Same day election(38th House of Representatives general election)
15 timesUnoOctober 1989, 765.02%2521261995/(7)7/22Heiseifirst time.Elections after the expiration of the term
16 timesMiyazawa1992 (Heisei 4)/7/2650.72%1998/(10)7/25Elections after the expiration of the term
17 timesMurayama1995 (Heisei 7)/7/2344.52%2001/(13)7/22Elections the day after the expiration of the term
18 timesHashimoto 2 Kai1998 (Heisei 10)/7/1258.84%2004/(16)7/25
19 timesKoizumi 12001 (Heisei 13)/7/2956.44%2471212007/(19)7/28Elections after the expiration of the term
20 timesKoizumi 22004 (Heisei 16)/7/1156.57%2422010/(22)7/25
21 timesAbe 12007 (Heisei 19)/7/2958.64%2013/(25)7/28Elections the day after the expiration of the term
22 timesNaoto Kan2010 (Heisei 22)/7/1157.92%2016/(28)7/25
23 timesAbe 22013 (Heisei 25)/7/2152.61%2019/(First year of Reiwa)7/28
24 timesAbe 3 breaks 12016 (Heisei 28)/7/1054.70%2022/(4nd year of Reiwa)7/25The end of Heisei.From this time, the right to vote has been reduced to 18 years old or older due to the revision of the Public Offices Election Law.
Tottori prefecture/Shimane prefectureとTokushima prefecture, Kochi prefectureBecomes a joint ward.
25 timesAbe 4 breaks 1September 2019, 748.80%2451242025/(7nd year of Reiwa)7/28Reiwafirst time.
26 timesKishida 2April 2022, 4 (7th year of Reiwa) (planned)2482028/(10nd year of Reiwa)7/25
  • The number of re-elections here was merged with the regular elections of the former national district, etc.By-electionThe number of three-year lawmakers by is not included.
  • deficitIs the highest turnout,Blue characterIs the lowest turnout.

Number of wins

  • Of personal nameTaiziIs an incumbent member of the Diet.
Person's nameWinning
Number of times
First winFinal winningRemarks
Akiko Santou /Akiko Shandong8 times10 times25 times16 timesIs elected after being defeated.18 timesIs a non-runner.
Shintani Torasafuro /Torasaburo Shintani7 timesFirst01 times12 timesThe first term is three years.
Akiyama Chiyosou /Chozo AkiyamaFirst03 times13 times
Yuichi Koori /Yuichi Kori6 timesFirst02 times11 times
Easy Ken /Ken YasuiFirst02 times12 times
Saya Hiteyuki /Hideyuki SeyaFirst06 times16 times
Tenhite /Hideo TaFirst09 times19 times19 timesIs elected after being defeated.
Saito Shiyuurou /Juro SaitoFirst08 times18 times8 timesWas elected by-election.
Nakasone Hirofumi /Hirofumi Nakasone14 times24 times
Otsushi Hitehisa /Hidehisa Otsuji15 times25 times

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ For short"House of Councillors electionAlso called "(saninsen)"
  2. ^ Due to the constant increaseHouse of Councilors election in 2022Will be 248 later (from 242)2019/In 2022, the number of House of Councilors elections will be increased by 2 by 3 to 6).
  3. ^ Tora year phenomenonSee.The United States of AmericaThen.Mid-term electionWill be held in the same year
  4. ^ 1965/LaterTokyo congressist electionWill be held in the same year
  5. ^ United States presidential electionWill be held in the same year
  6. ^ Year of the year phenomenonSee
  7. ^ MacArthur draftThen.Unicameral systemThere was no discrepancy because the "National Diet" was set, but on the Japanese sideBicameral systemThe provision was not amended when it was amended to.
  8. ^ In the case of Sunday voting, 17 days before is Thursday, two weeks before the polling date.however2016/as well as the 2022/House of Councilors electionOkinawa memorial dayIt was announced on Wednesday due to the balance with.
  9. ^ The term of one person is1974/(49) Until July 7, the term of another person is1971/(46)7/3Until

Source

  1. ^ Toshiyoshi Miyazawa-Nobuyoshi Abe"The Constitution of Japan," pp. 125-126, Nihon Hyoronsha,1978/(53)
  2. ^ a b "The revised Public Offices Election Act is enacted for the age of voting rights" 18 years old and over "". 47NEWS(July 2015, 6). https://web.archive.org/web/20150617032536/http://www.47news.jp/CN/201506/CN2015061701001110.html 2017/10/14Browse.  ※ CurrentlyInternet archiveRemains in
  3. ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Number of registered electoral rolls and overseas electoral rolls”(Japanese). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2021/9/23Browse.
  4. ^ The legislative decision without grace is "unconstitutional", "valid but unconstitutional" ... Sankei Shimbun March 2013, 3 << Composition of all 26 pages →2nd pageRetrieved October 2017, 10.Currently remains in the Internet Archive >>

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