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🏛 | Hong Kong magazine specializes in Okinawa issue, what is the view on "burden" stated by Representative Shigeru Ishiba?


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Hong Kong magazine specializes in Okinawa issue, what is the view on "burden" stated by Representative Shigeru Ishiba?

 
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Regarding the defense power in Okinawa, the base introduced that cutting-edge equipment is being added not only to the main island of Okinawa but also to Amami Oshima, Yonaguni Island, Ishigaki Island, etc. in order to counter the Chinese army and deter military action. bottom.
 

Hong Kong Media's Asu Weekly introduces the situation in Okinawa, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary after returning to Japan from the United States. → Continue reading

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Okinawa main island

世界 > Asia > East Asia > Japan > Nansei Islands > Ryukyu Islands > Okinawa main island

Okinawa main island(Okinawa), orOkinawa Island(Okinawajima)Japan OfOkinawaMake up of 160(I.e.Is the largest island in the world[9],Honshuな どNativeExcluding 4 islandsKunashiri IslandNext to Japan, it is the third largest island in Japan.[10](In descending order,Etorofu Island - Kunashiri Island --Okinawa main island).AlsoEast China SeaとThe Pacific Ocean(Philippine Sea) Located betweenNansei IslandsIt is also the largest island in Japan.With an area only on the main island of Okinawa that does not include remote islandsOsaka,TottoriNarrower thanTokyo Ward,Biwa lakeWider than.

Overview

Okinawa OfPolitics,Economy41 in the prefecture, which is the central island of市町村OfPrefectural office location OfNahaThere are 26 municipalities including. Also in the prefecturepopulationIt has a population of approximately 145 million, or approximately 9% of the approximately 129 million.

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismExcept for the five islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and the main island of Okinawa. Remote island".However, for 5 islands including the main island of Okinawa, "Native"Is not used.Okinawa Promotion Special Measures ActAccording to the report, islands other than the main island of Okinawa are designated as "remote islands", and some of them are designated as "designated remote islands".Uninhabited islands are included in the designated remote islands, but the islands that are bridge-connected to the main island of Okinawa are excluded from the designated remote islands.On the other hand, the islands that are bridge-connected to Miyakojima and Ishigakijima have not been removed.[11].

Generally (vaguely) outside Okinawa (in a narrow sense)Japanese archipelago) To "Inland","Native"Or"HonshuMay be called.

In addition, Okinawan dialectとKunigami dialectUchina Uchinanchu (Uchinanchu) is originally OkinawaMain islandAnd the word from that person,MeijiAfter the establishment of Okinawa Prefecture during the periodPrefectureIt came to show the whole area and the person who came from it.

Name

"Okinawa Island"OkinawaIs called "Okinawa main island" or simply "main island".[12][13],this isHumanities-社会It is a name that is conscious of remote islands based on a conceptual concept[11].Geographical Survey InstituteandJapan Coast GuardMarine Information DepartmentSo, it is used in unification with "Okinawa Island"[14].

Okinawan dialectIn addition to "Uchina", it is also called "Gigi". Gigi is a kanji character that is written as "underground" and is a pair of words for "hanari (remote island)".[15]..In dialect, "Underground Three-way Separation" (Gigi Sanpo Shuhanari)[Note 2]) Is the main island of Okinawa,Kunigami-Middle head-Shimajiri, And a general term for remote islands around the main island, nowOkinawa IslandsHit[16][Note 3].

Geography

It is an island located at the northeastern end of Okinawa Prefecture.Japan Of(I.e.InHonshu-Hokkaido-Kyusyu-Shikoku-Etorofu Island-Kunashiri IslandSecond largest in size[3], With 4 major islandsNorthern TerritoriesIt is the largest island in Japan excluding.

Area is 1,207.00km2[2], Around 476km[5]The straight line distance of the main island is about 106.6km at the north and south ends.[4].. Since it was returned to Okinawa, landfill has been prosperous and more than 1000 hectares have been landfilled.

NorthIgneous rockIs the center of the islandYonahatakeIncluding,Yaedake,NagodakeThe low mountains of about 400m continue.Somewhat bigRiverIt is also a characteristic of the north, and there is very little flat land.Acidic OfsoilAre distributed,pineappleIs being cultivated[12].. Also in the northYamaharaIt is called (Yanbaru).Kunigami Village-Ogimi Village-HigashimuraSpread to森林Alternatively, it refers to the area of ​​Kunigami Village, Ogimi Village, and Higashi Village itself, and broadly refers to the forests that spread in the northern part of Okinawa Main Island or the northern part of Okinawa Main Island.

Motobu Peninsula TheLimestoneLayers are distributed and are found in tropical regionsConical castIs developing[17].. In addition, the Motobu Peninsula produces limestone, soQuarryとcement工場Is located[18].Agriculture:Then,AcerolaKnown as the origin of[19].

Mainly south centralRyukyu limestoneLayers andMudstoneIs composed of[20].. The terrain is flat, there are few hilly areas over 100 m, andRiverIs very few. Prone to erosionLimestoneKarst terrain has developed in the southern part ofSubtropicalTherefore, the erosion is fast,UvaleThere are many. manyLimestone caveIn the southeast of NahaNanjo CityThe total length of Tamaki is 5km (open to the public 890m)GyokusendoIs the most famous.

The northernmost pointCape Hedo(Hey Misaki)KagoshimaBelongs toYoron IslandIs a distance of 22km.The southernmost pointArasakiIs (Arasaki)[21] But generally to the westCape KyanIs often thought to be the southernmost tip of the main island of Okinawa.[22].

End points of north, south, east and west on the main island of Okinawa[23][24]
EndpointAddresslatitudelongitude
Eastern endKunigami-son, Kunigami-gunNorth Latitude 26 Degrees 45 Minutes 22 SecondsEast longitude 128 degree 19 min 40 sec
West endNahaNorth Latitude 26 Degrees 11 Minutes 55 SecondsEast longitude 127 degree 38 min 11 sec
Southern tipItomanNorth Latitude 26 Degrees 04 Minutes 28 SecondsEast longitude 127 degree 40 min 37 sec
Northern endKunigami-son, Kunigami-gunNorth Latitude 26 Degrees 52 Minutes 32 SecondsEast longitude 128 degree 15 min 28 sec
Latitude and longitudeWorld geodetic systembased on

Kojima/Reef

Excluding small rocks on the beach/sea reef[25].

  • Sekaizaki - Kunigami VillageOku Oki.
  • Akasaki -Kunigami Village character off Chusu.
  • Katsenosaki -Kunigami Village Anba offshore.
  • Teniyazaki - NagoOff Teniniya.
  • Cape Kin - Kin TownKin Kin, off the coast of Cape Kin. There are also small islands and reefs about 950m east of the cape and about 600m off the South Island.
  • Nishinoiwa -Within Kin Bay.Uruma CityとKin TownI am currently in a dispute with him.
  • Gonjan rock,Aginami Island -Approximately 600m off the south side of Kannaren Hiratashiya Kannasaki, Uruma City.
  • Tofu Island - Kitanakagusuku VillageOff Towaguchi.
  • Kumaka Island - Nanjo CityAbout 2.6 km off the South Island of Cape Chinen.
  • Adchi Island -Off the coast of Chinen Shikiya, Nanjo City.
  • Tamata Island --Approximately 1.1 km east of Adchi Island.
  • Okanami Rock -About 800m off the western side of Nishizaki, Itoman City.
  • (Unnamed) - Chatan TownA small island off the coast of 1-chome Kita-mae.
  • (Unnamed) - Yomitan VillageAftermathA reef about 500m off the west coast.
  • Tobera rock - Onna villageManza hairOffshore reef.
  • Bisezaki -Off Bisezaki, Motobu Town. There is Bise Ryugu and a lighthouse.
  • Husband Rock --Approximately 1.2 km off the north-northwest of Genka, Nago City.
  • Stone stone - Ogimi VillageOff Ramba.

Artificial island

  • Awase area, Nakagusuku Bay Port (Okinawa City East Coast Development Plan)-Under construction

History

Area classification/municipalities

The main island of Okinawa is basically in administrative and other fields.North/Central/SouthIt is divided into three areas.

In addition, Metropolitan areaFrom the connection of the central part and the southern part in oneCentral and SouthIt is often divided into In addition, from the viewpoint of transportation, etc., head north from Naha City.Middle northSometimes called.

Background and definition

First in the present age (2020)North/Central/SouthThe definition of is as follows.This is generally administratively "Northern region"Chubu area"Southern regionCalled[28][29].

This northern / central / southern division is historicallyOld Ryukyu-Sanzan period OfKitayama-中山-NamsanIt is believed to be derived from the power range (territory) of each kingdom.Furthermore, the Middle Ages Ryukyu (Ryukyu KingdomIt is an old division of the timesKunigami-Middle head-Shimajiri, And after modern OkinawaKunigami-Nakagami-gun-Shimajiri) Has been inherited and has reached the present age.However, there is a transition from the boundary of the Sanzan period (for details, see "Kunigami"Middle head"ShimajiriRefer to each item).

Furthermore, the administrative divisions of "northern region", "central region", and "southern region"Surrounding remote islandsAlthough some of the cities, towns and villages are included[28][29], Not covered in this item.

Northern Okinawa main island

Generally,Kunigami(Kunigami) district, orYamaharaIt corresponds to the district called (Yanbaru).Area 764km2, Population about 12. Rich nature remains.

Central Okinawa Island

Generally,Middle head(Nakagami) Corresponds to the district.Area 280km2, Population about 59. This is the most concentrated US military facility. Urasoe is a member of the Southern Wide Area Municipal Area Administrative Association, and Nishihara, Nakagusuku, and Kitanakagusuku are affiliated with the Southern Wide Area Administrative Association.

In addition, Urasoe City and Nishihara TownNaha metropolitan areaAlthough it may be treated as the southern part publicly due to the entanglement with, it is basically the central part in terms of administrative divisions.[30].

Southern Okinawa main island

Generally,Shimajiri(Shimajiri) Corresponds to the district.Area 198km2, Population about 54. It has the capital city of Naha. The term "southern" often refers to cities and towns other than Naha.

Central and southern metropolitan areas

Central and southern metropolitan areasWhat is (Chu Nanbu Toshiken)?NahaIs the main center,Okinawa CityIs a metropolitan area with a secondary center. Area approx.478 km2(5/1 of the prefecture's land area)About 116 million people(8% of the prefecture's population) live.

Central partIs Okinawa City,SouthernIs a region centered on Naha City, but the centrality of Naha City extends to the central part, while the centrality of Okinawa City does not reach the entire central part. In addition, the central and southern regions consist of many small-scale municipalities whose area is far below the national average.Central and SouthIt is often classified as.By the way, comparing the areas of each municipality in the central and southern regions, even the largest city of Uruma is 86.01 km.2The area of ​​all other municipalities is 50km.2Is less than.

Central and SouthThe population density TheGovernment-designated cityIsKitakyushu(The area is slightly smaller in the central and southern part of the main island, with a population of about 98 compared to Kitakyushu, which has a population of about 16), which is extremely high as a local city. In addition, limited to neighboring local governments such as Naha City, Urasoe City, Ginowan CityThree major metropolitan areasBoasting an average population density (Naha metropolitan areaSee also). Besides, in 2003Okinawa city monorailUntil (Yui Rail) opensOrbit system OfPublic transportDid not exist (However, there were multiple railroads and tracks before the war.Okinawa Prefecture RailroadSee. ) Therefore, from the mainlandAutomobileRoads in the central and southern regions are chronically dependent onTraffic jamIt's a little bit. However, the size of the economy and industry is smaller than that of the population due to the different historical and geographical backgrounds.

In addition,TelArea code The098Is unified in (NahaMA.KunigamiOnna village-Ginoza Village-Kin TownAnd the surrounding remote islandsKumejima Town-Tokashiki Village-Zamami village-Aguni Village-Tonaki villageIncluding. In other words, the central part of the main island and the southern part of the main island. (Kerama/Aguni Islands, Kume Island, Onna/Kin district are applicable).0988,0989X,0989XXThe area code that was divided into1990/It was unified by shifting. In these areas, the area code 098 is often omitted when introducing telephone numbers in advertisements (including TV/radio commercials) and announcements (in Okinawa prefecture)Fixed-line phoneThe majority of the households in this area are in this area, and the actual area code after that is only 0980).

Biological nature

The north is about one-third of the total area of ​​Okinawa Prefecture,YamaharaCalled (Yanbaru)森林Is an area where As a type of forestLaurel forestAnd the main body of TakagiItai.Noguchi Gera,Yanbaru Kina,Yambaru Tenaga KoganeSuch asEndemic speciesMany inhabit. Among them, the Motobu PeninsulaLimestoneThere are many zones and it is uniqueBiotahave.

Middle southUplifting coral reefOn top ofCypress,AkagiThere are forests whose components are, and the tropical elements are stronger. HoweverSecond World WarThere are few well-preserved forests because of the large amount of human disturbance and subsequent destruction caused by the forest.

The coastline is surrounded by coral reefs, but its development differs north and south of the island. In the north, coral reefs are almost in close contact with the coast, but in the south and central parts, they develop offshore andLagoonIs formed. However, coral itself has many areas with high mortality rates, and there are few places where living corals are on one side. This is mainlyRed soilIt is said to be due to natural destruction such as spillage.Ramsar ConventionIt is a registered wetlandMankoAndMigratory birdKnown as the destination ofAwase tidal flat,dugongInhabitHenokoOki,Gesashi Bay OfmangroveValuable such as woodsSalt marshes-Seaweed bed・Shallow waters also exist. Some of these have development plans.

In addition, in JapanMinistry of the EnvironmentSpecified byImportant wetlands in Japan 500Of these, 54 are in Okinawa Prefecture (21 of which are in the Okinawa main island or the surrounding waters). this is,HokkaidoIt is the second most common country after Japan (61 locations).

climate

On the main island of Okinawaclimate TheSubtropical(Köppen climate classificationThen,Warm and humid climate (Cfa))Summer: TheTyphoon ginzaIs calledtyphoonThe number of passing or approaching is very large. But,Winter: TheFrost,氷Has never been observed. Very rarelyHailstoneIt only rains. However, it gets cold as it is (the minimum temperature is about 9°C, and it is strong in winter.WindBecause it also blows)こ た つSome residents use.5By the timerainy seasonEnter,6The rainy season will end in the second half. Summer maximum temperature is around 32-33 °C, above 35 °CExtremely hot dayIs rarelyHonshu(TohokuExcept)). This is because the mainland of Okinawa has a small land area and is surrounded by the sea.Tokyo,OsakaThere is no big city likeHeat island phenomenonThis will not happen.

Meteorological data from various parts of Okinawa main island[31]
Average price
(Monthly)
NorthCentral and South
Kunigami Village
Oh
NagoKin TownNahaNanjo City
Number of threads
Climate classificationcFAcFAcFAcFAcFA
Average temperature
(° C)
Warmest month26.7
(August)
28.8
(August)
28.6
(August)
28.9
(August)
27.1
(August)
Coldest month14.5
(August)
16.3
(August)
16.2
(August)
17.0
(August)
15.2
(August)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months309.5
(August)
248.2
(August)
228.8
(August)
260.5
(August)
253.3
(August)
Minimum month138.3
(August)
96.2
(August)
78.3
(August)
102.8
(August)
111.7
(August)
Daylight hours
(Time)
Longest month239.2
(August)
245.7
(August)
218.1
(August)
238.8
(August)
210.1
(August)
Shortest month78.3
(August)
86.2
(August)
88.3
(August)
87.1
(August)
93.0
(August)

"Okinawa main island region" in the weather forecast

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euWhen referring to the Okinawa main island region, not only the Okinawa main island but also remote islands around the main island (100 km Within) is also included.

1985/In the past, there were only one region in the central south of the main island, northern part of the main island,Kumejima(現在の一次細分区域)に3地域に分かれたが、予報は3つとも同じ予報であることが多く、電話「177」による天気予報では3地域別々ではなく「098-177」のみであるため、3つとも同じ予報であるときはいちいち3地域に分けずにまとめて1回で発表することが多い(3地域別々の場合はそれぞれ地域ごとに発表する)。さらに2002/ToWarning-alarmAs the second subdivision area, the central and southern parts of the main island were divided into three parts: southern part, central part, Kerama/Aguni Islands, and northern part of the main island was divided into four parts: Onna/Kinmu, Nago, Kunigami, Iheya/Izena (Kume Island is not subdivided).

Forecast classification of weather forecast
  • Okinawa Main Island Central South: South central part of the main island south of Uruma City and Yomitan Village,Kerama Islands,Aguni Island(note),Tonaki Island
    • Southern Main Island: Naha City, Urasoe City, Itoman City, Tomigusuku City, Nanjo City, Nishihara Town, Haebaru Town, Yaese Town, Yonabaru Town
    • Central Main Island: Okinawa City, Uruma City, Ginowan City, Chatan Town, Kadena Town, Nakagusuku Village, Kitanakagusuku Village, Yomitan Village
    • KeramaAguni Islands : Tokashiki Village-Zamami village-Aguni Village-Tonaki village
  • Northern Okinawa main island: North of the main island north of Onna village and Kin town,Ie Island,Iheya Island,Izena Island
    • Onna/Kin district: Kin town/Onna village/Ginoza village
    • Nago District: Nago City, Motobu Town, Nakijin Village, Ie Village
    • Kunigami area: Kunigami village, Ogimi village, Higashi village
    • Iheya/Izena: Iheya/Izena
  • Kumejima: Kumejima Town

(Note) Aguni Village was the northern area of ​​the main island until the secondary subdivision area was newly established (weather forecast only).

Water situation

On Okinawa IslandRiverThere are few, especially in the central and southern regions where the population is concentrated. Although the amount of precipitation is not small, it is not accumulated due to the small size of the river, and most of it has flowed out to the sea, which has often caused water shortages for a long time.[32].. The rainy season is earlytyphoonThere is also a side to rely on. Even today, water tanks are installed on the roofs of many houses to store domestic water in case of water outage. In addition, almost all of the northern riversdamIs built. Although water supply was cut off by this, various problems are pointed out from the viewpoint of nature conservation.

Tourism

North

It is a district where abundant nature remains and resort tourism is popular.

Central part

Small and medium cities are gathered. There are many US military bases, and it is also the source of American culture.

Southern

Prefecture Naha (old cityShuri) ・Has a southern battlefield and is a central area for tourism of cultural and historical sites, and is often the destination of school excursions.

Military base

The main island of Okinawa is considered to be extremely important in terms of US military strategy from the perspective of Japan's national defense.

US military facilities

There are 28 US military facilities on the main island of Okinawa, accounting for about 20% of the area of ​​the island. Especially, it is concentrated in the central part of Japan and 10 out of 8 cities, towns and villages have facilities.MarinesFutenma Air BaseIs a transportation hub located in the center of the central and southern metropolitan areaGinowan CityOccupy the heart of.

army
Navy
air force
Marines

SDF

Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
JMSDF
Japan Air Self-Defense Force

Transportation

aviation

Iron orbit

道路

As of January 2015, the following table lists the islands that are connected to the Okinawa main island via bridges or undersea roads.[33].

(I.e.Local governmentBridges, etc.Extension (m)Opening date
Miyagi islandOgimi VillageMiyagi Bridge100March 1996
Shioya Bridge3601999/3/27
Kouri IslandNakijin VillageKouri Ohashi1,9602005/2/8
Sesoko IslandMotobu TownSesoko Bridge7621985/2/13
Yagaji IslandNagoYagaji Ohashi3001993/3/27
Warumi Ohashi3152010/12/18
OujimaHaji Obu Bridge77March 1982
Heianza IslandUruma CityUndersea road4,2401999/3/15
Miyagi islandMobara bridge17March 1973
Ikei IslandIkei Ohashi1981982/4/8
Hamahiga IslandHamahiga Bridge9001997/2/7
Yabuchi IslandYabuchi Bridge1931985/7/29
OujimaNanjo CityOu Bridge922011/4/1

Transit Bus

The following operators operate route buses that connect the various parts of the Okinawa main island. There is a bus line connecting all cities and towns south of Nago City to the center of Naha City, and a bus line connecting all cities and towns north of Nago City to the center of Nago City except Higashimura where the village operates a free bus. is there.

  • Ryukyu Bus Transportation -From the center of Kunigami Village in the north to the southern end of Itoman City in the south, there are routes throughout the island.
  • Okinawa bus -There are routes throughout the island from the center of Kunigami Village in the north to the center of Itoman City in the south.
  • Naha bus -Operates most of the Naha city line. There are also routes to municipalities around Naha City.
  • Toyo Bus -From Okinawa city in the north to Nanjo city in the south, there is a line in the southern part of the island.
  • Kunigami Village Bus -There is a line connecting the center of Kunigami Village and the area north of it.
  • Uruma City Paid Bus -Yunagiya, Uruma CityHeianza Island-Hamahiga Island-Miyagi island-Ikei IslandRun between.
  • Yanbaru Express Bus-Routes operating between Naha City and Motobu/Nakijin Village via Okinawa Expressway, and Motobu TownSesoko IslandAnd Okinawa main island, Nago cityYagaji Island, Nakijin VillageKouri IslandOperates a local line connecting
  • Okinawa Airport Shuttle-Naha Airport and Onna Village (excluding some flights), operates a route connecting Motobu Town via Nago City. Take the Okinawa Expressway on the way.
  • Curry Attractions -Starting from Naha City, it operates routes to Urasoe City, Tomigusuku City, Chatan Town, Motobu Town.
  • Tokyo bus -Okinawa office is Naha Airport and Yui RailAkamine StationandSenagajima,iias Okinawa ToyosakiOperates the route connecting

Route

  • Naha Port -There are passenger routes to and from the prefecture (Important port)
  • Unten Port -There is a passenger route to Iheyajima and Izenajima (also used as an important port and an evacuation port when a typhoon approaches)
  • -No passenger route (important port)
  • -No passenger route (important port)
  • Motobu Port -Except Naha Port, there is only one route connecting with outside Okinawa
  • - Tsuken IslandPassenger routes to and from
  • - Kudaka IslandPassenger routes to and from

Media

Broadcaster

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, since the population of the island crossed with the main island is also included, "Okinawa main island bridge total (1,231,765)" was subtracted from "Okinawa main island (7,039)".[7].
  2. ^ The words and phrases in the "Ryukyu Dictionary"RomajiIn the notation, the reading is not stated, "Žiži-Sanpoo-Sjuhanari" (Ž The symbol at the top isCaron)a.Therefore, referring to "Characters and Notation (p.viii --x)" in the "Ryukyu Dictionary",KatakanaConverted to.
  3. ^ Underground (jiji) or jige (jige) refers to "Okinawa main island" and is a word that is paired with a remote island ("hanari" in dialect).Sanpo indicates Kunigami, Nakagami, and Shimajiri[16].

Source

  1. ^ "Encyclopedia of Islands" "Okinawa Islands" (1991) p.117
  2. ^ a b "Reiwa 2 years Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns and villages (PDF)". Geographical Survey Institute (September 2020, 1). 2020/5/30Browse.
  3. ^ a b "Science Chronology 19 Edition" (2006) p.565
  4. ^ a b c d "Japanese Historical Place Name Series" "Okinawa Island" (2002) p.73 Middle Section
  5. ^ a b "Japan Statistical Yearbook 26" "1-2 Main islands" (2013) p.13, 17
  6. ^ "Okinawa Prefecture Population, Households, Housing (PDF)”. Okinawa Prefecture Planning Department Statistics Division (October 2011, 10). 2013/2/4Browse.
  7. ^ a b c "The 51st Okinawa Prefectural Statistics Yearbook" "10. Number of Households by Island and Population by Gender (12, 17)" (2008) p.28
  8. ^ "17 Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns and villages nationwide (PDF)". Geographical Survey Institute. p. 189 (August 2005, 10). 2013/2/4Browse.
  9. ^ "Japanese Historical Place Name System" "Introduction to Natural Environment" (2002) p.23 Upper-middle
  10. ^ National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (19) Science chronology p.565 ISBN 4621077635
  11. ^ a b "Japanese history place name system" "Okinawa Island" (2002) p.73
  12. ^ a b "Okinawa Encyclopedia Vol. 1983" "Okinawajima" (525) p.XNUMX
  13. ^ "Kadokawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary" "Okinawa Island" (1991) p.235
  14. ^ "Survey and research on wide-area place names and their ranges in Japan (PDF)”. Japan Coast Guard Marine Information Department (2009). 2013/2/4Browse.
  15. ^ Vocabulary details-Shuri/Naha dialect, Okinawa Language Education Center, viewed December 2014, 12.
  16. ^ a b "Ryukyuan Dictionary" (1999) p.635
  17. ^ "Japanese History Place Name System" "Introduction to Natural Environment" (2002) p.24
  18. ^ Anwa Mine Ryukyu Cement
  19. ^ "Drink and be vigorous Aterola Motobu Town promotes the production area”. Ryukyu Shimpo (March 2009, 5). 2011/8/17Browse.
  20. ^ "Japanese History Place Name System" "Introduction Natural Environment" (2002) p.24 Middle
  21. ^ "Longitude and latitude (world geodetic system)”. Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. 2019/6/16Browse.(In particular, see "Southern edge" of "Itoman City")
  22. ^ "Okidai Encyclopedia Vol. 1983" "Cape Kyan" (872) pp.873 -XNUMX
  23. ^ "Longitude/latitude of government offices/municipal offices and north, south, east, and west end points of Okinawa Prefecture”. Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. 2012/2/1Browse.
  24. ^ "Map browsing service”. Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. 2012/2/1Browse.
  25. ^ Geographical Survey Institute/Geographic Survey Institute map (extract). In addition, islets and reefs in the remote islands around the main island of Okinawa are listed in the items for those remote islands in principle. AlsoOkinawa IslandsDoes not handle islands included in
  26. ^ "Japanese Historical Place Name Series" "Ago Nawajima" (2002) p.72
  27. ^ Yamazato (2004)
  28. ^ a b "Chubu region / Okinawa prefecture". www.pref.okinawa.lg.jp. 2020/11/14Browse.
  29. ^ a b https://www.pref.okinawa.lg.jp/site/doboku/kowan/keikaku/documents/documents/p1~10.pdf
  30. ^ "Urasoe City is included in either the central part or the southern part | Urasoe City". www.city.urasoe.lg.jp. 2020/11/14Browse.
  31. ^ "Weather statistics". Japanese Meteorological Agency. 2012/2/1Browse.
  32. ^ "Okinawa dam”. Okinawa Prefecture Civil Engineering Department River Division (June 2012, 6). 2014/10/2Browse.
  33. ^ “January 27 Remote Island Materials” “1. Islands” (2) p.2015

References

Related item

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戦 争

戦 争(Senso, English: war) istroopsbyCountryIs a struggle between[1]..It ’s the warPeaceful resolution of international disputesIs[2].. In a broad sense内 戦,反 乱Also includes (List of wars).It has been repeated since the dawn of history when human beings began to form groups.bankThe huge amount of war expenses underwritten by others is chronicTaxIt will be a burden.CitizenLimitations and attacks on lifePersonal dignityOverrun.Depending on the way of thinking of each eraIllegalityHas been certified[3].21st centuryAs the vast amount of information began to circulate around the world through IT infrastructure laid on a global scale, conflicts between nations without physical attacks increased.As a metaphor for such a conflict,Information warfare,Economic war,Trade war,Cyber ​​warThe word such as has come to be used.

Overview

War is the act of using military power to achieve various political objectives (act theory), or the confrontation between nations resulting from the use (state theory).In general, a nation or a group equivalent to it uses force for the purpose of self-defense and securing profits, and causes a battle.The war has been going on since ancient times(I.e.Is the most primitive and most primitive aspect of the businessviolenceIt can be said that it is a typical dispute resolution method.

Politicsだ け で な く,Economy,Geography,culture,TechnologyExtensiveA humanActivities are closely related andHistoryTypical影響Is very large.Wars since modern times are of the Army, Navy, Air Force, etc.軍隊Not only armed warfare, but also widely involved the general publicTotal warDiplomatic warfare, publicity warfare, plot warfare, economic warfare, trade warfare, etc.Supplying War, Technical warfare, spiritual warfare, and other struggles are essentially inclusive and interrelated.[4]..And as a result, depending on its scale,国際 関係,社会Has a destructive impact on a wide range of fields such as the economy andsoldier,CivilianFrom human damageInfrastructureDestruction, obstruction of economic activity, etc.社会It will cause physical damage to all parts of.On the other hand科学, Technology,外交,strategyTheory,組織Theory,tacticsTheory,weapon-armsThere are also aspects that have brought about the development of.Also,Munitions economyWas not damaged by the production equipmentVictorious country,Third countryEconomy may be enriched (eg)World War IとSecond World WarAfter米 国And after World War IKorean WarAfterJapan).Also, due to the defeat of the warModern olympic,FIFA World CupIn some cases, participation in international sports competitions such as is prohibited.

Many of the large-scale wars are nowTotal war,Nuclear warIt is less likely to occur because it consumes the nation and the people unnecessarily regardless of victory or defeat.ImperialismThe growth of the nation due to wars likeHumanitarianismIt tends to be avoided from the viewpoint of.1928/ParisTreatyAfter the conclusionInternational lawTypicallySelf-defense warOther thanAggression warIs prohibited.2001/ OfAmerican terrorist attacksSince then, worldwideWar on terrorismBecame the mainstream.

It is thought that in principle and legal events are related to the development and victory or defeat.Military scienceResearch on strategy and tactical theory,Combat doctrinedevelopment of,weaponDevelopment, quantitativeStrategy research,War historyResearch is being conducted.Charter of the United Nations Article 2Section 4 generally prohibited the use of force as well as war (Principle of non-exercise of force).

Definition

Called warconcept TheInternational lawWith the above conceptMilitarySince there are differences in the above concept, they must be used separately.

From a military point of view, war refers to the state in which substantive combat actions of military force are being carried out.The subject of that military power is oftenCountryIn Although,LawIt may be used depending on the scale of the military force used not only for the state but also for the armed groups because it emphasizes its substantive ability, unlike the conventional definition.U.S. ArmyThen, the level of armed conflict, the degree of crisis is relatively low,PeacekeepingOr pairterrorismDevelop strategies, etc.ConflictIt is distinguished from "war", which has a relatively high degree of crisis and develops combat operations involving the use of large-scale force.[5]..In addition, the US military classifies conflicts into three stages according to scale, and "high-intensity conflict" in them corresponds to the level of traditional war.

International lawIn, the parties to the war are generallyCountryIs believed to be a traditional practiceInternational lawFrom the perspective ofDeclaration of warIt is thought that it begins with and ends with peace.However, this format is no longer regarded as important because there are cases in history where a declaration of war was not made and a state of "real war" was entered.Also between armed groups other than the stateArmed conflictIs called a dispute, for examplePeopleIf it is between, "Ethnic conflictIs called.

However,CountryThe word "war" is sometimes used for non-group conflicts.For exampleCivil WarIn1861/ToUnited KingdomAgainst the ConfederatesWarfare groupApproving.Specific examples are given below.

  • 内 戦Parties in one country政府And rebels (including rebels and powers and political groups aiming to establish a new government through a revolution).StrictlyInternational lawNot the "war" above.However, under international law, if the existing government approves the warrior.Law of warIs applied.
  • Revolutionary WarParties as a whole nation and as a partRegion,ColonyIs.It is possible to view this as a kind of civil war and to tentatively regard the forces trying to become independent as nations and to regard them as conflicts between nations.However, in modern timesUnited Nations CharterBecause the concept of self-determination, which is also stated in the above, was recognized as a fundamental value of the international community, as well as against colonial rule and foreign occupation.RacismIn the case of an armed conflict against the system, it is treated as an international armed conflict rather than a civil war (non-international armed conflict).Along with this, international humanitarian law applicable between nations andLaw of warWill be applied.

In history, it is difficult to share the definition of war.For exampleCultural anthropologyAn example of the definition of war is the battle between groups and groups that have an organization and have a relationship of command (command) and obedience.[Source required].archeologySo, it is an armed conflict between groups that can be accompanied by a large number of killings that can be admitted based on archaeological records.[6].

History

When did human beings start fighting and killing each other?There is a big conflict between the view that it is from the beginning and the view that it is only recently.

Ape,Original person OfcannibalThe theory is an Australian archaeologistRaymond DartWas repeatedly claimed by the 1960s.Also in the 1930sBeijing ManThe cannibalism was suspected by German anthropologists.However, the Beijing cannibalism theory has finally become famous in the world.From these things, it was an American writer who interpreted that the eating of monkeys and originals was with the history of mankind and spread it.Austria's Nobel Prize for ethologyKonrad LorenzIsattack』, Preached the aggressive instinct of mankind.This instinct theory has spread further.The theory is that.

However, archaeologist Bob Brain has indicated that he is suspected of murdering and eating a monkey.In addition, anthropologists around the world have questioned the Peking Man's cannibalism in subsequent studies.[8].

According to known information, from 3400 years ago to today, there was only 268 years of peace in the world without war.[9].

Prehistoric

TextNo record leftPrehistoricIt is not possible to know exactly about the form of war, but it has inherited the form of conflict since ancient times.Africa,OceaniaThe form can be inferred from the area of.Observations of hunter-gatherer societies suggest that group-to-group wars can be fought by resource acquisition and turf wars even in the environment where the primordial humans were located.

IraqiShanidar CaveThe Neanderthal man buried in was a man who died after being injured by a spear 5 years ago.I don't know if it was a murder or an accident, but it is the oldest evidence that a person killed a person.[10].

Due to violence in the Jomon periodmortality rateIs 1.8 percent.The result is lower than the hunter-gatherer mortality rate of more than a dozen percent in other areas.[11]

12,000-around 10,000 years ago (Late PaleolithicAt the end)Nile RiverUpstream is the graveyard ruins, where 58 bodies, from infants to the elderly, are buried.As many as 24 stone tools near the head, chest, back, and abdomen of 116 of these (Microlith) Remained.There are also many stone tools that are stuck in the bone.This site is considered a sure example of the war of food collectors before the emergence of agricultural societies.[12].

War of ancient civilization

Ancient timesThen,Agriculture:Due to the increase in population and the accumulation of economic wealth due to the development ofCountryThe system will be put in placecommunicationHas been maintained.For this reason, the scale of the war and military organizations have expanded.Each civilization struggled to ensure its own security, expand its power, and even conquered wars for collective benefit.

またEarthenware-stone toolからBronze ware-IronwareUsedweapon,armsDevelopment progresses,Military powerA nation that has dramatically developed its abilities and has become a major power begins to appear.Tribal groupCity stateGrow up toPersia,RomelikeempireFor example, it has evolved into.Also in this era科学TechnologyHas developed into tanks (two wheels) and catapults,Bow and arrowEtc. are newweaponAppeared as, the form of war from the former ritual formBattleIt shifted to the form.

Medieval europe

Ancient times,Western Roman Empire germane OfAlliance tribeThe culture spread to the tribes by providing the force to the tribes.Frank kingdom(Northwestern Europe),West Goat Kingdom(Iberian Peninsula),Kingdom of Burgundy(Eastern Europe) etc. were established.Early Middle AgesWas established inHoly Roman EmpireFrom the 8th century to the 15th centuryIslamic dynastyとReconquistaFought the battle.

Middle AgesIsFranco-Mongol AllianceWith the backing of the Catholic Church itself, the Catholic Church itself calls for several orders.CrusaderWars were also fought, but the results were poor.again,West Frank Kingdom TheFlanders OfBrugesToHanseatic AllianceOverseas factoryExchangeWas expanding international trade, but in the 14th centuryFrench kingdomとKingdom of EnglandBetweenCentennial warWas disputed.France is in raising this war costRepublic of Genoa, EnglandRepublic of VeniceTo(English edition)Is undertaking.

中 世Ritual elements still persist in Europe,Catholic churchPolitical control over secular power by the government suppressed the outbreak of war.However, there were many military personnel in the Middle Ages, and technically, cavalry equipped with armor was influential.United Kingdom OfPlantage net morningとFrance OfBaroa morningbyCentennial warAlthough it took place in France for a long time over the throne, it did not cause catastrophic damage to the entire French society during the operation period, and intermittent and sporadic battles were fought with a truce.This was because it was difficult for the military at that time to maintain a large-scale force for a long period of time, it maintained political unity as Christendom, and there were restrictions on military technology. The reason for this is that it was difficult to prolong the operation and increase the scale.The fear of war is rather of the operational forcesLogisticsLocal residents were injured each time because the (supply of supplies) work was absent and soldiers with insufficient discipline looted on the spot to secure their own food.

Late Middle Ages, Spain on the Iberian Peninsula enables pelagic voyagesCarrack shipInvented with Portugal from the beginning of the 15th centuryAge of DiscoveryAnd expanded into Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and South America, but these trading vesselsPirateDeveloped as a warship as a countermeasure,Spanish Empire,Portuguese maritime empireIs formed. In the 1440sbusinessmanReached JapangunTell.

Early modern Europe

1453 years,Ottoman Empire Eastern Roman EmpireDestroy (Greece) and the MediterraneanSea controlWill result in high tariffs on Mediterranean trade. It happened around Italy in 1496Italian warInvolved most European nations and ended in 1557, when Spain and France declared bankruptcy.There were major advances in military technology and tactics in this war[13].

on the other hand,Habsburg house OfHoly Roman EmperorWas in 1477Valois Burgundy family OfThe NetherlandsIn 1516SpainBecame a king, in 1528Utrecht OfCatholic bishopWas confiscated, and in 1531 due to the conflict with the Ottoman Empire and the procurement of war expenses for the Italian War.Duchy of BrabantToAntwerp Stock ExchangeFounded,GalleonThe economy and trade were developed by shipbuilding.European countries follow suitStock exchangeWas established.

In 1534British Church Catholic churchWithdrawal from and the idea of ​​Protestantism began to spread, and from this flowReformationIs progressing, FranceHuguenot WarTo enter the,Holy Roman EmpireThen.Seventeen Provinces of NederlandFlandersBy the Dutch uprisingEighty years warOutbreak, and even moreAnglo-Spanish WarBegins.Habsburg, SpainTakes over Portugal in 1580, but Protestant forces dominateNorthern NetherlandsBecame independent of Habsburg in 1602Amsterdam Stock ExchangeとDutch East India CompanyFoundedColonyEnlarge,Dutch EmpireWill be formed.At the same time(English edition)Also begins.

The Eighty Years War in Europe was in 1648Westphalia ConventionBy the northFederal Republic ofEnded with official independence, but from 1651 it will be the fourthBritish-Ran WarOccurred and continued until 1784.Holy AllianceWith Ottoman TurkeyGreat Turkish WarAlso fight, thenHabsburg EmpireThere was also a war of succession within.Under these circumstancesShip of the lineHas developed.

In parallel with these wars, France and England colonized Asia and the Americas, but in North America from the 16th to the 18th centuries.ColonyOver the construction ofIndian War,French indian war,American Revolutionary WarHas occurred.

War modernization

Imperialismbased onColonyDomination is realized,英国 TheIndustrial revolutionWas realized.TherebyIndustrialDevelopmentwarship,FirearmThe performance of was raised.Military technologyThe development of the war changes the form of war.Gustav VI Adolf (King of Sweden)Is in military reformStanding armyEstablished the system of the war and laid the foundation for the subsequent war.Also to maintain planned logistics and disciplineMilitary educationAround this time, the same system will be adopted in each country.EspeciallyinfantryIs importantrifleWhat has been enhanced by the development of the military is that it requires each member of the military to have perfect formation and discipline.AlsoartilleryWith the advent ofartilleryIt was also during this period that the military department was established, and strategy, tactics, and militarycivil engineeringWe also see great progress in such fields.A very large number of people think that modernity will lead to further expansion of the war.

In the Americas in the first half of the 19th centuryUS-UK war, In the second half of the 19th centuryAmerican ink war,Civil War,US-West War,US-Pacific Warwas there.

Napoleonic War

FranceHappened inFrench Revolution Nation-stateBased on centralizationConscription systemMade it possible to increase the size of the military.AndNapoleon BonaparteSo farstrategy-Strategy-tacticsWorking on reforms to radically rationalizeNational WarThe prototype of the system was prepared.furtherFirearm-artillerySuch asweaponThe development of Napoleon enormously increased the number of victims, and Napoleon operated such a high level of military power to annihilate the war.[Annotation 1]AndNapoleonic WarHas come to dominate most of the European continent.This Napoleonic war guidance has a great influence on the American Civil War and subsequent military research.

World war

World War I,Second World WarThen, the war is not just an armed war, but a new form of war in which the nation mobilizes all its economic and technological powers and consumes a great deal of money over a long period of time.National WarThere has occurred.It is called "total war system" because of the need to maintain that form of war.Wartime regimeWill appear.

In World War I, aiming for a short-term decisive battle with a Napoleonic attack, both sides mobilized a large force of about 200 million, but they could not break through the defense line with trenches and machine guns, prolonging the war It was decided to increase the scale.As a result, the economic and psychological damage caused by such a great war has caused serious social turmoil and political damage to each country.In order not to repeat such a war, it was attempted to curb the war through the League of Nations, but the United States did not participate, and Germany suffered financial damage due to huge compensation.In World War II, large-scale wars were repeated again, and in this war, it developed into a devastating long-term war, and the death toll was twice that of World War I.Also due to the development of aircraftAir operationsIs now being implemented, depending on the aircraftStrategic bombing TheCombatantnot onlyCivilianThere were also many victims, and political or economic turmoil continued for a long time.

Cold war

From the reflection of World WarUnited NationsSuch asInternational organizationDeveloped to curb the war, but with the United StatesSovietRise ofWeapons of mass destructionBy the appearance ofnuclear weapons,missilebyNuclear warCreated the possibility of.Also modernMilitary technologyThe victory or defeat of the modern war is due to the rapid progress of the development ofScience and technologyIt has come to be greatly influenced by the development of.However, at the same time, an "asymmetric war" of revolution or rebellion, which is different from the conventional military operations by the regular army, began to take place.Irregular warWill be called.As a war in which limited and gradual military force is used so as not to develop into a nuclear warLimited war(Korean War,Vietnam War,Soviet invasion of AfghanistanEtc.) have come to be carried out.

After the Cold War

After the Cold WarideologyRather than a conflictPeople-ReligiousDue to the conflict内 戦Has broke out all over the world, and its form is more complex and diversified than the traditional wars of the past (Bosnian conflictSuch).EspeciallyIslamic fundamentalism,nationalismbyterrorism Developed countryA retaliatory war and a civil war against it are occurring (US invasion of Afghanistan,Iraq war,Chechen conflictSuch).

From the two World Wars to the Cold War, the number of wars whose ultimate goal was to occupy territory decreased, and especially after the Cold War, wars and conflicts to make the political and religious systems what one wanted were the mainstream. Is[14].

From 2020 to 2021,IndiaとPeople's Republic of ChinaSoldiers from both countries fell into battle near the Himalayan border, but both countries with nuclear weapons dared to prevent the battle from developing to war level.firearmWithout usingKugiIt was decided to attack with a stick or bare hand.It was not a calm one with dozens of deaths, but it suggested a new form of war and deterrence.[15].

2022/XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,RussiabyUkraine invasionWas held, and full-scale with the aim of expanding Russia's territoryAggression warBroke out.20st centuryWoke up twiceWorld warBased on the reflection ofInternational cooperationWas in progress21st centuryIt was a rare form of war in Japan, and it was a situation that greatly shaken the order of the international community.[16].Social MediaWith the advent of the timesSocial MediaButreal timeThe war situation has come to be reported in[17].

Sort

Regarding the types of war, the timestactics-strategyIt is difficult to make a definitive statement because it is diversifying with the change of the above and various viewpoints can be obtained depending on the viewpoint of observation.

Classification by scale

  • Total warAndCountryIt is a form of war in which all human and physical resources are invested in strengthening the military power ofSecond World WarIs a typical example of this.Also called a full-scale war.
  • Limited warAnd avoid a total war外交It is a form of war that achieves political objectives by using means and limited military power.Also known as local war or restricted war.

Classification by period

  • A long-term war is a war that takes place over a long period of time.In many cases, both are strategically defensive or one is defensive, and tactically, they are often in position defense or retreat.In historyWorld War I,Sino-Japanese warWas a typical long-term battle.
  • A short-term war is a war that takes place over a short period of time.In many cases, both are strategically on the offensive, and tactically, they are on the offensive.It hasn't actually happened,Nuclear warIt is thought that if the outbreak occurs, it will be a short-term battle.

Classification by tactics

  • ExterminationA war is a way of fighting for the complete destruction of enemy forces in a short period of time, or that battle, and unless nuclear weapons are used, this applies only to local battles and refers to the entire war. Cannot be strictly.
  • Attrition warfare is a battle method or battle that aims to gradually reduce the enemy's strength over a long period of time.In actual warfare, it is often an attrition warfare due to delay operations.

Classification by normality

  • Regular battleIs a traditional form of war between nations, a form of war that is especially common in modern times.Develop the troops in battleattackとdefenseThe competition is for victory or defeat, and World War I and World War II are typical examples.However, this form of war is modernFalkland conflictThere are very few forms of war in which nations collide directly with each other.
  • Unconventional warfareIs not a traditional war between nations, but non-state insurgents and nations軍隊It is a battle that takes place under the asymmetrical composition, and this form of war has been increasing in recent years.mainlyterrorism,Guerrilla warfareIt can be said that it is characterized by the fact that it tends to be developed and prolong.Vietnam War,Chechen conflict,Afghanistan Conflict (2001-)Is given as an example.
  • By both sidesDeclaration of warDeveloped into a large-scale battle without a breakthroughManchurian Incident,Sino-Japanese war(At that time, it was called "China Incident") is delicate in which category.

Classification by strength

  • High-intensity conflict or war is the use of military force between nations and is a traditional form of war.
  • Medium-intensity conflict orConflictRefers to armed clashes between armed groups or relatively small-scale armed clashes between nations.International lawIn the strict sense ofCountryIt is a more comprehensive concept than a war in which is the subject.AlsoU.S. ArmyIs perceived as an intermediate stage between a full-scale war and a turmoil in peacetime.Civil war is often classified as a proxy war, unless it becomes a proxy war.
    • 内 戦Is a form of war in which powers fight within a country.Anti-government movements and independence movements,反 ä¹±The people take active and systematic operations against government forces.French Revolution,National war,Zulu WarAnd so on.Although rarely scaled up, most modern wars are in the form of civil war.
  • Low intensity conflictRefers to the process from domestic turmoil to medium-intensity conflict.OrganizationalterrorismAnd plot battles, rebellions,Fear politicsAnd so on.
    • Fear politicsIs a politics that actively uses the force of the state against the people, and if the rebel armed forces are not organized,Civil strifeVery similar to the morphology of.In general, the people do not want the war itself, and their systematic operations are limited.Since modern times, the institutional and legal centralization of the state has progressed rapidly, and the reign of terror has become even more sophisticated.In reign of terror, governments carry out far more slaughterful attacks than in normal warfare.Stalin,Chinese Communist PartyEtc. are considered to be representatives of the reign of terror.

Classification by means

Classification by purpose

  • Aggression warIs a war that invades the territory of the enemy, actively seeks the enemy, attacks it, and occupies the acquired city or territory.Tactically mobileattackAnd the regions and bases that have acquired thisoccupationTo do.
  • Is a war that uses a defensive operation method to crush the invading enemies and protect their territory and property.Various tacticsdefenseAnd eliminate the advancing enemies.
  • Religious warIs a war mainly by religious (ideal) organizations.Enthusiastic believers often have confident motives that may not be possible through political diplomatic negotiations.Also, if the idea of ​​martyrdom is widespread among combatants, it tends to be more aggressive and warlike, and there is a risk that attacks on hostile forces will lead to indiscriminate terrorism.

 *Self-defense war""Preventive war""Sanction warHowever, there is a lot of room for the subjectivity of the parties involved, and the classification tends to lack objectivity.

  • A hegemony war is a war that occurs by trying to take hegemony against a hegemonic nation that controls the hegemony of the world.[18]Since hegemony wars are often fought between large powers, the scale of the war tends to be large.Currently, a war of hegemony in Central America is underway, but both are nuclear-armed and it is known that the use of force will not cause much damage, so an economic war is occurring.

Classification by history

FrenchHistoryA person(French version)According to, wars are categorized as follows from a historical point of view.

(I.e.DawnWar of the period

The nature of war

To consider the question of what a war is, not how to win it, we will clarify what the internal structure of the war is and what principles are accepted. It is necessary.A philosopher in ancient war-like discoursePlatoof"Country』, And in it the philosopherSocratesEnvisions a self-sufficient nation composed of craftsmen and experts from various fields, but even if the nation is established, human needs will continue to expand endlessly, so we seek more resources than we can self-sufficient. He argues that a war will occur against other communities.This is the root of the warCountryIn fact, the nation was the main actor in the war in military history.But this only reveals the limited nature of the war.

Struggle

Why humans were before the war was established in the first placeConflictThere is a question of whether to do it.SociologistWeberAccording to "The Fundamental Concept of Sociology", a social relationship directed by one subject's intention to achieve his or her own will even if the resistance of the other is eliminated.StruggleIs defined as.In addition, this struggle can be classified into a struggle based on physical violence and a peaceful struggle that limits the means of struggle to nonviolent ones.Political thinkers on the fundamental reasons why such struggles occur in societyHobbsIsLeviathanThere is no nation or political organization inState of natureIs assumed.In other words, in order for each individual to acquire living resources equally according to the law of self-preservation and to prevent enemy attacks, a struggle against all people will result.Violence is not always used in struggles.It is not impossible in principle to resolve the issue through negotiations and cooperation without eradicating the other party by violence.But an economistMalthusBut"Population theoryAs stated in the above, the struggle is bloody because the population is constantly increasing beyond the amount of living means, and the emergence of the overpopulation is adjusted by active restrictions such as plague, hunger, and war. Will develop to.Because survival threats are always extreme situations for humans and can be a significant motive for violent struggle for society as a whole.

violence

violenceCan be limited to the power to forcibly work on others among the physical and mental powers of all individuals.This is a political thinkerArendtViolence does not have to be exercised through interaction with others, and its function is to kill them.However, studies discussing violence in war have argued that some kind of interaction occurs through violence.Military scholars in classical writing in this areaClausewitzof"War theory』There is.What should be noted as the most important factor that characterizes warviolenceIs.According to Clausewitz, violence brings about three types of interactions: the first interaction that expands hostile emotions and hostile intentions with each other, the second interaction that seeks to destroy the opponent, and combat. It is the third interaction that attempts to antagonize the means with the enemy.Given these interactions, there is a theoretical necessity for violence in war to spread indefinitely.In other words, assuming a war between groups, it will continue to attack the other party while continuing to expand the means of violence with each other according to the nature of violence, and will continue to increase hostility for that purpose.Clausewitz has such an ideal type of warAbsolute warI called it.But at the same time, this form of war does not appear in real warfare.The reason for this is the point of view for political purposes, which has been raised alongside the absolute war.In other words, as a means of curbing unlimited violence in warPoliticsIt is said that the constraints are in effect and define the nature of the war.Clausewitz's proposition, which simply expresses this, is that "war is an extension of politics by other means."

Politics

Clausewitz's view that war is not just a violent struggle, but that it is essentially politically linked is a political scientist.SchmidtWas developed more ideologically by.Schmidt argues that in developing his own theory of friendship, political concepts always have a struggle and are inevitably divided into enemies and allies.Such a political viewMachiavelliPolitical thoughtMarxIt is also recognized in the class struggle of.According to Schmidt, the dichotomy between the enemy and the ally inherent in politics can be deepened by paying more attention to the details of the concept of the enemy.Schmidt said,Partisan's theory』Introduces three types of enemies, that is, conventional enemies with traditional and formal qualities, real enemies with practical qualities, and absolute enemies with the character of criminals. ..Traditional enemies are enemies in wars between nations based on humanitarian rules, real enemies are threats to their existence, and absolute enemies are civilizations, classes, and races. It is an enemy that is differentiated as a criminal against.Depending on the characteristics of the opponent in the war, the political purpose is to limit the military means to impose slight sanctions on the opponent, or to radically eliminate the existence of the opponent. It also makes it possible to expand.The importance of politics to war is universal, and the scale, duration, order, and impact of war are thought to depend on the political situation and function.

Composition of war

Activities in war are highly complex and can be quantitatively classified as follows.

  1. War
  2. Battle (campaign)
  3. Combat (battle, combat)
  4. Engagement
  5. Action
  6. Duel

Multiple "duel" battles in units of soldiers are gathered to form a "battle", and a battle is composed of multiple battles.[19]..However, it is not possible to distinguish the whole picture of the war by the activities of individual soldiers, the activities of divisions, the activities of nations, and so on.If the unit of engagement is a ship or an aircraft, the division between battle and duel disappears, and the situation is more complicated in a war that does not lead to total war.

War with many killed in action

War dead
(Unit: million people)
YearsWar name
60.7~84.61939-1945Second World War (Victims of World War II)[20][21]
6013st centuryConquest of Mongolia (Mongol invasions と Tatar invasions)[22][23][24]
401850-1864Taiping Heaven Rebellion (Dungan Revolt)[25]
391914-1918World War I(Victims of World War I)[26]
36755-763Anshi no Ran(Uncertain)[27]
251616-1662clear,LightConquest of[28]
201937-1945Sino-Japanese war[29]
201370-1405TimurConquest of[30][31]
161862-1877Dungan Revolt[Source required]
5 – 9 Feet1917-1922Russian Civil War と Foreign Intervention[32]

Cause of war

War is caused by conflict in human society, somethingwillAnd with a reason.But of the warCauseThe general theory about is not yet completed.There are various factors, incentives, and factors in the process of its occurrence.EnvironmentIs organically derived, anarchy, balance of power, offensive / defensive balance, militantideology,nationalism, Many theories such as misunderstandings have been proposed.Here we describe some academic considerations or theories that are believed to be the cause of the war. (War philosophySee also)

International politics

International politicsOkay.International communityThe reason for the war in Japan is that international politicsAnarchyFirst of all, it is (anarchy).In other words, unlike domestic politics, international politics does not have a centralized system like the central government, and peaceful resolution of conflicts cannot be enforced.Therefore, each country is forced to make self-help efforts.Secondly情报There is imperfections in.This means that the information needed to avoid war is not always available, often for military intelligence, for example.Military secretThe achievement of the agreement cannot be confirmed because it is concealed by, and suspicion may arise here.And the third cause is the relationship between domestic politics and international politics.

Historical statistics

If you examine a war in military history and statistically focus on the direct factors that initiate the war, you will get a rough idea of ​​long-term dissatisfaction, domestic turmoil, military superiority, military inferiority, and more. It is said that it can be classified into one[33].

  • What is long-term dissatisfaction?territoryproblem,国境Problem, localindependentRefers to long-term chronic dissatisfaction such as demand.As an example of thisRusso-Japanese War,Palestinian problem,Middle East WarAnd so on.
  • Domestic turmoil refers to situations that cannot be collected due to conflicts between various ethnic groups within the country, anti-government movements, and so on.As an example of thisFrench Revolution,Rwandan Civil WarAnd so on.
  • Military dominance means recognizing that military power is very superior and thinking that the war can be easily resolved.政府,public opinionFor the sake of this, that recognition may be a factor in determining the start of the war, but if the recognition of its superiority is unrealistic because it does not actually grasp the military power, it will produce the expected results even if the war starts. There is a high possibility that the war will be prolonged and worsened.As an example of thisWinter war,German-Soviet battle,Korean War,Iran-Iraq WarIs mentioned.
  • Military inferiority is to recognize that military power is very inferior and to consider that first strike is the only remaining means.This perception can overwhelm the government and the people with fear and impatience, forgetting military superiority and prospects for war, and deciding to start the war.As an example of thisSlave rebellion,Indian War,Pacific WarAnd so on.

Power distribution

There is a "unipolar peace theory" that stabilizes the international order by using its unified influence due to the existence of a world-class power.In such an international system, there is no rebellious force in the first place, so the possibility of a war can be greatly reduced.Overwhelming rebels also eliminates the need for hegemonic nations to use military force to achieve their political objectives.However, in this case, there is a risk that the client states will form long-term dissatisfaction with the hegemonic nation.Talked in pacifismWorld FederationIt can be said that the government concept and the United Nations standing army concept were aimed at the theory of unipolar peace in the entire world, and are currentlyPax AmericanaIs not perfect, but it has a form close to a unipolar force structure.JapaneseEdo PeriodAnd during the unified dynasty of China, while the United States devoted itself to eradicating Native Americans in the New WorldAmerican ink war,Civil Warwas thereIsolationism(Monroism) Peace is generally maintained in the times, and it is regarded as an example of supporting the theory of unipolar peace in the region.

There is also a discussion of "bipolar peace theory," which states that war is unlikely to occur when two major powers with balanced powers compete with each other.This theory focuses on the fact that war breaks out due to misunderstandings and miscalculations due to uncertainty, and discusses the possibility of stable equilibrium because if it is bipolar, it will be possible to respond more accurately to each other's movements. ing.The US-Soviet Cold War era is an easy-to-understand example of the distribution of bipolar forces, and in reality, the arms race between the two sidesVietnam WarProxy wars such as the Korean War and the Korean War did not occur, but the US-Soviet war did not occur due to the balance of fear.

There is also a "multipolar peace theory" that war is unlikely to occur when there are multiple major powers.He argues that it will be easier for multiple nations to form alliances and spheres of influence more flexibly and appropriately, making it difficult for conflicts to become rigid and maintaining a balance of power.As an example of reality, there is a time when the United States, Britain, Germany, France, the Soviet Union (Russia), Italy, and Japan reigned as powers in the world before the war.Second World WarpreviousEurope,ChugokuIn the Three Kingdoms eraJapanDuring the Warring States period, there were multiple powers in the region.

However, it is generally believed that no power distribution is historically the best combination for minimizing the frequency and scale of war.[34](Balance of powerSee).The aim of the Charter of the United Nations is the theory of unipolar peace by the UN standing army, and the idea is to aim for peace while preventing the hegemony from being overwhelmed by making one pole the joint force of the UN member states instead of the hegemonic state's exclusive armed force.

Geopolitical and security factors

  • Befriend a distant attack: It has been practiced for more than 2000 years to ally with distant countries that do not have borders and have no territorial disputes, and to militarily oppress neighboring countries that border on borders to resolve territorial disputes in an advantageous manner.
  • Cooperation: If the composition is a powerful country and multiple weak countries, the weak countries will be defeated individually, so it is better to form a small country alliance (coalition) and defend yourself from the powerful countries.The powerful side uses the "fire psychology of the opposite bank" of the small country to form an alliance with BCD excluding A (coalition) and swallow A, then form an alliance with CD and invade B, and form a joint alliance. It is rational to destroy and destroy each one, and it is still used today.
  • Consolidation by Isolation: Direct use of military force is also damaging to large powers, so pressure third countries not to form an alliance with the target country, isolate the target, and then weapons to the target.・ By exerting pressure not to assist supplies and forcing them to disarm, and at the same time making the subject to be consolidated economically dependent, the intention of resistance will be discouraged, and they will be concomitant only by the threat of military force and economic sanctions.
  • Emerging hegemons have often seen a tendency in history to seek to consolidate their surroundings with satellite states for their own security.
  • When there is an old power (or satellite state) on the emerging power side across the natural border, the emerging power side often tries to seize it and place the power boundary on the natural border, causing war. It has become.

Nationalist / ethnic factors

  • There is often an opinion that "war does not occur because war does not make a profit in modern times", but in reality, it is not always the majority that the war was fought with "profit".There is also an opinion that "there is no war, considering the sanctions of the international community," but there are some nations that are striving to develop nuclear missiles despite the sanctions of the international community and the starvation of the people.Especially after the modern era, there is a need to mobilize the masses, and in many cases the purpose of war is to appeal to nationalism.For example, if Japan was divided into northern and southern Japan,PeopleThe desire for unification has nothing to do with financial gain, and it is not unnatural for some people to pursue unification without worrying about international sanctions.Not only do people who don't want to die because of their recapture, but also people who want to recapture even small islands, because of nationalism rather than financial gain.The reason why China and North Korea seek unification and the reluctance to merge Taiwan and South Korea are largely due to nationalism, and the Cold War in the Far East continues even after the collapse of the Soviet Union, causing disarmament negotiations to be difficult. ing.
  • On the other hand,Balkan PeninsulaSince it is difficult to draw borders in mixed ethnic areas such as these, it is a cause of frequent wars and ethnic minority slaughter.
  • In addition, the nationalism of the ethnic minorities of the land to be annexed is fueled, and the method of once separating and becoming a protectorate is also such as Panama independence (US becomes protectorate) and East Timor independence (Australia becomes protectorate). Scattered in history.
  • In addition, economic difficulties and an increase in the number of poor people increase the “sense of blockage”, and nationalism is likely to spread.People possessed by nationalism are more likely to run hard on the outside world, and there are many cases in which politicians run hard on the outside with the support of such people.Reverence,Nazi,Liberal Democratic Party of Russia(Neo Nazi) Can be seen.

Dynamic theory

Until then in the 1970sBalance of powerA shift from the theoretical understanding of the static international situation, the components of the world orderNational powerA dynamic theory has emerged that considers such things to be variable.For exampleImmanuel WallersteinIs from the 16th century onwards資本主義The development of the world created a gap between strong and weak nations in the world, and macroscopically formed the core, quasi-periphery, and peripheral world systems.Furthermore, in the core, it is recognized that there are two types of superiority in the era, long-term superiority and medium-term superiority, and in the long-term superiority, the expansion of productivityproletariatFollowing the political movement ofWelfare stateAndSocialismIn the medium-term dominance, the contradiction of capitalism will surface, economic growth will stagnate, the depression, etc., followed by technology transfer to quasi-neighboring countries and a decline in relative superiority. It is said.Also in 1987George modelskiThe 100-year cycle theory was proposed, focusing on the fact that large-scale wars occur approximately every 100-year cycle.This is of any orderEntropyReasons include the decline of the world and the urge to form an international order.[35].

International economic trends

EconomyAnd the crisis of war has completely opposite perspectives.First of allInternational economyThe idea is that if the stagnation and retreat, the crisis of war will increase.Economic growthrecession,panicIf it worsens due to such factors, the interests surrounding the reduced profits will worsen in the domestic and international economies, which will increase the crisis of war.AlsoMilitary expenditureBy expansion ofMarketTocapitalThis is because it is possible that the arms race will intensify in order to promote economic growth.

On the other hand, there is also the idea that the crisis of war will increase during the growth period because the war cannot occur unless the economy grows smoothly, paying attention to the enormous cost of the war.Aiming for economic growthresourceAnd as the need for strategic key points increases, competition is likely to intensify.In addition, economic growth makes it possible to increase military spending, an arms race occurs, and expansionism is used to maintain economic growth.public opinion,社会TypicalpsychologicalIs thought to be formed[36].

However, regarding the relationship between the economy and war, it is not possible to conclude completely because the data and indicators are asymmetrical and research is underway.[37].

Game theory

Math OfGame theoryInPrisoner's dilemmaSituation andChicken gameThe theory of the situation is regarded as a model of war.

Prisoner's dilemmaAccording to the report, for example, it is the most peaceful and safe for both parties to restrain their possession of nuclear weapons, but the psychology of suspicion works and both want to gain their own security and control of the other country by possessing nuclear weapons.However, if only one country controls itself and the other country possesses nuclear weapons, it will choose to be at a disadvantage.However, possession of nuclear weapons in both countries maximizes the risk of a nuclear war.

Chicken gameAccording to, for example, both countriesProfitIt is the most peaceful and safest if we completely abandon our pursuit of, and we can secure dichotomized profits and security by fulfilling the compromises we have agreed upon.On the other hand, if the partner country expects to make concessions until just before the collision and implements hard-line measures and succeeds, more than half of the profits can be secured, but if it fails, a war will break out.[38].

The complexity of the causes of war

However, the larger the war, the more various factors other than the above factors.Militaryof,PoliticsNot just the factorsLawof,Economyof,社会of,Collective psychologyof,CulturalIt is a multi-layered event that occurs in a more highly complex relationship with external and internal structures and incentives, and it is extremely difficult to seek the root cause only from the personality of an individual or the internal circumstances of a country. Can be pointed out as an unrealistic, unhistorical idea[Annotation 2].

HistoryLearn from, relate domestic circumstances to foreign environment, personal感情,WillHistoricalcertaintyThe cause of the war should be sought.ButterfieldIn his Criticism of Wig History, "The lesson of history is that human change is so complex that the end result of human actions and decisions is by no means predictable in nature. The lessons of can only be learned in the study of details and are lost in the simplification of history. The simplification of history is historical.truthThat is why it is often attempted for the opposite promotion. "[40]The idea that war in essence, especially the war caused by the complex development of international politics in modern times, was caused by a single incentive is a very sideways idea.[Annotation 3].

Aggression and defense

Military scienceIn, war is considered to occur when the two actions of aggression and defense collide with each other, looking at the differences in their operational strategies.FirstInvasionThere is also a legal definition of, but the military definition is that military force is preemptively used by foreign or internal enemies, and invasion,attackAn offensive operation such as (attack) is to be carried out.[Annotation 4].. On the other handdefenseIn a narrow sense, military force is used to react to the aggression and eliminate it,defense,RecessionIt is the execution of defensive operations such as, and in a broad sense, it also includes deterrence activities.

Invasion

InvasionFrom that meansDirect invasionとIndirect aggressionare categorized.Direct aggression is a traditional aggression method in which foreign countries use military force, and indirect aggression is after inviting and instructing rebels in the defending nation.反 乱,revolutionIt is an aggression method that indirectly exercises military power.The actual aggression may be when these two types of means are used at the same time, or when they are used at different times.Also, if the enemy is an internal enemy, this can also be considered separately.Internal enemies are enemies that are mainly domestic forces and use force for the purpose of overthrowing the government or destroying the national polity.The invasion of internal enemies temporarily escapes to foreign countries and invades from the outside, and guerrilla warfare and rebellion inside.Coup d'etatThere is a method of internal aggression that does such things.Internal and external enemies have the same military purpose, so they are easy to collude.

defense

defense TheSecurityFrom formCollective securityAnd individualSecurityIt is roughly divided into.Collective security is to ensure security by assisting defending nations by sanctioning the invading nations when the nations within the group invade.Individual security is the security of a defending country on its own or with the assistance of its allies.Individual security is further independent defense (self-defense),alliance, Collective defense,NeutralThere is a form of.Collective defense also has an aspect of collective security because it has only a defensive character.The alliance can be invasive or defensive from its operational objectives.Self-defense is divided into forward defense, border defense, and land defense according to the position of the line of defense.Forward defense is a defense method that eliminates enemies invading in remote areas rather than borders.High seasOften done above.Border defense国境It is a defense method that prepares military power in Japan, waits for invading enemies, and eliminates them, and often fortifies the border line.National land defense is a defense method that eliminates enemies that break through national borders and invade the land.However, in general, in military art, it is desirable that the invading side has three times the strength of the defending force, so unless it is a war between a small country and a large country, it is unlikely that it will be completely invaded.

Process of war

The war does not last forever and will converge after a certain stage (however,Guerrilla warfareOr intermittentterrorismAttacks are essentially different in nature from war because they do not have to maintain the front line).Replenishment of troops and munitions, etc.LogisticsThis is because it is impossible for any nation or power to continue a fierce battle for a long period of time due to its capacity limit.The process of its development seems chaotic, but it is believed that there are some stages.[42].

Peacetime

A stable order is maintained, and each country (some countries have domestic instability even in normal times) is basically living in peace.The crisis of war is not recognized and is not prepared.

  • Military exchanges such as mutual visits of fleets and units, support for national events such as Independence Day, etc.
  • Disaster relief, medical support, surveying activity support, survey activity support, etc.
  • Joint with allies and friendsMilitary trainingPromotion of relationships by such as.
  • arms-weaponSale, dispatch of instructors, exchange of international students, etc. to promote friendly relations and sphere of influence.

crisis

Incidents and problems that can trigger the outbreak of war occur and surface, and the situation rapidly becomes tense.If you are surprised, you may not go through this stage.At this point, it ’s still not possible to prevent war.外交It is thought that this is possible, but from the end of destabilization to the quasi-war periodDiplomatic negotiationsIs often very urgent.

During the quasi-war

The crisis of war rises, and things quickly become tense and out of control.As a nationWartime regimeIs laid,軍隊Was mobilized,Diplomatic negotiationsBecomes desperate (Ultimatum,Declaration of warSee).At this stage, it will be extremely difficult to try to get things done.At this point it is too late to try to stop the outbreak of war.

  • Distribution system, controlled economy, etc.Wartime regimePreparation of.
  • Reserve roleMobilization andCivil defenseTransition to a preparatory position.
  • Diplomatic ties and diplomatic missions summoned.
  • SaboteursspyInfiltration, plotting activities.
  • Blockade of land, sea and air traffic routes that are important for the target country.
  • Ships heading to the target country, etc.Visit, Detention,Capture.
  • Blockade of major transportation routes in the target country, freezing of accounts, etc.金融Sanctions etc.Economic sanctions.
  • Engagement area setting.

War time

Announce the start of the warDeclaration of warIs done (this is traditionalInternational lawIt is an act based on, and it may not be done in modern times),軍隊Deploys on the battlefield and with enemy forcescombatto go into.AlsoWartime regimeEverything based onEconomy,情报Disclosure and life are controlled from military needs.At this stage, attention should be paid to how the war can be settled in an advantageous manner, taking into consideration whether the course of the war is proceeding as originally planned.

  • Wartime regimeImplementation andReserve role-Civil defenseTotal mobilization.
  • Information controlspyDetection, promotion measures of the partner country, etc.Anti-theftPolicy development.
  • Against the partner countrypublic opinionDevelopment of public relations policy for the purpose of guidance.
  • spy・ Development of acquisition work for sympathizers and cooperators.
  • terrorist,revolutionary, Collaborators, sabotage agents, etc. (Most of them are based only on the judgment of the government, and in some cases it was later found to be false accusations or self-performing by a government special agency).
  • For military facilities, ships, etc. in limited areas (sea areas)attack,occupation.
  • Attack and occupation of military facilities and ships outside the limited area.
  • Attack and occupation of military facilities.
  • weapon,arms Of生産Attack and occupation of the industrial area that is the facility.
  • capital, Governing bodies, attacks on political and economic centers such as major cities, occupation.

Termination

If one side wins an overwhelming victory, or if the war situation does not improve for both sides and becomes stagnant, the war will end if the two opposing countries decide to make a peace.It is concluded at this timePeace treatyIs called (Armistice agreement ThecombatIt is a temporary interruption of the war, not the end of the war).But what is peace negotiations?DiplomatIt is one of the most difficult diplomatic negotiations for us, and the negotiation process can be fraught with dissatisfaction and problems.

  • combatStrategyLong-term stagnation.
  • Of war外交Occurrence of target and domestic affairs.
  • Stop aggressive combat action (Ceasefire).
  • Start of peace negotiations and conclude an armistice agreement to temporarily suspend the war.
  • Concluding a peace treaty that stipulates the status of both sides after the war and ratification by parliament.
  • Of the defeated government organizationexile.

After the war

Even if the war ends, if the settlement creates new problems and dissatisfaction, it will bring about a new war.外交If the solution becomes impossible, the warMilitary powerYou can deprive the other party of your own interests.However, what is lost in the process is human life,EconomyNot only the foundation and safety of life, but also international credibility depending on the outcome政府, National sovereignty may be deprived.In modern times, defeat does not eliminate the people.

Sovereign state systemInVassal state(Vassal State, Fuyokoku),Dependent country(Juzokukoku) (British: vassal state) IsSovereign countryRefers to a nation whose domestic affairs and diplomacy are restricted by the domestic law of the suzerain.[43].

sovereigntyBecause it has only imperfections, together with the protectorateSemi-sovereign country(British: semisovereign state),Dependent country(British: dependent state)[44]Also called.

Puppet government(Kairaiseiken,English: puppet government) Is to govern a certain areaadministrationHowever, although it is nominally independent, it is actually the de facto ruler of an external government.CountryRefers to a government that is managed, controlled, and commanded by[45][46].

Various aspects of the war

Used force in the warcombatFromIntelligence-Intelligence activities,transport,外交Conflicts arise in a wide variety of fields, including negotiations.In English, these various aspects of struggle warfare Called.Here we describe the struggles in various areas that can occur with the war.[47].

Political warfare

Political warfare is a phase of political struggle in war.There are five main actors in political warfare: our government and the people, the enemy's government and the people, and the international community. Political warfare against enemy people is called indirect party political warfare, and political warfare against own people and inside the government is called domestic political warfare.The results of the war contribute to the political war as political power or influence through diplomatic negotiations.

Armed warfare

Armed warfare is the most intense phase of struggle in war, mainly in combat.For the purpose of controlling the territory controlled by the opposing forces, neutralizing the enemy forces, and destroying them.StrategyAnd use force to eliminate hostile forces.In this process, killing and sabotage are carried out and damage occurs.In order to carry out the battle, not only the physical strength and skill of the soldiers, but alsotactics,arms,ExplosiveKnowledge of,weaponOperational skills, tactical intelligence, teamwork,Military leadership, And in the rear, the strategystrategy,battlefieldMedical,weaponComprehensive development etc.Country,組織,IndividualIt is a difficult activity that requires the ability of. (combat(See)

Information warfare

Information warfareIs a struggle to gain information dominance in war.mainlyIntelligence-Intelligence activitiesMade by each otherMilitaryTypical情报Not onlyEconomyof,PoliticsLegally to get information about the situationDiplomatAnd liaison officers, and develop various activities to acquire cooperators in the partner country.at the same timeAnti-theftAs the partner countryspyA domestic investigation was also conducted to detect the enemy.Information activityInterfere with.

Supplying War

Supplying War TheLogistics support or LogisticsIt is a struggle over, especially the phase of the struggle that occurs when supplying and transporting.If there is no supplement of troops and supplies, the front line unit willCombat PowerIs unsustainable, and the damage caused by non-combat damage is sometimes much higher than that caused by combat, so supplies must be constantly transported even during periods of inactive combat.In other words, if you do not constantly send consumables to the battlefield, your fighting power will decline, so ensuring that you carry out transportation operations is an operation that determines the outcome of the front line.The economic, military, and clerical efforts required to properly carry out this transport operation are enormous.Also the partner countryAviation arrest, Sabotage, attacks on the rear area, etc. interfere with this transport operation, and the commander of the transport unit may have to counter this by means of forced transport or forced supply.In other words, in the war, how to carry out efficient transportation operations, procure the right amount of supplies, transport them to the right place, and distribute them properly.LogisticsYou will always face the above difficulties.

Diplomatic negotiations

Diplomatic negotiationsMay or may not take place during the war, but it is an absolutely inevitable battle to bring the war to an end.Practical negotiations to coordinate interests between governments are necessary for peace and truce, and both sides are involved in the process.National interestNegotiations are bargained to maximize.Also to build alliances and various support外交Has a great influence on the whereabouts of the war. (Diplomatic negotiations(See)

Electronic warfare

Electronic warfareIs used in communication equipment, etc.Electromagnetic waveIt is a battle over.Even in peacetime, electronic warfare such as interception and analysis of radio waves for the purpose of collecting information is carried out, but in wartimeCommandOrganization, communication base,SAM[Avoid ambiguity] More aggressive to the systemECMIs carried out.In modern warfare, many of the very important means of communication use electromagnetic waves, and the means of communication areCommandCommandSince it is the cornerstone of the above, its importance is great.Russo-Japanese WarSince then, all over the world軍隊Has come to have a unit corresponding to electronic warfare.

Plot battle

A plot is an activity that interferes with the war guidance of an enemy country and is generally carried out in secret.Indirectly there are political, diplomatic, economic and psychological sabotage, and directly there is military sabotage.Sabotage uses explosives for important bases such as transportation bases, government agencies, production facilities, embankments, and border lines.arsonAnd activities such as blasting.Often in an enemy countrySpecial Forces,spyIs sent and executed, but it is difficult to invalidate because it is done secretly and quickly.For the purpose of neutralizing the fighting power of enemy unitscombatThe personality is different fromCounterinsurgencyAnd anti-terrorism operations.

Psychological warfare

Psychological warfareIstv set,News (Chinese)Public relations activities using, etc.Political party,thoughtPolitical activities of groups,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularEducationSystematically utilize information by such meanspeopleAnd organizationthoughtIt is a general term for various activities that induce ideas and ideas and indirectly work to move in their own favor, and activities that counter similar means of the enemy.When the war begins, both countries will claim their legitimacy and try to gain support.It is also possible to support anti-government activities in favor of the other country's people, and to limit the actions of the administration by promoting the inhumanity of the other country.This is a pairGuerrillaStrategy and vs.terrorismIt is carried out in various situations such as operations and overthrow of the government (Psychological warfareSee).

Arms race

Arms raceRefers to the quantitative expansion of armaments and the competition for the development of military technology.To win in modern warfare, not only troops and strategies, but also excellentweaponIs indispensable.Therefore, it is important to have more weapons superior to those of enemy and opponent countries, and their development and production are actively carried out not only during the war but also during peacetime.

For example, east and westCold WarAlthough there was no direct confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union,nuclear weapons,tankThere was fierce development competition such as (for nuclear weapons, the reality is that the balance of nuclear forces was maintained by the development competition.Nuclear warThere is also a view that this did not happen),Proxy warWas also a test site for those weapons.Also sent humanity to space and the moonSpace development competitionAlso,rocketTechnology carries strategic nuclear weaponsIntercontinental ballistic missileSuch asmissileBeing directly connected to technology was a major driving force.

War in international law

About warInternational lawThere are two main systems in."Jus ad bellum" that stipulates whether the use of military force is legal Yus ad Bellum) ”And“ Jus ad bello ”, which regulates various acts in war. Yus ad Bello).The former isUnited Nations CharterIs basically the basis, and the latter is "Wartime international lawAlso called "Armed Conflict Law" and "International Humanitarian Law", the treaty that is the main basis for itGeneva Conventionand so on.TypicallyWar crimesThe act called is an act that violates the law of war. (Far East International Military TrialInClass A war criminalIs irrelevant to this law of war) Also, the law of war may be classified into land warfare law, naval warfare law, and air warfare law according to the area of ​​operation.[48].

Declaration of war

In traditional international law, war isCountryHowever, in modern international law, the war itself is prohibited due to the prohibition of the use of force.Specifically, the 1928 Paris Kellogg-Brian Treaty (Kellogg-Brian Treaty) And 1945United Nations CharterAccording to Article 2, the use of force was outlawed.However, because the Paris Kellogg-Brian Treaty did not include a substantial dispute resolution function.Second World WarOutbreak, which led to the re-establishment of the Charter of the United Nations.The Charter of the United Nations also stipulates that the collective security system may take military measures in the event of illegal acts that destroy the peace and security of the international community.Also, UN member states are individual,Right of collective self-defenseIs allowed to exercise.In other words, the principles of modern warfare are as follows.

  1. In the case of national self-defense (Article 51).
  2. Compulsory Action Against "Threats to Peace and Order in the International Community" Certified by the Security Council (Chapter XNUMX)
  3. Compulsory actions in regional arrangements and regional security frameworks (Chapter XNUMX).

Wartime international law

Unlimited violence is used by warring states in war, but modern law of war has the principles of "military need" and "humanity."Military need is a principle that justifies actions that are essential to the execution of various military operations, while humanity is military such as minimal loss of life, unnecessary destruction, attacks on civilians, and excessive suffering. It is a principle that prohibits inappropriate behavior for operations.In addition, the law of war stipulates attack targets, combat methods, non-combatant responses, relationships with neutral nations, etc., and stipulates the combat behavior of commanders and units of each level of the armed forces.Violations of this law of war can be punished by being criticized by the international community and by being charged with war crimes.Wartime international lawSee).

Figurative usage

The sharing of goods and services, the battle for hegemony, etc. are sometimes called "○○ war" by comparing it to a real war (Video war,Browser wars,HY warSuch).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ A strategy that completely destroys the enemy and completely destroys the resistance of the enemy country.
  2. ^ Basil Riddell-HeartIn "Thoghts on War", he thinks that the cause of war is psychological in the end, and if he does not understand war using all senses (perception in all directions), the prospect of preventing war. Argued that he could not have[39].
  3. ^ War philosophyAs a premise of, the etiology of war is based on the nature of the observer's philosophical, political, historical, and legal positions.biasIt is greatly involved in such things.For example, when considering the etiology of war from the standpoint of determinism, it means that human beings cannot be essentially responsible for the war because all factors determine the occurrence of the war, and the cause was caused. It becomes those elements.
  4. ^ The conditions for recognizing aggression in international politics are firstly the use of force, secondly the first strike, and thirdly the intention to achieve the purpose by force, and there is no reason for exemption such as self-defense or sanctions. It has a value-neutral definition.However, the fact that "will" is mentioned as a condition of aggression shows the legal nature of this definition, and it can be pointed out that a certain sense of value exists.Therefore, aggression is considered to be a preemptive use of force as a factual military act.[41].

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  27. ^ "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century”. Users.erols.com. 2011/1/24Browse.
  28. ^ McFarlane, Alan: The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap, Blackwell 2003,0-631-18117-2,978-0-631-18117-0 – Quoted by White
  29. ^ "Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan”. BBC News. 2011/1/24Browse.
  30. ^ "Timur Lenk (1369–1405)”. Users.erols.com. 2011/1/24Browse.
  31. ^ Matthew White's website (a compilation of scholarly death toll estimates)
  32. ^ "Russian Civil War”. Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. As of December 2010, 12originalMore archives.2011/1/24Browse.
  33. ^ James F. Danigan, William Martell, Translated by Yoichi Kitazume, "Technology for Avoiding War" (Kawade Shobo, 1990), p. 37
  34. ^ "Introduction to Security Studies" edited by the National Defense Academy, Security Studies Study Group (Aki Shobo, 2005), pp. 24-25
  35. ^ Hiroomi Kurisu, "Introduction to Security" (BBA, 1997), pp. 116-119
  36. ^ "Introduction to Security Studies" edited by the National Defense Academy, Security Studies Study Group (Aki Shobo, 2005), pp. 25-27
  37. ^ National Defense Academy Security Studies Study Group "Latest Edition of Security Studies" (Aki Shobo, 2005), pp. 31-32.
  38. ^ Hiroomi Kurisu, "Introduction to Security" (Book Business Associates, 1997), pp. 131-133
  39. ^ Tsutomu Matsumura, "War Studies of Famous Generals" (Bunharu Shinsho, 2001), p. 18
  40. ^ Kaoru Koga, Theory of the War Revolution (Toyo Shokan, 1952), pp. 128-139
  41. ^ Minoru Hattori, "Introduction to Defense Studies" (Hara Shobo, 1980), pp. 33-34
  42. ^ "Introduction to Security Studies" edited by the National Defense Academy, Security Studies Study Group (Aki Shobo, 2005), p. 182, "Specific Examples of Escalation by Military Forces", and by James F. Danigan and William Martell, I referred to "Technology for Avoiding War" translated by Yoichi Kitazume (Kawade Shobo, 1990), pp. 32-36.
  43. ^ Edited by Ichi Terazawa, Soji Yamamoto, and Kazuya Hirobe, "III National Formation 16 National Unions," "Standard International Law," (First Edition) Seirin Shoin, June 1989, p. 6.ISBN 978-4417007517. 
  44. ^ Haruo Sabune "Dependent country"Encyclopedia Nipponica" Shogakukan.http://100.yahoo.co.jp/detail/%E5%BE%93%E5%B1%9E%E5%9B%BD/.2010/4/11Browse. 
  45. ^ Yahoo Dictionary> JapanKnowledge> Daijisen> Puppet Administration
  46. ^ Exite> Sanseido> Daijirin> Puppet Administration
  47. ^ National Defense Academy / Defense Studies Study Group "Introduction to Military Science" (Kaya Shobo, 2000), James F. Danigan, Translated by Yoshiteru Oka, "New War Technology" (Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1992) For reference, I summarized the major aspects of the struggle.
  48. ^ National Defense Academy / Defense Studies Study Group "Introduction to Military Science" (Kaya Shobo, 2000) pp. 52-53

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