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🏛 | "Neutral" with a thousand profiles


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"Neutral" with a thousand profiles

 
If you write the contents roughly
It is an international organization established under the leadership of Egypt, India and Yugoslavia during the Cold War, with the participation of Asian and African countries.
 

Switzerland is seeking a new interpretation of "neutral."In this article, various profiles of neutrality are highlighted by international comparison ... → Continue reading

 swissinfo.ch

swissinfo.ch is the International Department of the Swiss Public Broadcasting Association, which has been commissioned by the Swiss Government since XNUMX to disseminate news and information about Switzerland both domestically and internationally and supplement the online services of the Swiss Public Broadcasting Association.Swissinfo.ch, an online media company, uses new community tools and multimedia to maximize the potential of digitization while delivering articles in XNUMX languages ​​as a news site.


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    Cold War

    Cold War(Reisen,British: Cold War,dew: Cold war) OrCold war(Tsumetai Senso) isSecond World WarDivided the later worldWestern countries(The United States of AmericaTo be the lord資本主義-LiberalismCamp) andEastern countries(Soviet UnionTo be the lordCommunism-SocialismConflict structure with the camp).US-Soviet Cold War(Beisoreisen)East-West Cold WarAlso known as (Tozai Reisen). "Cold War" literally means "war without fire", that is, the US and the Soviet Union do not collide directly with force, but under the Cold WarKorean War,Vietnam War,Soviet-Afghan WarMany proxy wars in which both countries intervened broke out.

    Etymology

    Just before the end of World War II19452から198912It lasted for 44 years, and was an ally of the Allies.The United States of AmericaSoviet UnionFight directly with military power戦 争Did not happen, soMilitary power(Firepower), It was called "Cold War" and "Cold War" as opposed to "Hot War" and "Hot War".

    The word "Cold War"George Orwell James BurnhamI used it when I evaluated the theory of[1][2][3],laterBernard BaruchAlso used[4], American political criticWalter Lippman 1947The expression became widespread worldwide because it was used in the title of the book "Cold War-A Study of Foreign Policy in the United States".

    The interests and gains of the member countries were not exactly the same for each camp, and they were individual.policy,外交Sometimes I didn't cooperate in the relationship,ideologyIt is a comprehensive alliance / cooperative relationship with the concept of.

    Overview

    camp

    The boundary between the two camps in the Cold WarEuropeIn, the Soviet Union is the allyCommunist camp Eastern EuropeBecause it was gathered inEast sideWith the United States as the allyCapitalist camp Western EuropeBecause it was gathered inWestI called and confronted.The conflict is not only military, diplomatic and economicSpace development,aviationIt also had a great influence on technology, culture and sports.Also, in the conflict structure of the Cold War, Western Europe has been integrated,European CommunityHeaded for the formation of.Yalta talksStarting fromMalta talksBecause it ended with, "From Yalta to MaltaIt is also said that.

    Not only in EuropeAsia,Middle East,South AmericaHowever, the organizations and alliances that support each of them were born and divided the world into two.Due to the restrictions between these two camps, there is little exchange of economic and human information, and the British Prime Minister at the time of the outbreak of the Cold WarWinston ChurchillIs "Iron curtainWas expressed.

    A nation that does not belong to either the American camp or the Soviet Union is "Third worldWas tossed in the speculation of each camp.However, "aid diplomacy" was also actively carried out, taking advantage of the speculations of both camps and drawing out a large amount of aid by putting both camps on a balance.In addition, the confrontational structure between the US and Soviet camps is described as "a great power.HegemonyThe countries that deniedIndiaThere was also a movement to insist on non-alignment, centering on such things, and to seek solidarity in the Third World (although many countries were famous and innocent).note that,Economic developmentThe developing countries that have advancedThird worldThe developing countries whose economic development is lagging are called "Fourth worldIt is also called ".

    Features

    The world of this Cold War era

    1. The order is fixed for a long time and there is little change
    2. Mass production society where "quantity is more important than quality"
    3. NucleusNuclear powerTechnology

    It is characterized by three points.Eventually in 3 he was the lord of the Eastern BlocSoviet Union collapsesAs a result, the victory of the Western camp including Japan, the United States and Western Europe ended.After the Cold War, the United States reigned as the only superpower.but,the 2010sFrom the time of the powerful nationRussiaMilitary resurrection and the Communist PartyOne-party dictatorshipNationalPeople's Republic of ChinaMilitary and economic rapid growth.Also with these two countries the United States, the United Kingdom,Japan,India,Australia,フィリピン,Republic of China,CanadaSuch asDemocracyConflict with the country and with RussiaウクライナWithMilitary conflictThere are many changes and liquidity is increasing.

    US-Soviet data comparison

    United States flag The United States of AmericaSoviet Union flag Soviet Union
    DemographicsWith a population of 1990 million in 2, it was the fourth largest population on the planet after China, India and the Soviet Union.[5].With a population of 1989 million in 2, it was the third largest population on the planet after China and India.[6].
    GeographyThe third or fourth largest country in the world, with an area of ​​3 km 2Was (3,720,000 square miles)[7].The largest state in the world (actually a federal superstate) with a surface area of ​​22,270,000 km 2Was (8,600,000 square miles)[6].
    EconomyGNP in 1990 was $ 5.2 trillion (equivalent to $ 2019 trillion in 10.2)[8]..It is the world's largest economy. Capitalist market economy theory based on supply and demand, where production is determined according to customer demand, although income disparity has widened since 1979[9]..Huge industrial base and large-scale modernized agriculture.Large quantities of imports and exports Abundant resources such as minerals, energy resources, metals and wood.High standard of living with access to many manufacturing products.It is home to many large global companies.The Bretton Woods Conference has made the US dollar the world's leading currency. It is a member of the G7.Marshall PlanSupport the economy of allies with such means.GNP in 1990 was $ 2.7 trillion (equivalent to $ 2019 trillion in 5.3)[10]..The second largest economy in the world.Huge mineral energy resources and fuel supply.Although he suffered from a shortage of resources such as agriculture, he was generally self-sufficient with a minimum of imported products.Large-scale industrial production is led by a centralized state institution and is highly inefficient.Five-year plans were frequently used to achieve economic goals.Economic benefits such as employment guarantees, free medical care and free education were provided at all levels of society.Some indicators of life expectancy and medical care in the Soviet Union were above the United States, but often below the levels of developed Western countries.The economy is linked to the satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe.
    PoliticsA powerful system of restraint and equilibrium between the legislature, the executive branch and the judiciarySeparation of three powersAdopted the presidential system ofliberalConstitutional republic.US Congress OfLegislative powerIs documentedConstitutionFederal governmentWas limited by the nature of.Despite the lack of a specialized constitutional court, judicial review of law is by case lawSupreme CourtIt is entrusted to.PresidentWas the head of state as well as the head of government, and its cabinet did not need to gain parliamentary confidence.National elections are held once every two yearsBundestag electionIt was only.But once every four yearsPresidential electionIs, in effect,Electoral groupThe indirect elections were changed to direct elections, albeit weighted.Democratic PartyRepublican Party OfTwo-party system.United Nations Security Council OfPermanent memberAnd two allies (FranceAnd the United Kingdom).powerfulMarx-LeninismNational and large scalesecret policeIt is organized under a strong power-integrated quasi-parliamentary system that has an organization and has a function of restraining the government and the judiciary with the main purpose of gaining the trust of the legislature.Despite the written constitution and nominal federal system, the Supreme Soviet enjoyed de facto parliamentary sovereignty because there were no courts with judicial review.Due to the lack of a formal presidency, the permanent member of the Council served as a collective head of state.The national-level general election was only the biennial Supreme Soviet Union election, which was a yes-no vote for pre-selected candidates.However, the drastic government reforms in 2 introduced competitive elections, chief executives elected by direct elections, and the Constitutional Court, all of which were rudimentary separations from the existing system.One-party systemso,Communist partyInstitutionally monopolizes power.Permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
    Foreign relationsWestern Europe,Latin AmericaIn some countries,Commonwealth,SeveralEast AsiaCountries,IsraelStrong connection with.With liberal democracy around the worldAnti-communismDictatorshipSupported.CenterandEastern Europe, Latin American countries,Southeast AsiaandAfricaStrong connection with.It also had an alliance with China until 1961.Assisted Marxist-Leninist countries around the world.
    MilitaryWorld's highest military spending[11]..The world's largest navy exceeds the sum of the navies of the following 13 countries[12], Army and Air Force are comparable to the Soviet Union.It has bases all over the world, and in particular, it has incomplete circular bases in the west, south, and east, mainly in the Warsaw Pact member countries.The largest in the world in the first half of the Cold Warnuclear weaponsHad.Western Europe's powerfulMilitary allianceHave a unique nuclear force in the country.Intelligence agencyGlobal information network with quasi-military and guerrilla organizations in developing countries.Large-scale weapons production for the global market through defense-related companies, along with allies of developed countries.It owns the world's largest army and air force, and the second largest navy.We have bases all over the world.In the latter half of the Cold War, he possessed the world's largest nuclear weapon.He is the founder of the Warsaw Pact and has satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. Global information network with GRU and KGB First Section Director.Connections with paramilitary and guerrilla organizations in developing countries.Large-scale weapons industry production and global distribution
    MediaIn the constitutionFreedom of speechFreedom of the pressIs guaranteed, but to some extent due to the continued Cold WarcensorshipHas been done, especiallyVietnam WarAnd secondaryRed pickingAt that time, censorship became the strictest.Freedom of speech and press, guaranteed by the Constitution, is a de facto death culture, subject to both fulfilling citizens' obligations and being in line with government interests.The press was clearly controlled and censored.Workers from all countries are united,資本主義With societyBourgeoisieOverthrow the society called dictatorship and publicize all means of productionSocialismHe used propaganda to promote the ideal of socialism, which should be replaced by society.
    cultureHe has a rich tradition and global cultural influence in music, literature, movies, television, cooking, art and fashion.It has a rich tradition of literature, film, classical music and ballet.

    Development of the Cold War

    Origin (1945-)

    The beginning of the Cold War is thatideologyIf you pay attention to the aspectRussian RevolutionCan be traced back toSuperpowerThe composition of the conflict isYalta systemIs required.

    mainlyEuropeIn February 1945, dealing with the division ofFranklin Roosevelt(America),Joseph Stalin(Soviet Union),Winston Churchill(United Kingdom)byYalta talksBut,Second World WarAfterInternational regimeIt was determined. JulyPotsdam talksAnd mutual distrust deepened further.

    1946,MoscowWas working at the U.S. Embassy in TokyoGeorge Kennanof"Long telegramIsJames ForrestalThrough the Secretary of the NavyTrumanIt was circulated within the administration and contributed to the formation of awareness of the Soviet Union.Later, the basis of America's Cold War policy, "Anti-community-Containment policyIt led to.

    Was suffering great damage from the warEuropeIn each countryCommunismThere is concern about the expansion of power.In particularFrance,ItalyThen.Communist partyWas gaining support.Victorious countryBritain was onceBritish EmpireThere was no vestige of this, and there was not enough power left to compete with the Soviet Union on its own.Therefore, the existence and role of the United States inevitably became important in Western Europe.1947When you enter3/12TrumanGeneral textbook speechOn behalf of EnglandGreeceandTurkey OfdefenseDeclared to undertake.He declared that he would support global anti-communist activities, the so-called "Truman DoctrineIsTotalitarianismLiberalismTwo ofLifestyleTo sayManiismOfView of the worldHas become apparent.further6/5ToHarvard UniversityAt the graduation ceremonyGeorge MarshallSecretary of StateIs the European Reconstruction Plan (Marshall Plan), And provided large-scale assistance to Western European countries.In this way, postwar America continuedContinental europeWill be involved inIsolationismIt was decided to break away from.

    Eastern EuropeOf the countriesGermanyWas in an alliance withルーマニア,Bulgaria,Hungary,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euToSoviet armyWas stationed and a government centered on communist forces was established.at first,"Anti-fascism"sloganToSocial democracyWith the forcesCoalition governmentHowever, the main posts such as legal affairs and internal affairsCommunist partyGrabbed.Yalta Conference promised to restore independencePolandBut,UK OfExile governmentA coalition government was established by the Communist Party, but due to election obstruction and intimidation, government-in-exile political partiesMinisterWas excluded.In February 1948, it was the decision to communize in Eastern Europe and the cold reality of the Cold War on Western countries.Czechoslovakia political changeMet.Also in October of the previous yearComin FormWas formed, and various paths leading to socialism were denied.Soviet socialismHas come to be adopted uniformly.On the other handユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ アアルバニアIn the establishment of the Communist Party system in Japan, rather than being led by the Soviet Union, during the warPartizanThe intrinsic factor due to the indigenous forces seen in the struggle was large.This point is1948Yugoslavia was banished from the communist bloc as a distant cause of the Yugoslav-Soviet controversy.Self-managed socialismAnd non-aligned diplomacy, which is a unique route.

    Axis powersWith Germany, which was the center ofAustriaIs the United States, United Kingdom,France・ The Soviet Union divides into fourOccupationdid.Occupation administration methodcompensationThe conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States, Britain and France deepened due to problems, etc.1949, In the western occupied territoriesThe Federal Republic of Germany(West Germany),Soviet occupied territoriesToGerman Democratic Republic(East Germany) is established.

    Poland problem

    One of the focal points of the Yalta Conference was the Polish issue.For the United States and Britain, the direct reason for participating in World War II was Nazi Germany.Polish invasionAnd for the Soviet UnionSecurityFrom this point of view, it was hoped that a friendly government would be established in Poland.ImijikumoStalin Milovan ĀrasAs mentioned in, what is the Polish problem?territorial disputeAt the same time, it clearly represented the character of World War II in that it included the phase of a political issue.

    Also PolandSoviet armyBeing released by the Soviet Union became a factor in increasing the influence of the Soviet Union on postwar Polish politics (the state released from the enemy countryoccupationThe "Italian method" of taking the initiative in was working here as well).US-UK to Stalin in Poland at Yalta ConferenceFree electionHowever, as Stalin said, the issue of Poland is "a matter of honor" for the United States and Britain, while it is a matter of Poland for the Soviet Union.SecurityStalin took a tough stance because it was a "life and death problem above."

    Truman, who became president after Roosevelt's death, learned that the Soviet Union was rebelling against these Yalta arrangements.United NationsSoviet Foreign Minister visiting the United States for the founding meetingVyacheslav MolotovProtested against.After that, the United States and the Soviet Union became in conflict (the process until the election was decided,Yalta talksSee "Poland Problem").

    Berlin problem

    Germany'scapitalBerlinWas divided into four countries, like its land.As a result, Berlin has only the western occupied territories in the middle of East Germany.(I.e.It was decided to be located like.The Soviet Union in the western district amid intensifying Cold War conflictscurrencyAs a countermeasure against reform1948ToWest BerlinConnect toTrain道路Blockade (Berlin blockade).To counter this, the Western Allies airlifted supplies and broke the Berlin blockade.Therefore, the blockade was lifted about a year later.

    Globalization of the Cold War (1949-1955)

    Cold War地球Because the US and the Soviet Union face each other on the other side ofAsiaAlso had a strong influence.Mainland ChinaThen, immediately after the war, support the United StatesChinese National PartyAnd support the Soviet UnionChinese Communist Party 内 戦But the Chinese Communist Party won1949CommunistPeople's Republic of ChinaFounded the country.1950In 2 monthSino-Soviet Friendship Alliance Mutual Aid TreatyBecame an ally of the Soviet Union.On the other hand, the Kuomintang, whose support from the United States has been discontinued,Taiwan IslandEscaped to.In addition, the People's Republic of China sent troops to the Korean War, and in direct opposition to the United States, the Taiwan Strait was also incorporated into the Cold War structure.AlreadyEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSo with the support of the Soviet UnionPeople's Republic of Mongolia 1924However, after the war, the United States, Britain, France, etc.Approvaldid.

    JapanWas governed byKorean PeninsulaBy the Yalta Conferencenorth latitude38-degree lineThe Soviet Union occupies the north and the United States occupies the south, and the Korean PeninsulaDivided stateIt became.For this reason,1950Received Soviet support in Junenorth korea South KoreaSuddenly started invadingKorean WarBroke out.In the Korean War, "MilitiaIn the name of the People's Republic of ChinaChinese PLAAlso participated in the battle1953Continued until.

    French IndochinaThen,VietnamCommunists aim for independence,First Indochina WarHappened.1954Vietnam gained independence due to France's defeat, but the United States feared the expansion of communist forces,Geneva AgreementBy17 degrees north latitudeDivides the southern part with, and is governed by the puppet military government of the United StatesSouth VietnamWas founded.This is laterVietnam WarTrigger.France and the United States also left a strong influenceLaos(1949Independent),Cambodia(1953(Independence) But there was a movement to gain power by communists.

    The United States, which felt threatened by the rise of these communists in Asia,1951Old in OctoberColonyフィリピンUS-Philippines Mutual Defense TreatyWith Japan, the former enemy country that occupied one country in SeptemberUS-Japan Security Treaty, In the same monthBritish Commonwealth OfAustralia-New ZealandPacific Security Treaty(ANZUS), after the Korean War1953With South Korea in AugustUS-Korea Mutual Defense Treaty,1954ToRepublic of ChinaUS-China Mutual Defense TreatyIn September 1954, the Asian versionNATOCan be saidSoutheast Asian Treaty OrganizationIn addition to establishing (SEATO) and drawing it to the west, it strengthened its support for the Republic of China.Also in the Middle East, Americaオ ブ ザ ー バ ーAndBaghdad Pact(Baghdad Treaty Organization, METO) was established to contain communism.

    As the Cold War progresses like this,the 1950sIn the United States in the first half, he chairs the Senate Government Activities Committee Permanent Investigation Subcommittee.Joseph McCarthySenatorBut the governmentU.S. ForcesActivities with the excuse of roasting internal Communists, the so-called "Red pickingNot only many innocent government officials and military generals, but also a whirlwindCharles ChaplinEven foreign celebrities like are labeled as communistsDismissalOr was deported.

    In the 1950s, the total production of the United States was about 4% of the world, and the possession of gold and foreign currency was about 5%, and it was the world's leader in both name and reality.Focusing on the United States like thisAsia-The Pacific OceanThe alliance was supported by the American economy, which was able to win alone without suffering war.

    Chief Events

    Snow melting (1955-1958)

    1953, Stalin died, and signs of a easing Cold War situation began to appear.In the same year, a truce of the Korean War was agreed,1955Against NATOWarsaw PactWas formed,Austria ThePermanent neutralityWas declared and became a buffer zone between east and west, and the Allied forces withdrew.AlsoGenevaThe leaders of the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France met in Japan, and the Soviet Union and West GermanyDiplomatic relationsEstablished, Soviet Union in the following yearJapanRestored diplomatic relations with1959Khrushchev visited the United States in the Cold WarSnow meltI directed the mood.

    During this period, Soviet hegemony was swaying in the eastern camp.Won the battle for Stalin's successorKhrushchevIt is,1956At the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionStalin criticismWas done.The response of this speech was great, and the Soviet UnionSatellite countriesThe anti-Soviet riots occurred in various parts of Eastern Europe.PolandThen, after the anti-Soviet riot, the popularity of the people was high.Vwadislaw GomuukaBecame the first secretary of the party and corrected Soviet socialism.Inspired by the Polish movement,HungaryButRegime changeHappened,Naji ImureReturned to politics, but was dragged by the reform demands of the people, leading to the abandonment of the Communist Party system, withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact, and declaration of neutralization, inviting Soviet military intervention (Hungarian uprising).

    Meanwhile, the People's Republic of China opposed Stalin's criticism.the 1960sToCuban crisis,Partial Nuclear Test Ban TreatyOften inConflict,Damansky Island IncidentIt led to a border dispute such as.

    Chief Events

    Times of Crisis (1958-1962)

    Always ""Virtual enemyIn order to guarantee victory in the event of a war with a hypothetical enemy, both countries compete for expansion of power.Arms raceFollowed.This symbolic existencenuclear weaponsWith developmentSpace development competitionIs.Both camps have an eye for an eye and a nucleus for the nucleus.nuclear weaponsWill be possessed in large quantities.Also,Intercontinental ballistic missileHave common technology withrocket,U-2Fly at high altitudes such asReconnaissance aircraft,SpaceTo monitor the enemy fromArtificial satelliteImmerse yourself in the development ofManned space flightLunar explorationThe activity was activated.

    However, the direct conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States did not, ironically, occur due to the restraint caused by the nuclear threat.In particular1962 OfCuban crisisAs a result, the crisis of a full-scale nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union became a reality, and diplomatic activities to ease tensions began the following year.

    On the other hand,Third worldIn each country, the actual war broke out with the support of each camp.This is twoGreat powerTake over the hot war ofProxy warWas called.In addition, it is called "America's Backyard" in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis.Latin AmericaIn response to the Soviet Union's move to gain influence over the nations, the United StatesBrazil,Bolivia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euEtc. of each countryPro-riceMilitaryDictatorshipAs a result, we succeeded in eliminating the communist forces.However, for a long time until the end of the Cold War, in these Latin American countries, civil war by the military government andcorruption, By military forcesCoup d'etatIs rampant and the people are in poverty.

    Berlin Crisis (1958-1961)

    1949Since then, the German problem, whose divisional situation has become an established fact, has been tentative, but I saw a "solution".1958Started from(German versionMet.at that time,East GermanyDue to the harsh socialist policies inIntellectualIncreased repulsion in the strata, many via West Berlin,West GermanyEscaped to.Raised a sense of crisis about the outflow of the hierarchy that should be the core of socialist constructionUlbrichtAppeals to Khrushchev to resolve the German question, and when negotiations with the West are frustrated,populationHe proposed physically blocking the spill as an option.In response to Khrushchev's request, the Western camp refused, so in August 1961, it surrounded West Berlin.Barbed wireWas laid, laterwallDeveloped into ((English edition).At that time, he was the mayor of Berlin in 1969.prime ministerAsOstpolitikPromotedWillie BluntMet.The experience of the Berlin crisis was reflected in the background of his Ostpolitik policy.

    Chief Events

    Transformation of the Cold War (1963-1968)

    Cuban crisisByNuclear warHaving experienced the situation on the verge, the United States and the Soviet Union have found common interests in avoiding a nuclear war.As a result, the United States, Britain, and the Soviet UnionPartial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,hotlineAn agreement was signed.However, China and France opposed the Partial Test Ban Treaty, and it became clear that both East and West were not monolithic.Charles de GaulleFrance under rule is led by the United StatesNATOIn 1964, China, which was also distant from the US and Soviet Union, was the earliest Western country.National approvaldid.In 1967, de Gaulle was held in Canada, where he visited.Montreal World's Fairso,"Vive le Québec!", And continues to this day.Quebec Independence MovementI lit the fire.

    The arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union is in progress,Vietnam WarTriggered byAnti-war movement,Black OfCivil rights movementAnd the racist confrontation against it caused confusion in the country,Martin Luther KingMasterRobert KennedyOf dignitaries such asassassinationWas rampant and fell into social unrest.At the end of World War II, the major warring nations other than the United States were significantly exhausted by the war damage, so the ratio of the United States' economic scale to the world's economic scale was outstandingly large, but it recovered from the war damage.Japan,West GermanyHas achieved unprecedented economic growth, and as Western Europe has revived economically, the ratio of the size of the United States to the size of the world's economy has declined relatively.

    Czechoslovakia TheSpring in pragueThe Soviet Union took a democratization and reform route calledLimited sovereigntyBased onWarsaw PactThe military intervened and suppressed it by force.In addition, it should be notedNikolae CeausescuLeadRomanian Socialist RepublicDespite being a member of the Warsaw Pact, he openly criticized the Soviet Union's intervention and took its own route, receiving huge amounts of assistance from Western countries such as the United States.Also,アルバニアSince criticizing Stalin, he has left the Warsaw Pact with a stance toward the People's Republic of China.People's Republic of China TheRichard Nixon's visit to ChinaApproaching the United States and breaking up with the Soviet Union,north korea TheSubjectivityAnd separated from the Soviet Union.Some of the Communist Party in Western countries, such as Italy, Spain and Japan, rebelled against Soviet socialism and withdrew from Soviet influence (Euro communism).In this way, the multipolarization of communism has occurred.

    Chief Events

    The Age of Detant (1967-1979)

    Tension relief since the end of the 1960s, so-calledDetantEntered the era of.Between the US and the Soviet UnionStrategic weapons restriction negotiation Start (SALT),1972The agreement made a quantitative reduction of nuclear weapons, and the world could feel the relaxation of tensions.

    By this time, despite being the same communist campRoute conflict between Soviet Union and ChinaIs becoming cracked in every direction,Sino-Soviet border disputeIt has become so much that it involves the exercise of ability.India-Para WarShowed the appearance of a proxy war between China and the Soviet Union.

    At the same time as restraining the Soviet UnionEast AsiaAiming to establish peace inRichard Nixon PakistanBy the mediation of1972ToVisit the People's Republic of ChinaApproved the People's Republic of China and started diplomacy and trade, which was the axis of conflict in the Cold War in East Asia.US-China relationsIs improved,1972ToJapanWith the People's Republic of ChinaNormalization of diplomatic relationsdid.

    In addition, 1973ToNorth VietnamAnd AmericaPeace agreementThe US military withdrew from Vietnam.The United States will experience the first defeat since its founding.afterwards1975In 4 monthSouth VietnamIs the capital ofSaigonFell into the hands of North Vietnam, and at the same timeLaos,CambodiaBut the Communists gained power,Indochina PeninsulaWas completely reddened.

    With the development and supply of a wide variety of products and services useful for the daily lives and work of the general public, the global economy, finances, trade, investment and currency issuance have expanded significantly.Gold standardAnd forexFixed exchange rate systemBecomes impossible to maintainManagement currency systemFloating exchange rateMoved to.

    In Europe,1969The West German Brandt administration, which was established in Japan, promoted the Eastern policy and set out to improve relations with the eastern side.Also1972In the meantime, the Soviet Union's "Helsinki Process" to discuss security for the whole of Europe began.1975ToEuropean Security Cooperation CouncilIt led to the establishment of.But while reducing nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union1977からMedium-range ballistic missileWas deployed.In response to this, the United States1979In December, it announced that it would deploy the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) in Western Europe.In the same month, the Soviet UnionInvasion of AfghanistanAs a result, East and West became tense again, and the era of Detanto was over.

    Middle EastThen,Fourth Middle East WarHas happened, and the Arab countries, mainly supported by the Soviet Union, have achieved political results.Oil crisisByWestDeveloped countryHad a serious blow to.However, he has led the four Middle East wars.EgyptExiled Soviet military advisory groups before the war[13]After the war, the relationship with the Soviet Union was cut off, and military and economic assistance began to be received from the United States and China, which are in conflict with the Soviet Union.[14][15][16][17], America ledCamp David AccordsWas established, and the United States led an oil embargo on the WestSaudi Arabia DollarSigned an agreement (Washington-Riyadh secret agreement) to provide security in exchange for a stable supply of crude oil by denominated settlementOil dollarSucceeded in defending the dollar by establishing[18][19][20][21][22]In the Middle East, where a simple US-Soviet conflict has been reflected, a new composition of the Cold War is being born.

    AfricaThen,1978からエチオピアEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euBetweenOgaden WarWas happening, but Ethiopia1974MilitaryCoup d'etatThe Soviet Union and Cuba supported Ethiopia, and Somalia was supported by the United States, China, and Egypt because of the declaration of socialism.アンゴラ The1975Immediately after the independence of the three armed groups内 戦To thisSouth AfricaZaireCubaIntervened, and indirectly assisted by the Soviet Union, China, and the United States, and became a swamp.

    Southeast AsiaThen, between communist nationsCambodia-Vietnam WarOccurred and the Soviet Union invaded VietnamDemocratic CampchiaCollapses but Democratic KampucheaExile governmentIs ChinaASEAN・ Keeping seats at the UN General Assembly with the support of Japan and the United StatesThailandPerforming guerrilla activities at the border withCambodia Civil WarBecame a swamp.

    Latin AmericaThen,チリOverthrow the democratic socialist regime inCoup d'etatWas established inAugust PinochetThe administration broke with the communist bloc except China and Romania, and the pro-US military governmentSouth AmericaCountries work together to eliminate communist forcesOperation CondorWas launched.

    Soviet Unionthe 1970sExpanded worldwide power to unified Vietnam, Cambodia (pro-Vietnam administration), Laos, Ethiopia,South YemenEstablished a cooperative relationship with the communist government of Angola,Mozambique,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIntervene in the conflict by participating in the communist forces, etc.(I.e.,(I.e.The United States approached a country that was difficult to approach and built a friendly relationship.Soviet influencethe 1980sOverThird worldSpread to.

    New Cold War (1979-1985)

    To support the communist regime that was established in 19781979Soviet UnionInvasion of Afghanistandid.For this reason, Western public opinion rebounded and the east and west became tense again, and the influence was1980 Moscow OlympicsIn addition to the west to China, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, etc.Pro-rice OfArab-IslamIt appeared as a boycott with the addition of countries.The east side is in retaliation1984 OfLos Angeles OlympicsTheboycottdid.America isCIA,Charles WilsonWith support from the supply of top secret weapons totaling billions of dollarsアフガニスタンAnti-communismMuslimArmed forces "MujahideenAssisted with Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, etc.[23]..China, which is in conflict with the Soviet Union, also supported the Mujahideen with weapons and training.[24]..The Soviet Union's intention to end the war in a short period of time was missed, the Soviet finances became tight due to the prolonged invasion, and the United States succeeded in indirectly weakening the Soviet Union.

    People have begun to realize that the turmoil in Afghanistan has created another force in the world apart from the eastern and western camps.that isIslamismThere are two forces calledideologyIt looked completely different from the conflict.In Afghanistan, the United States supported this force to defeat the Soviet Union,1979Iran revolutionIn case ofInternational lawThe US embassy was occupied for over a year, ignoring.The United States intervened in the military to rescue embassy staff, but failed, revealing the powerlessness of the US military (Operation Eagle Claw).IslamProphet who foundedMuhammadOffspring (Sayyid) Became the supreme leader of IranLou Holla KhomeiniTouted the era of Islamism as "the Soviet Union is a small devil, the United States is a great devil" and "we are neither west nor east".[25].

    The Iranian Revolution upset the Arab and Eastern Bloc countries,1980ToIran-Iraq WarAnd blew fire.Fear of the Islamic Revolution spreading around the world and the further oil crisis in Europe, the United States and the Soviet Union(I.e.Assisted and made it the largest military power in the Middle East.The war is long1987The U.S. military intervened in the event, but it ended without a settlement.However, the Middle East policy by the United States at this time was later21st centuryIt will have a great influence on the world situation of.On the other hand, the Soviet Union is due to changes in the domestic situation (see below).1989Withdrew completely from the swamp Afghan, and the Soviet Union's influence was rapidly weakening from the world.

    Chief Events

    From reform to the end of the Cold War, the collapse of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)

    Reform by Gorbachev (1985-1988)

    1985Became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionMikhail GorbachevIs reform (Perestroika)andNew thinking diplomacyWith the aim of improving the domestic system, which has suffered from economic exhaustion, and making bold proposals for disarmament with significantly reduced budget proposals, we will also embark on improving relations with the West.

    1987To the United StatesMid-range nuclear force abolition treatySigned (INF).This relaxation of tension turned it into a proxy war between the two countries.Ogaden War,Angola Civil War 1988It ends sequentially from(I.e.FranceIntervenedチャドThe civil war has also ended.Cambodia Civil WarSince 1988, a peace conference has been held.

    Revolutions of Eastern Europe and the end of the Cold War (1988-1989)

    Also, already from the early 1980sIndependently managed labor union "solidarity"Was formed and the movement of democratization was seenPolandThen in the 1989 electionPolish United Workers PartyHungary and Czechoslovakia, which had been reforming from a relatively early stage among Eastern European countries, were also Soviet-style.Communist partyThe system collapsed one after another, and in the summerEast GermanyThe peopleWest GermanyMassive escape through these countries.

    East Germany tried to suppress the people by taking a strong socialist route, but in OctoberLeipzigMade inMonday demonstration10 people participated in the event and could not manage the situationSocialist Unity PartyInside, he was an executiveErich HorneckerHis centripetal force declined and he was soon forced to resign.The successor leadership could not stop the movement for democratization, and East Germany fell into a state of political and economic collapse.

    For this reason,11/9East Germany declares the opening of the Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold WarBerlin Wall Collapseddid.ルーマニアButrevolutionBroke out,Nikolae CeausescuThe president and his wife were shot deadCommunist partyThe administration was overthrown.The revolution in which these Eastern European Communist Party governments were continuously overthrownEastern European RevolutionThat is. In December 1989,地中海 OfIsland of MaltaAnd with GorbachevGeorge HW Bush TalksThen,The end of the Cold WarDeclared[26]..But in ChinaThe XNUMXth Tiananmen IncidentHappened, the Communist Party administration in East Asia (Bamboo curtain), Democratized dominoes were suppressed by force.

    The collapse of the Soviet Union (1989-1991)

    1990Woke up in augustGulf WarThen, in Iraq, which Europe, the United States and the Soviet Union have made into the world's fourth military powerKuwait invasionAmerica-led againstResolution to allow the use of forceThe Soviet Union tuned in, and the world that had been polarized in the United States and the Soviet Union began to show signs of becoming polarized in the United States.The United States by the Iraqi Army in August 1990クウェートStarting with the invasion (Gulf crisis)Arabian PeninsulaDeploy to, next1991In January, he embarked on a Gulf War with Iraq and won it.The Soviet peace plan, which had been requested by Iraq since mid-January 1 during the Gulf Crisis, was at that time.European CommunityIt was approved at the foreign ministers' meeting and agreed with Iraq on an unconditional withdrawal the next day, but President Bush rejected it (a few days later, Schwarzkopf revised the Soviet proposal and decided to ceasefire).The United States, which defeated Iraq, gained confidence as a world ally, and after thatPalestinian problemAroundMiddle EastDeepen interest and intervention in.It can be said that the Gulf War was very important in shaping the subsequent world situation.

    In the Soviet UnionPerestroikaThe line was getting stuck.Baltic statesIncreasing demand for independence1988In 11 monthEstonia Soviet Socialist RepublicDeclared sovereignty, the same yearLithuania Soviet Socialist RepublicButSayudithThe national flag was returned to its pre-Soviet design due to the acceleration of the independence movement. In July 1989Lithuanian Communist Party Soviet Communist PartyDeclared independence from.

    Elections were held all over Eastern Europe from March to June 1990, and the Communist Party fell from the first party in most countries.Even in the Baltic States, the Communist Party became a minority opposition, and each Supreme Council of the Baltic States adopted the Declaration of Independence.Soviet government takes military action against the Baltic states,19911 of the monthBloody Sunday IncidentIn (Lithuania) and elsewhere, Soviet troops and civilians clashed.

    In March 1991, the Soviet Union agreed on a new federal initiative in which the leaders of the three Baltic states reduced their federal authority.On March 3, the same yearUnion of Soviet StakesAs a stepping stone to conclude the agreement, a referendum (English and Russian versions) was held in each republic asking for the pros and cons of maintaining the federal system, and 76.4% of the voters voted in favor of maintaining the federal system. ..However, the Baltic States (Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, which had already declared separatism)Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic),Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldavia,Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic,Armenian Soviet Socialist RepublicBoycotted the vote.

    On June 1991, 6, the function had become a mere ghost within the Soviet regime.Russia-Soviet Union Socialist Republicso,electionWas elected president byBoris YeltsinRenamed the country to "Russian Republic" and issued a declaration of sovereignty to announce its withdrawal from the Commonwealth.

    In July 1991, the United States and the Soviet UnionFirst Strategic Arms Reduction TreatySigned (START).However, before the signing of the new federal treaty scheduled for August 8, forces that rebelled against Gorbachev's reformsMilitary coupWake up and stay in GorbachevCrimeaI put it under house arrest.The coup failed due to the success of Yeltsin in Russia and the lack of preparation of the coup forces.

    However, as a result, the three Baltic states achieved independence, and the movement toward independence progressed in each constituent republic.12/8ToRussiaYeltsin,ウクライナ OfLeonid Kravchuk,ベ ラ ル ー シ OfStanislav Shushevich ベ ラ ル ー シ OfBelovesi ForestWithdrawal from the Soviet UnionIndependent state communityWith the formation of (CIS)agreement("Belovezha Accord").thus12/25WithThe Soviet Union has disappeared..Over the next decade, some of the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union became capitalist nations one after another.

    Post-Cold War era (1991-early 1990s)

    Before and after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War, because of anti-communism until thenMilitary regime,Dictatorship, Some Western countries where the existence of a long-term government was tolerated (Indonesia,Taiwan, South Korea,ZaireHowever, the government collapsed one after another due to the inability to receive financial, military, and political support from the United States, forcing elections and a change of government.Japan also55 yearsCollapsed,Non-LDP and non-communist coalition governmentWas established.Furthermore, the military government that received US assistance on the condition of anti-communismDictatorshipEven in Latin American countries, where the long-term administration dominatedチリ,Argentine, Brazil and other major countries have been privatized one after another.Also in Latin America of the Soviet UnionBridgeheadAs military aidBarter tradeCuba, which received a great deal of aid from the Soviet Union in such ways, lost its strategic value to Russia, where the necessity of confrontation with the United States disappeared after the Cold War, and aid was cut off, leading to an economic crisis.

    In the early 1990s, when the US-Soviet Cold War endedFrancis FukuyamaBut"End of history』Announced,Political systemAsLiberal democracyDeclared the final victory of.Immediately after the end of the Cold War1991When the Soviet Union, one of the leaders of the Cold War, diesWorld equilibriumCollapsed, AmericaThe only superpowerIt became.Soviet state-ownedPlanned economy・ The socialist system of the controlled economy model and the socialist economic zone collapsed, and the world economy資本主義Economy·Market economyIntegrated byGlobalizationHas progressed.Until then, due to the end of the Cold WarKremlin,White HouseAround the world that was oppressed byEthnic issuesRekindled.

    Looking at Eastern Europe,1993ToCzechoslovakia Czech RepublicEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euToSeparated peacefullyOn the other hand1993Happened toYugoslavia conflictHe ignited the hatred of the peoples and continued after that.CaucasusIn rural areasアゼルバイジャン,アルメニアIt became a civil warChechnyaEach small ethnic group started a struggle for independence, and in each country内 戦Developed into (First Chechen Conflict).This civil war has been overwhelmed by the overwhelming firepower of the Russian army, but the independence that was driven interrorismI'm running into an act and I'm out of control (Second Chechen War).Also, for this terrorismIslamic extremistsIs suspected of being involved.

    after that

    The Cold War in Western Europe is over, but in East AsiaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euDemocratization,VietnamAnd outside the American reconciliationRepublic of ChinaPeople's Republic of ChinaConflict,South KoreaDPR KoreaConflict (Korean War) Is still ongoing, and in JapanJapan Communist PartyKorea FederationIs still the public security authority (Public Security Intelligence Agency,Public security police) Is being monitored, and there is no prospect of a solution here.

    From the confidence that the United States is a "victorious country of the Cold War"1991 OfGulf WarFollowing that, deepening intervention in the Middle East,Bill ClintonThe administration isPalestinian problemFor the first time, he was actively involved in the peace agreement.But,IsraelPeace ran into a snag from the catastrophe, terrorism by Palestinian militants and Israeli troopsMassacreByEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euShowed a muddy appearance (Palestinian problem).Also,アフガニスタン,スーダンTo1998TomissileHe carried out the attack and imposed four economic sanctions, especially on Afghanistan.For Africa, outside SudanEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAlsoUnited NationsWith the power of内 戦Intervened in, but failed, which made the Clinton administration afraid of sending ground troops.(I.e.Has been hostile to the Gulf War since the Gulf WarIraq disarmament problemAlso, every time the weapon inspection is delayedAir strikeWas added.These American interventions in the Middle EastGlobalizationHave an antipathyAl QaedaIt is,2001ToAmerican terrorist attacksAroused,War on terrorismと 呼 ば れ るAmerican invasion of Afghanistan,Iraq warIt became.

    Especially regarding the Iraq War, it was mentioned as the first reason at the beginning of the war.Weapons of mass destructionWas not found at all and eventually turned out to be nonexistent, severely damaging US diplomatic credibility.[27].George W. BushImmediately before his retirement, the president admitted that gathering information on weapons of mass destruction was one of the administration's biggest failures.

    High performance produced by the nuclear development competitionNuclear warheadIs still owned by the United States and Russia in the thousands.Some feared nuclear concentration in the United States in the early Cold WarscientistTrying to balance the world with nuclear deterrence,USSRUnited KingdomFranceThe development method was taught to the Soviet Union and inherited by the People's Republic of China, forming the current five nuclear powers.In addition to this, due to development methods leaked from the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union (Sino-Soviet conflictEtc. are also factors)India,PakistanNuclear possession (India-Pacific War # Nuclear possession of both countries) Or by technology provided by the United StatesIsraelIt extends to the possession of nuclear weapons.

    2008In 8 monthSouth Ossetia conflict, And military tensions between the United States and Russia, "the return of the Cold War" and "New Cold WarThe situation is called, and the tension continues.Same yearWorld financial crisisThe People's Republic of China, which has increased its influence inUS-China Cold WarIt is said that he is in a tense state calledNATOConflict withShanghai Cooperation OrganizationIs organized.RussiaSoviet Union collapsesThenRepublicReborn as a nation,Boris YeltsinUnder the administration, economic reconstruction and capitalism were promoted.However, this backfired and the Russian economy deteriorated, especiallyAsian currency crisisAfter1998ToRussian financial crisisAs a "defeated country of the Cold War" in Europe and the United States, such as worseningFinancial aidI was content with it.But,2003From aroundCrude oil priceThe economy has improved due to the benefits of soaring prices, and against that backgroundVladimir PutinThe administration once again proclaimed the reinstatement of "strong Russia",EUTo Europe and the United States, which had been promoting the incorporation of former Soviet Union member countries into NATOSyrian Civil WarIt came to show the movement of the check such as intervening in.

    1989 - 1991Due to the disappearance of the "Soviet socialist system" that occurred inMulti national companyCompete with the market on a global scaleGlobalizationHas progressed.With the IMF recession at the end of the Cold Warthe 1990sEncountered globalizationLatin AmericaThen,the 2000sTo become andAnti-American-Left OfadministrationAre born one after another,SocialismWas showing a movement to revive, but it was the representativeベネズエラChavez died of illness2012From aroundPro-riceAn increasing number of countries are returning to the route.

    In the sectarian literature entitled "The New Cold War in the Middle East," written by Gregory Gauss,(I.e.Saudi ArabiaIs said to have the ability to influence the region as a superpower."This is not a pure military struggle, but a struggle over the direction of domestic politics in the Middle East," Gauss argues, describing the situation as the "Cold War in the Middle East."

    Major countries of the East-West camp

    Capitalist camp (west)

    Americas 

    Asia

    Europe

    Oceania

    Middle East

    Africa

    Communist camp (eastern side)

    Asia

    Europe

    Middle East

    • Iraqi flag (I.e.
    • Syrian flag Arab League((I.e.EgyptConfederation by) → Egypt will become a pro-American family after the dissolution of the alliance.
    • South Yemen flag South Yemen(1991After the collapse of the Soviet Union, merged with North Yemen and into the Republic of Yemen)

    Africa

    Non-aligned / neutral

    West side

    East side

    •  Finland - FinlandAlthough it was closer to the Soviet Union, it was a liberal and capitalist country in terms of politics and economy.This special situation in Finland is described in Western Europe as "FinnishIt is treated with the name.The trend of Scandinavia at that timeNordic balance".
    • Flag of the Federal Republic of Socialist Yugoslavia ユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ ア ――Although it is a communist country, it promoted its own communism different from the Soviet Union, and rather had a strong relationship with Western Europe in terms of economy and trade.
    • Indian flag India -In the India-Pacific WarAmericaSupportsPakistanrelations with the United States were not good.with the USSR in 1971Indo-Soviet Peace and Friendship Treatyand cooperated in the procurement of weapons.

    Isolation

    • Albania flag アルバニア --At first it was closer to the Soviet UnionStalinismFarewell after being criticized by Khrushchev,Maoist principleIt will be closer to the People's Republic of China.However, after the Cultural Revolution, the countryReform and opening upIt broke up from China because it turned to the route.After that, it kept a distance from both the Soviet Union and China (Hodgarianism).
    • Burmese flag Burma(Myanmar) --At first, although it was socialist-oriented, it was relatively western, but due to the 1962 military coup, "Burmese Road to SocialismEstablished a unique national socialist route called.The treaties and agreements up to that point have been abandoned, effectivelyIsolationI sought an independence system below.

    Capitalist camp → Communist camp

    Communist camp → Capitalist camp

    Capitalist camp → Islamist camp

    European conflict structure

    Cold War history research

    The Cold War has been controversial, with various interpretations of its origin, development, and demise as it had a major impact on global postwar international politics.The following describes the controversies that took place in the academic Cold War history study.[*3].

    Controversy over Cold War origin theory

    There were various issues in the Cold War history study, but the one that formed the most significant issue was the debate over the origins of the Cold War, "when and why the Cold War occurred."This controversy became active centered on the academia of the United States, which is the largest party to the Western camp.

    It can be said that the Cold War origin debate had two characteristics.First, the Cold War origin debateSecond World WarBecause it discussed the origin of the contemporaneous situation, unlike the academic controversy over its origin.Vietnam WarAs a typical example, it was strongly influenced by the events and problem interests at the time when the research was published.Secondly, the controversy was centered around the American academic community, and the pace of publication of materials was so fast that the analysis was particularly focused on the United States.In general, research schools are roughly divided into traditional / orthodox schools, revisionist schools, and post-revisionist schools.[*4].

    Traditional school / Orthodox school (Traditionalist / Orthodox) is a school that published research from the 1950s to the 60s, and the discussions of researchers in this school are characterized by seeking the origins of the Cold War in the extended and invasive behavior of the Soviet Union. Was[*5]..The Soviet Union is the traditional schoolYalta talksA series of actions, such as not conducting the Polish free elections agreed in, and showing a move to establish a Communist Party government against Eastern European countries, created a sense of caution in the West.Marshall Plan,NATOHe said that the strengthening of the Western camp, such as the formation, was taken as a defensive action against this.

    The above interpretation is by Norman A. Graebner.Cold War Diplomacy (1962), Louis J. Halle's Cold War as History (1967),Herbert Feis OfFrom Trust to Terror It was represented by (1970), but this was the Truman administration.Secretary of StateAnd developed the Cold War policyDean AtchisonIt also overlapped with the description in the memoir of.In that sense, the traditional school is said to have had the nuance of defending US foreign policy after the war.[28].

    Then appeared from the 1960sRevisionist school (Revisionist) was in direct opposition to the interpretation of the traditional school, suggesting that the outbreak of the Cold War was more due to the actions of the United States than to the actions of the Soviet Union.The most distinctive feature of the revisionist school was its emphasis on economic factors. He published "The Tragedy of American Diplomacy" in 1958 and later worked for him.University of Wisconsin-MadisonKnown for nurturing younger generations known as the "Wisconsin School"William A. WilliamsAccording to the book, US leaders have needed to seek markets abroad since the country was founded.Open doorHe argued that his ideological dedication was the biggest cause.Williams pointed out that the Soviet Union, which was severely damaged in World War II, was not a threat to the traditional school.And the Cold War was brought about by the United States relentlessly demanding the opening of the market in Eastern Europe under the ideology of opening the door, maintaining an uncompromising attitude toward the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union's opposition to this. He interpreted it as having greater responsibility to the United States, if any.Williams Thesis is a diplomatic historian he trained Walter LaFeber Of America, Russia, and the Cold War (1967),Lloyd Gardner Of Architects of Illusion It will be examined more precisely by (1970) etc.[29].

    Also, the study of the revisionist school was not limited to Williams' study, but showed a more radical development.Gabriel KolkoAnd Joyce KolkoThe Limits of Power In (1972), it is assumed that all of US foreign policy was aimed at defending the capitalist regime and suppressed the revolutionary movement on a global scale.MarxismIt was decided to insist on an interpretation that is friendly to[30]..These studiesVietnam WarIn the 60s, when distrust of the traditional US diplomacy was growing, it was strongly supported.Not surprisingly, these allegations create opposition and controversy from traditional schools.The traditional school criticized the lack of demonstrability of the revisionist school's analysis, the overestimation of economic factors, and the overestimation of the analysis, which substantially analyzes only U.S. behavior.[31]..rainwear

    Following the traditional school and revisionist schoolPost-revisionist school (Post-Revisionist) overcomes the problems of the discussions of the preceding schools, and further discusses in a way that increases the demonstrability as historical research by utilizing the official documents of the Western government that have been gradually released around this time. Will be deployed.The pioneering work isJohn Lewis Gaddis Of The United States and the Origins of the Cold War (1972).Gaddis relies on primary sources and simultaneously incorporates the security factors of the orthodox school and the economic factors of the revisionist school, while also incorporating the influence of international political structure, domestic political factors, and policy-making process (bureaucracy). Presented an analysis that included[32].

    Gaddis said, "Power vacuumIn Europe, where the United States and the Soviet Union faced each other, the United States and the Soviet Union repeatedly misunderstood the other's actions and speculations due to various factors in the tension of the confrontation (originally both). He argued that he had created the Cold War (which he did not anticipate) and argued that either the US or the Soviet Union would take responsibility for the Cold War.[33]..This new interpretation by Gaddis was made by Bruce Kuniholm.The Origins of the Cold War in the Near East (1980),William Taubman Of Stalin's American Policy Inherited by (1982) and others, their research became widely accepted as a "post-revisionist school".[34]..In addition, the research in Europe responded to the research of the post-revisionist school that advanced in the United States.NorwegianGeir LundestadArgued that post-war European political leaders wanted the United States to play a more active role in Europe to offset Soviet influence, and the post-war United States was "invited" to Europe. The interpretation was that it was "Empire by Invitation".[35].

    Cold War origin debate after the collapse of the Soviet Union

    With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the disclosure of eastern documents that were previously impossible to read in the western west has been promoted.This led to the start of various research and data collection projects, as well as the revival of traditional school interpretations in the controversy over the origins of the Cold War.Announced based on the disclosed eastern materialsVojtěchev Mustney"What was the Cold War?" (1996),Vladislav ZubokAnd by Constantine Pleshakov Inside the Kremlin's Cold War (1996) clarified the situational awareness and policy decisions of the Soviet Union.These books were written by the Soviet UnionMarx-LeninismBased on the ideology of, he showed the interpretation that he was voluntarily and voluntarily expanding to Europe.[36]..In addition, various materials were used in the 90's.Dmitri VolkogonovbyStalinBiographical study was also announced, Stalin'sparanoiaIt came to attract attention as a book that points out the nature of the book[37].

    A typical example of the influence of such research progress is the change in the interpretation of the Cold War origin of Gaddis, the flag bearer of the post-revisionist school.In response to the progress of research on the eastern side, Gaddis published in 1997 "Cold War as History", an ideology based on the perspective gap between the United States and the Soviet Union and past interpretations that found the origin of the Cold War in the international political structure. Emphasized the impact of the Cold War on the Soviet political system and shifted to an interpretation that the leader, Stalin, was more responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War.[38]..However, as a factor of this change in Gaddis' interpretation, not only the fact that the Soviet Union was clarified, but also the factor that it was announced at the time when the collapse of the eastern camp and the "victory" of the western camp became clear is ignored. Because it was not possible, it was also called for pros and cons because the interpretation was hindsight.[39].

    Relativization of US-Soviet Cold War history

    The Cold War history research has been the main subject of analysis in the US-Soviet relations, partly because its major controversy has been fought in the US academia, and most of the materials used were official documents of the US government.In response to this movement in Cold War history research, in 1978 in EnglandDonald Cameron Watt TheOpen letterHe pointed out the material bias of Cold War history research and called for the need to deepen the research by utilizing British official documents.[40]..Reflecting these recommendations, in the UK, Victor Rothwell Britain and the Cold War (1982), (Anne Deighton) The Impossible Peace Studies such as (1990) that analyze the role played by Britain in the outbreak of the Cold War have also appeared, and the role played by the British government, which acted earlier than the United States in recognizing the threat of the Soviet Union, was not small in the outbreak of the Cold War. It revealed that[41].

    With Britain as a typical example, research is also underway to consider "the Cold War (and the role played in the Cold War)" with other countries. Since 1998University of North CarolinaA series of Cold War history studies published by the University of North Carolina Press. The New Cold War History Has published a study on the relationship between the Cold War and various nations such as France, the Soviet Union, China, and East and West Germany.[42]..P

    Expansion of research area

    Following the end of the Cold War, various security-related materials have been released in the United States, and new research is progressing on security and intelligence during the Cold War.One example was a cryptanalysis project by the United States and the United Kingdom.VenonaThe substance of the intelligence warfare can be elucidated by disclosing related materials.Of John E. Haynes and Harvey Klehr Venona (2000) revealed that active intelligence activities were underway in the United States during the Cold War.Also, Kenneth Osgood Total Cold War In (2006)AGE-CIAIt was decided to clarify the actual situation of the promotion and information warfare that the Eisenhower administration was developing (including Japan) by utilizing materials such as[43].

    Corporatism

    Progress in Detanto History Research

    Discussion over the end of the Cold War

    New Cold War history

    Every woman participating in the study applied SERUM to one half of her face and an identical product without the EGF cellular activator to the other half. The study ran for eight weeks, during which time participants applied the serum twice a day. To rule out any effect anticipation could have on results, the study was double-blinded, meaning that none of the women in the study, nor the scientists in charge of measuring results, knew which half was which. Efficacy was assessed by standardized photography and biophysical measurements to evaluate skin topography, density, and thickness.

    Academic journal

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Even after the Suharto administration, he received Soviet support in terms of military equipment.
    2. ^ The People's Republic of China and North Korea provided material support, and the Soviet Union itself took a stand-by stance.
    3. ^ For the following description and selection of examples, please refer toRobert J. McMahon, The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction(Oxford University Press, 2003); Michael Kort, The Columbia Guide to the Cold War(Columbia University Press, 1998); Sadao AsadaSee "Origin of the Cold War and Revisionist Studies: In the Case of the United States," International Affairs, No. 170 (1974).
    4. ^ The Cold War history research also influenced wartime diplomatic research during World War II.Points out that wartime diplomatic studies, which began in the late 1940s, were closely related to the interpretation of the Cold War origin theory. Mark A. Stoler, "A Half Century of Conflict: Interpretations of US World War II Diplomacy." In Michael HorganMore (and.), America in the World: the Historiography of American Foreign Relations since 1941, (Cambridge University Press, 1995).
    5. ^ There was a difference in interpretation as to whether the Soviet Union's motives for action should be ideological or geopolitical and security.Faith, which will be described later, belongs to the former, and Grabner belongs to the latter.

    Source

    1. ^ Orwell, "You and the Atomic Bomb", Tribune 19 October 1945
    2. ^ George Orwell, "You and the Atomic Bomb", Tribune October 1945, 10
    3. ^ Orwell, George, The Observer, 10 March 1946
    4. ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 54
    5. ^ "www.census.gov". 2010/8/27Browse.
    6. ^ a b "Library of Congress Country Studies”. Lcweb2.loc.gov. 2010/8/27Browse.
    7. ^ "The Largest Countries In The World (PDF)". 2019/11/8Browse.
    8. ^ "1990 CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 2009/10/12Browse.
    9. ^ Stone, C .. “A Guide to Statistics on Historical Trends in Income Inequality”. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Pp. 7–11. As of March 2015, 3originalMore archives.2012/10/2Browse.
    10. ^ "1990 CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 2009/10/12Browse.
    11. ^ Pike.World Wide Military Expenditures”. Globalsecurity.org. 2010/8/27Browse.
    12. ^ Gates.A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon or a New Age”. Council On Foreign Relations. 2015/5/31Browse.
    13. ^ "Egypt Basic Information-History". Embassy of Japan in Egypt. https://www.eg.emb-japan.go.jp/j/egypt_info/basic/rekishi.htm 2019/7/15Browse. 
    14. ^ Craig A. Daigle, "The Russians are going: Sadat, Nixon and the Soviet presence in Egypt." Middle East 8.1 (2004): 1.
    15. ^ Moshe Gat (2012). In Search of a Peace Settlement: Egypt and Israel Between the Wars, 1967-1973. Palgrave Macmillan. Pp. 256–58.
    16. ^ "EGYPT AND CHINA SIGN ARMS PACT, HAIL CLOSER TIES". New York Times (September 1976, 4). 2019/7/15Browse.
    17. ^ “China Will Sell Arms to Egypt, Sadat Announces”. Washington Post(July 1979, 6). https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1979/06/06/china-will-sell-arms-to-egypt-sadat-announces/3c70f99a-2fa6-4dea-a92e-b8fbd8d0a97c/ 2019/7/15Browse. 
    18. ^ "The Untold Story Behind Saudi Arabia's 41-Year US Debt Secret". Bloomberg (September 2016, 5). 2019/11/25Browse.
    19. ^ Clark, William R. Petrodollar Warfare: Oil, Iraq and the Future of the Dollar, New Society Publishers, 2005, Canada, ISBN-0 86571-514-9
    20. ^ "Petrodollar power". The Economist. 7 December 2006.
    21. ^ "'MILESTONE' PACT IS SIGNED BY US AND SAUDI ARABIA". New York Times date = 1974-06-09. 2019/11/25Browse.
    22. ^ "What Is The Petrodollar?". FXCM.com. 2019/11/25Browse.
    23. ^ Former US Rep. Charlie Wilson dies and cooperates with CIA in Soviet invasion of Afghan 1 photo International News: AFPBB News
    24. ^ S. Frederick Starr (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland (illustrated ed.). ME Sharpe. P. 158. ISBN-0 7656-1318-2.Retrieved May 22, 2012.
    25. ^ "What is the" grudge "in the United States? ”. Mainichi Newspapers. (2019-03-15). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20190315/ddm/005/070/011000c 2019/8/5Browse. 
    26. ^ Malta summit ends Cold War, BBC News, 3 December 1989. Retrieved on 11 June 2008.
    27. ^ http://jp.wsj.com/US/node_303940
    28. ^ Norman A. Graebner, Cold War Diplomacy: American Foreign Policy, 1945-1960(Van Nostrand, 1962); Herbert Feis, From Trust to Terror: The Onset of the Cold War, 1945-1950(WW Norton, 1970); Louis J. Halle, The Cold War as History, (Harper & Row, 1967) (Translated by Hiroshi Ota, "Cold War as History: The Historical Structure of the Superpower Era" (Simal Publishing, 1970); Dean G. Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department(Norton, 1969). (Translated by Seijiro Yoshizawa, "Memoir of Acheson (1 and 2)", Kobunsha, 1979)
    29. ^ William A. Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, (The World Publishing Company, 1958). (Akira Takahashi ・Takeshi Matsuda-Tadashi ArugaTranslated "The Tragedy of American Diplomacy" Ochanomizu Shobo, 1986); Walter LaFeber, America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1966(Wiley, 1967); Lloyd C. Gardner, Architects of Illusion: Men and Ideas in American Foreign Policy, 1941-1949(Quadrangle Books, 1970).
    30. ^ Gabriel Kolko and Joyce Kolko, The Limits of Power: the World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954. (Harper & Row, 1972).
    31. ^ As an example, Robert J. Maddox, The New Left and the Origins of the Cold War(Princeton University Press, 1973).
    32. ^ John Lewis Gaddis “The Emerging Post-Revisionist Synthesis on the Origins of the Cold War”, Diplomatic History, 7: 3 (1983).
    33. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941-1947(Columbia University Press, 1972)
    34. ^ Bruce R. Kuniholm, The Origins of the Cold War in the Near East: Great Power Conflict and Diplomacy in Iran, Turkey, and Greece(Princeton University Press, 1980); William Taubman, Stalin's American Policy: from Entente to Detente to Cold War(Norton, 1982).
    35. ^ Geir Lundestad, “Empire by Invitation? The United States and Western Europe, 1945-1952”, Journal of Peace Research, 23: 3, (1986).Often Lundestad himself is classified as a post-revisionist school.
    36. ^ Vojtěch Mastný, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: the Stalin Years(Oxford University Press, 1996). (Yutaka Akino-Yoshikazu HiroseTranslated "What was the Cold War: Postwar Political History and Stalin" Kashiwa Shobo, 2000); Vladislav Zubok, Constantine Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: from Stalin to Khrushchev(Harvard University Press, 1996).
    37. ^ Dmitrii A. Volkogonov, Триумф и трагедия: политический портрет И. В. Сталина(2. vols, Изд-во Агентства печати Новости, 1989) (Translated by Shinji Ikuta, "Victory and Tragedy: Stalin's Political Portrait (Top and Bottom)" (Asahi Shimbun, 1992)
    38. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History, (Oxford University Press, 1997).Kanji Akagi・ Translated by Yusuke Saito, "Cold War as History: Pursuit of Power and Peace," Keio University Press, 2004).Lundestad positions the current Gaddis as a "new traditional school". Geir Lundestad, “The Cold War Acoording to John Gaddis”. Cold War History 6: 4 (2006).
    39. ^ Anders Stephanson, “Rethinking Cold War History.”Review of International Studies, 24: 1 (1998);Kiichi Fujiwara"How to End the Cold War-From Peace by Consensus to Peace of Power"Institute of Social Science, University of TokyoEdited "20th Century System (6) Functions and Transformation" (University of Tokyo Press, 1998).
    40. ^ Donald Cameron Watt, “Rethinking the Cold War: a Letter to the British Historian”. The Political Quarterly 49: 4 (1978)
    41. ^ Victor Rothwell, Britain and the Cold War, 1941-1947. (Cape, 1982); Anne Deighton, The Impossible Peace: Britain, the Division of Germany and the Origins of the Cold War(Clarendon Press, 1990).
    42. ^ UNC Press --The New Cold War History
    43. ^ John E. Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. (Yale University Press, 2000)
      (Terumasa NakanishiTranslated by "Venona-Decrypted Soviet Code and Spy Activities" PHP Institute, 2010 / Revised Fusosha Publishing, 2019.ISBN 978-4-594-08307-6
      Kenneth Osgood, Total Cold War: Eisenhower's Secret Propaganda Battle at Home and Abroad(University of Kansas, 2006).

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