Portal field news

Portal field news

in

🏛 | Takafumi Horie declares the difference in corona consciousness between Japan and overseas "After all, there will be a difference"


写真 

Takafumi Horie declares the difference in corona consciousness between Japan and overseas "After all, there will be a difference"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Since politicians do not want to fall into the election, they have repeatedly taken conservative measures against corona.
 

[Horiemon who gave a support speech by Hirotada Ototake.The topic extends to the problems of the new corona countermeasures ... "Horiemon" ... → Continue reading

 Sirabee

"Making'tell'intelligible" The news site "Sirabee" is a medium that combines survey data with news to convey information in an easy-to-understand manner.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Maintenance

Maintenance(Hoshu) orConservatism(Hoshushugi,British: conservatism) Means social and political, maintaining traditional traditions, customs, institutions, and ways of thinking.reform-revolution-innovationThought against[1][2].RadicalReject the tendency,ModerateThe people, powers, and political parties that hold the positionConservative(British: Conservative).

the term

The ideological origin of conservatism since modern times is the IrishBritish House of RepresentativesAs a member of the DietFrench RevolutionCriticizedEdmund BurkeIs considered to be derived from[3].

1819 years,François-Rene de ChateaubrianFollowing the French RevolutionRoyal reconstructionThe bulletin of "French: The conservative"(Conservative) is said to be the first of conservatism in the political context.[4].

Overview

Conservatism is in a position to oppose radical reforms such as the revolution and to emphasize the traditionally accumulated social, political and religious order in the society.The ideological background isModernismTypicalRationalism(Enlightenment-Idealism-RationalismThere is skepticism about human beings, and we think that human beings are imperfect, and that we need to respect historical traditions.

The specific ideas and systems that conservatives raise differ depending on the country, era, and position.Initially worldwide, including EuropeRoyal partyHowever, after the 19th centurySocialismWas traditionally progressiveLiberalismIs associated with conservatism, or has come to be called "conservatism".HoweverThe United States of AmericaThen, from the beginning, liberalism at the time of the founding of the country (Classical liberalism) Became conservative.AlsoSocialist revolutionAfterSocialist countryAndIslamic revolutionAfterIslamic republicIn such cases, as the years have passed since the revolution, those who try to maintain the existing system after the revolution have come to be called "conservatives" and are contrasted with "innovators."

The major categories of conservatism are as follows, and their ideas and positions are common in some respects and conflicting in other respects.

For conservatismRevivalismIs also included, but is gradual and moderateReformism,EmpiricismIs also included.French RevolutionConservatism at that time was "nowAncien RegimeThe systems labeled as have endured the choices from the distant past, and it is possible to maintain and maintain them.PeopleIt was defined as "it is in the interest of."However, he said, "Reform for maintenance."DisraeliAnd "reform for maintenance"Edmund BurkeAs is clear from the words, conservatism does not deny gradual reform.Conservatism is one of the philosophies of politics and society, which encourages the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports only the smallest and gradual changes in society.

While some conservatives try to maintain the present and emphasize stability and continuity, whileModernismSome oppose it and try to go back to the past.Charles de MontescueAlthough a pre-French Revolutionary figure, he actively affirms his living pre-modern Ancien Régime and is rated as a conservative because of his anti-democratic claims.[5]..However, the claims of pre-modern conservatives have influenced modern thought, and while Montesquieu defended the monarchy and aristocratic system, it also supported slavery and slavery.Catholic church OfInquisitionAnd the bookSpirit of law TheA Certain Magical IndexWas also specified.Also, the idea of ​​Montesquieu isThe FederalistInfluencing modern conservatism such as[5].

Support for conservatism is also found in those engaged in each industry.Even in urban areas, self-employed people and some corporations may support it.In addition, large business owners / capitalists and small business owners may also tend to support conservatism as having vested interests ().National political party).Typical of modern timesConservative partyIn EnglandConservative party,Canada'sCanadian Conservative Party, Of the United StatesRepublican Party,Germany'sChristian Democratic Union,AustralianAustralian Liberal Party, IndianIndian People's Party,JapaneseLDPThere is.

thought

As mentioned above, conservatism is a position that emphasizes traditional customs and systems, and what kind of ideas and systems are ideal depends on the times, countries, and positions.

Karl MannheimAccording to, conservatism does not exist in itself,revolutionAfter some change has occurred, it is formed as a reaction to it.

Conservatives basically don't expect too much from human thinking and assume that "people make mistakes and are not perfect."[6]..And behave humbly.Furthermore, they respect traditions, thinking that "the wisdom that ancestors have acquired through trial and error, that is, traditions, are condensed into customs."They also think that "traditions are inherited from ancestors, so living people now have a duty to cherish the inherited traditions and pass them on to their descendants."As a result, they attach great importance to historical ties such as the past and present.In this way, conservatism also includes elements of orientation that are different from nostalgic hobbies.They also think that "in order to move steadily in the future, we must learn from history."It is said that this is because history is a treasure trove of failures that our predecessors have tried and errored (Empiricism).Western Europe貴族The conservatives from which they were born are seen to be proud of themselves as inheritors of the spirit that has continued from the past.CommunismIt opposes such revolutionary ideas as trampling on the hometown inherited from its ancestors.

Conservatives make reasonSkepticismdo.They areFrench RevolutionRaised rationalism inJacobin schoolMade the mistake of running out of parliament, degrading morality, and downplaying freedom (Fear politics) Is one of the reasons for such skepticism.In the French Revolution, the state behaved like a religion and norm presidency, which British conservatism hated.[6]..Similar situationRussian Revolution,Cultural RevolutionIt is also seen in many revolutions and political changes.Thus the conservativesTraditionWith maintenance and gradual change,Left wing revolutionSee negatively (Reformism,Anti-communism).

John gray[Avoid ambiguity]Is the French Revolution, the Socialist Revolution,Mao ZedongThe system isユ ー ト ピ アAssumingGood and bad dualismTypicalMillennialismAlthough traditional conservatism was critical of these utopian ideas, on the basis of (tolerance,Pluralism), The United States in recent yearsNeo-conservatismCriticized the pursuit of utopia[7].

In England,Edmund BurkeBesides political ideological conservatism likeIsaac Walton,Thomas CarlyleThere is also conservatism that emphasizes a way of life like[8].British Conservative PartyFormer chairmanQuintin Hogg"Conservatism is an attitude or a constant mental action[9]It is not a philosophy that refers to the above, but it works in a timeless manner in the process of developing a free society, and human nature itself is a constant request from the bottom of my heart. "[10]That is.Conservative theorist(English editionAccording to the report, conservatism has natural conservatism other than political conservatism and modern conservatism.[11]..Natural conservativeness is the fear of new and unknown things and the desire to maintain the status quo both positively and negatively.This is a human nature of having an attachment to what he is accustomed to, not an ideological assertion.

Michael oakshotAccording to conservative, "prefer familiar things over strangers, try things over unattended things, facts over mysteries, real things over possible things". Things that are more limited than unlimited, things that are closer than distant, things that are more than enough, things that are more useful than perfect, more than bliss in utopia I like the current laughter.Older relationships and belief-based relationships are preferred over the temptation of love, which may have more to gain.Acquiring and expanding is not as important as retaining, nurturing and having fun.The grief of loss is more intense than the excitement of innovation and promising.Being conservative means being indifferent to your own encounters, living in a way that suits you, and pursuing a higher degree of perfection that does not exist in you or your environment. Don't try.For some, this is the result of their choice, but for others, it is their tendency to appear more or less in their likes and dislikes, and they themselves are chosen or specially cultivated. It's not something I did. 』[12].

Samuel P. HuntingtonAccording to, conservatism has three definitions:[13].

  1. Revolutionary definition
    Special in historySocial movementDefined as.The definition of this period is the French Revolution, or the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century.BourgeoisieFor the riseFeudalPower, aristocratic class,LandlordDepends on classRecoilSuppose thatIn this interpretation, conservatism is associated with status, and the old regime, the middle class,Worker,DemocracyAndIndividualismIt conflicts with ideas such as.
  2. Universal definition
    The content of the idea, uniqueIdea・ Definition by value.Conservatism正義,order,balanced, And an autonomous system of universal values ​​such as moderate.
  3. Situational definition
    Defined as a transcendental existence that can be seen in all ages.Conservatism seeks to justify any social order.By this definition, the essence of conservatism is to passionately affirm the value of existing institutions.However, by this definition, conservatism does not oppose all changes, and may tolerate secondary changes in order to retain the fundamental elements of society.

Huntington considers the definitions of 1 and 2 to be inappropriate, "the conservative character is static, repetitive in the event of similar social conditions, and It's not progressive. "

Anthony Quinton is a traditionalist,SocialismCommunitarianism and political skepticism, which regard unity as organic growth, are the three principles of conservatism.[14].

Many historical ideas have revolutionary and progressive elements and conservative and retrospective elements.キ リ ス ト 教,Islam,ProtestantEtc., while denying traditional religious forcesBibleInsisted on returning to the teachings of.Modernism(Enlightenment, liberalism) is traditional with progressiveismFeudalismI dismantled the society,The Ancient GreekEtc.Western civilizationClaimed to be the origin of (Renaissance).Anarchism,CommunismEtc., while advocating social reform and revolution資本主義He insisted on the revival of a multicultural society and a symbiotic society that were dismantled by.

United Kingdom

Edmund Burke

In the 17th century, EnglandEdward Cork The中 世Germanic lawInheritedCommon lawTheorized the system of. In the 18th centuryEdmund BurkeIs based on the common law traditionReflections on the French Revolution] Was published, and the conservative idea was completed.This book isFrench RevolutionInFear politicsIt is also a book of criticism against.May 1790, 5, when Burke preached the threat of a revolution in the British House of Commons, is considered the day of the birth of modern conservatism.For this reason, Burke is called the "father of conservative thought."Burke has historically inherited opinions and beliefs that have become common ideas in society. ancient opinions(Old opinion),prejudiceCalled (prejudice, stereotype), in the case of EnglandNational churchIs the first prejudice And the BritishPolitical thoughtAnd[15]..He also said that the state "cannot be picked up or pulled out according to the idea of ​​temporary convenience", and that the state is the basis of the Constitution and is inseparable from the church.[15]..BurkeRousseau OfSocial contract theoryI thought that I could not give full confidence to human beings like the French Revolution and I could not adopt the orthodox theory that relied on human beings.[15].

With politicsReligiousconnection of,Separation of politics and religionIn a conservative view of the matter, Conservative politician Hugh Cecil, who was also a good interpreter of Burke, said:New TestamentThen "Caesar's thing to Caesar, Return God's thing to God, "which is a separation of religious and secular matters," in the realm of state authority, you must obey it, but that realm is pure. Does not cover religious matters. "[16]..Cecil argues that norms must not be educated by religious politics (states), and that norms should be understood internally by each human being through faith, and the national church is not an institution of the state, but people. It was said that it was a place for internal recharge[16].

Toryism and the Conservative Party

British conservatism, formerly known as Toryism,Royal reconstructionBorn in the era (1660–1688).Govern by the divine right of kingsmonarchWithClass societyWas supported by British conservatism.But established a constitutional governmentHonorary revolution(1688) brought about a reformalization of Toryism.In post-reformal Toryism, sovereignty is now considered to have been given to the three statuses of the King, Senate, and House of Representatives.[17].

According to conservative historiansRichard HookerIs the founder of conservatismEarl of HalifaxIs hispragmatismShould be praised,David HumeShould be praised for not conservatively trusting rationalism in politics,Edmund BurkeIs considered an early leading theorist.But Hooker was a man before the advent of conservatism, Halifax did not belong to any political party, Hume was not involved in politics, BurkeWhig partyThere is also a counterargument that he was a member.

In the 19th century, conservatives were BurkeCatholic emancipationRejected him for defending him, instead(English editionInspired by.French RevolutionI wrote about the Tories' reaction to(English editionWas neglected[18]..Conservatives are BurkeAmerican Independence RevolutionI also objected to supporting.For example, of Tory membersSamuel JohnsonIs the book "Taxation without Tyranny"[19]Blame it in.

Conservatism in EnglandRoyal reconstructionDeveloped from monarchy in the process of.AbsolutistsAbsolute monarchyIn support of the kingDivine right of kingsHe argued that he was governed by.Sovereignty is people, parliamentary authority,Religious freedomThey opposed the idea that it came from.Robert FilmerWritten before the English Civil War, "Patriacha or the King's Natural Rights"[20]Has come to be accepted as a statement of their views. Following the 1688 Glorious RevolutionTory partyThe conservatives, known as members, accepted that the king, the Senate, and the House of Representatives would share sovereignty.[21]..However, Toryism was driven out by Whiggism during the long period of time when the Whigs were dominant.[22].the 1830sRenamed the Conservative Party, the party returned as a major political force after becoming home to both patriarchal aristocrats and capitalists in the free market who worked together with anxiety.[23].

From 1979 to 1990Margaret ThatcherThe administration isNeo-conservatismNeoliberalismAndNew lightAlso called[24].

The United States of America

In the United States,Common lawThe legal thought ofWilliam blackstoneThrough "British Exegesis", as American conservatismAlexander HamiltonEt al.Founding fatherWas inherited by us.And this legal idea is AmericanConstitutionIt became an idea.However, American conservatism did not require the retention of the British royal family or the Japanese royal family, but due to the Great Depression of the 1930s.LiberalismIt is said that conservatism appeared when the principle of was fluctuated, and it was published in England in 1944 and in the United States in 1945.Friedrich Hayekof"Road to servitudeBrings together American conservatism, and the book is considered the first to define the American conservative movement.[25]..However, Hayek is not conservative in himselfLiberalism(Liberalism,liberal) Insisted[26]..Hayek's liberalism entrusts social order to the free acts of individuals as long as it does not violate the freedom of others, and it is denied that the state manages poverty and unemployment issues rationally.[27].

Focus on BurkeRussell KirkWritten in 1953[28]As a definition of conservativeism, (1) believe that human conscience and society were created by the will of God, (2) ponder the diversity and mystery of tradition, (3) civilization. Society needs order and class, equality is moral equality, social equality through political intervention is denied, (4) affirmation and freedom of private property are inseparable, (5) statute of limitations. Distrust of philosophers who trust the concept (Burke) and play with aerospace theory and calculators who adopt extreme rationalism, (6) Innovation invites humans to despair, and the true change isProvidenceBy[29].

America as of 2016Two-party systemAndRepublican PartyIs a conservativeDemocratic PartyIs taking a liberal position.Republicans have traditionallyLiberalism,Small governmentTo raiseUnited Nations,Federal governmentIt is promoting the minimization of interference (state rights principle), deregulation and privatization of large corporations, and the universal health insurance system is also in the opposite position.Also, in terms of environmental issuesGlobal warmingThere is a tendency to prioritize economic efficiency over problems.In foreign policyAnti-communismFrom the standpoint of, he took a hard line and intervened in conflicts and wars in countries such as Panama, Iraq, and Afghanistan.Traditionally critical of the central governmentRegionalismBehind the strong background is the spirit of independence from the pioneering era and mutual non-interference.Monroism,Civil WarProgressiveismThere is also a historical background such as the opposition to the fact that the Union Army became the winner and became the federal government.

In the United States, family is respected as a basic value, and the government is wary of being a threat to family and private property.FederalismThere is a tradition of.Ronald ReaganReduces income taxGeorge HW BushWas based on this American conservative idea that he promoted the abolition of the inheritance tax.Therefore, the conservatives of the United States are the opposite of the nationalist conservatives of Japan, France, Germany, Italy, etc. (LibertarianismSee also).However, although conservatives in Japan and Britain emphasize the role of the state in military, diplomacy, education, and security maintenance,Economic policy,Social policyInSmall governmentThere is also a strong tendency to advocate, especially advocating the value of the family, and cautiously or positively oppose the socialization of childcare and long-term care.In this respect, it is more libertarian than the continental European countries, and has something in common with American conservatives.

Literary criticLionel TrillingThere is no conservatism in America, the urge to conservative[30]I hope it's onlyDaniel BellEven in the editorial "Conservative and Reactionary Right-Wing of Modern America", there is no conservative idea like Edmund Burke in the United States.New light(New right wing)[31].

AmericanSeymour Martin LipsetLiberal and conservatives in the United States "often do not take the opposite position on issues such as equality and freedom. Instead, both sides appeal to the core values ​​of either freedom or equality. For example, liberals are equal. While emphasizing the excellence of principles and the social injustices that result from unlimited individualism, conservatism includes the value of individual freedom and the value of fluidity and the social need to achieve through effort in a liberal silver bullet. It is cherished as a value that is "at risk" by the collectiveism. "[32].

on the other hand,Educational institutions in the United StatesAccording to a survey of teachers' political trends inliberalIt is more inferior, especially in universities, where the proportion of university humanities majors is 1 Democrats for 5 Republican and 1 Republican for social sciences. 8 people[33][34]..A survey of four-year college professors in the United States found that 50% were Democrats, 39% had no supporters, and 11% were Republicans.[35]In a survey of all university professors, including two-year colleges, 51% were Democrats, 35% had no supporting parties, and 14% were Republicans.[36][34]..The tendency for liberal dominance increases as it becomes an elite school, and it is a four-year system.Liberal ArtsElite universities with affiliated universities and doctoral programsCommunity collegethan,liberalHigh percentage[37][34]. Also,K-12The same is true for (kindergarten to high school) education, with 12% of K-45 public school teachers supporting the Democratic Party, 30% the Republican Party, and 25% having no supporting party.[38][34].

Political trends of US educators (party approval rating)[34]
Democratic PartyRepublican PartyNo supporting party
Four-year university faculty50%11%39%
All university faculty members including two-year universities51%14%35%
K-12 (Kindergarten to High School) Teacher45%30%25%

Japan

Centralization after the Meiji Restoration

Meiji RestorationAs a result of the disappearance of the old-fashioned seclusionists, JapanPledge of the Five ArticlesbyEntering the countryAdopting the national policy, a large-scale westernization was carried out.PoliticsThen, the separation of powers was touted.The five-article oath contained a clause that said, "Old practice is broken.The first year of the Meiji eraIn September, it was positioned as "Kanchi Western Studies Hakyoni Imperial Way Faction" by the "Proclamation of the University School".[39], Old Confucianism was expelled by the reconstruction of Kogaku[40], Based on the national polity of JapanJapanese soul Hansai-Japanese spirit Western talentWas shouted. 1871,Abandoned DomainWas carried out, from the decentralization system of the Edo periodCentralizationReturned to.

1872 years,Fukuzawa YukichiIsRecommendation of learning』," If all the people aspire to study, know the reason of things, and go to the wind of civilization, the law of the government should also extend to the case of Prince Tomohito. To be irritated and relaxed is simply due to the virtues and vices of the people. "[41].. 1873,Yuri MoriIs Fukuzawa Yukichi et al.WesternersWithMeirokushaFormed and progressiveEnlightenment ThoughtSpread.

On the other hand, when Japan lifted the ban on Christianity in 1873, after thatReligious rightWill also flow into Japan.

Separation of powers after the birth of a political party

In 1881Apology for opening the DietWas promulgated, and thenPolitical partyWas born in 1890Imperial Japanese ConstitutionHas been enforcedImperial AssemblyIs installedSeparation of powerWhen the is done, the CabinetTranscendentalism OfFeudal clanWhen,Progressiveism (Promotionalism)Reform partyThe system and the liberty reform principle that tries to "circulate in the policy of reform according to the cause of freedom"(Constitution) Liberal Partysystem[42]Will occupy.As a conservative party, it advocated "seeking the parallelism of order and progress."Rikken Teisei Partywas there[43]However, it is disbanded soon.

In Japan at that time, the division of political parties was "extremely defending the old and stubbornly adhering to the old example, and rushing to the extreme and enthusiastic about enterprising and conservative. It is the first priority to keep order in the progress, and the first priority is to improve the current situation. It was said to be "things"[44]..In addition, it was said that conservatives tended to take policies of centralization, diplomacy, and industry, and reform (progress) tended to take policies of decentralization, trade, and non-interference in industry.[44].

1900,Ito HirobumiAs the ruling partyConstitutional societyFormed, JapanParty politicsHowever, the Rikken Seiyukai was dominated by former Liberal Party people, and its platform contained progressiveism such as "prosperous voyage trade" and "local autonomy."[45].

The sprout of controlism after the outbreak of World War I

World War IAs a result, prices have soared in Japan.In particular, the rise in rice prices became a problem, and price adjustments were called for. In 1917, Japan promulgated the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce Ordinance.The government said, "Because prices will rise and fall due to the naturally occurring supply-demand relationship, it has never been a long time to forcibly lower or forcibly raise prices by adding artificial force to them. "It's not a good idea," he said, but explained that the idea of ​​peacetime does not apply to this emergency.[46]..He also said, "Even if it is an old custom, in today's case, we will work hard to improve and renew the points that are harmful to the general public."[47]..However, it has been pointed out that the decree that restricts property ownership and freedom of business is unconstitutional.[48].. 1918,Rice riotIn 1921, Japan settled on supply and demand.Rice grain methodWas announced.

1925 years,Soviet-Japanese Basic TreatyWas signed and Japan-Russia trade resumed, Japan enacted[49], An export union for Russia was established by businessmen with the support of the Japanese government.[50][51]..This is because the Soviet side is the All-Russia Central Consumer Purchasing Association ((Russian version) And the State Trade Bureau ((Russian version) Etc.[52]This is because, although not due to conservatism, the number of Japanese export unions will continue to increase.

Export control after the Great Depression

In 1929World DepressionAfter that, countries such as France and the United Kingdom shifted trade from tariffs to quotas.[53]Enters the era of agreement trade[53], Japan also needed to control exports[53].. In 1931, Japan was in each industrycartel-trustTo strengthenImportant Industrial Control LawAnd promulgated to control production[54]In 1934, the Export Union Law was amended to strengthen the control of the export union.[54]Although centralization from production to export has progressed, these unions were operated by the private sector.There were both government and private sector agreements.[53].

In 1934, Japan set retaliatory tariffs and retaliatory import controls to address the ongoing protectionism of each country.Trade Defensive LawWas enacted, and this law is said to have been effective in normalizing trade.

Wartime controlled economy after the National Mobilization Law

1937 years,Sino-Japanese warBroke out.

1938 years,Planning Institute OfInnovation bureaucracyDue toinnovation (Socialist)National Total Mobilization ActWas enacted, JapanNational WarEntered the system. In 1938, was enforced, and in 1939,Price control regulationsWas enforced, and JapanOfficial priceAnd the system, and in the same year,National Conscription OrderWas also enforced.However, there were also conservative opinions arguing that the war would be fought with the issuance of huge amounts of public bonds by traditional capitalism.[55].

1941 years,Attack on Pearl HarborMurray OperationByPacific WarBroke out.

In 1943, the amendment of the National Recruitment Ordinance began, and in the same year it came into effect, starting in 1944.

After the war

After the war, "Maintenance" is not exactly what it saysRevivalismIt comes to have the meaning of.

1955 years,LDPAims to move forward in order in the "Declaration of Party"[56], Sung a conservative party.

1963 years,Kentaro HayashiBut,"Contemporary Japanese thought system 35 Neo-conservatism] Was compiled.In that commentary, Hayashi said that conservatism was neither a reactionary nor an evil, but that it had consistently maintained its existence while countering liberalism and socialism.LiberalismUnlike in conflict withUnionBased onSocialismTo counter[57][58]..These positions are not limited to the Liberal Democratic Party, but in recent yearsHope partyDue toGreen conservatismAlso attach importance to.

Then in the United States in the 1980sRonald Reagan, BritishMargaret Thatcher, West GermanyHelmut ColeWithYasuhiro NakasoneThe administration isNeo-conservatismWas called.Moreover,Junichiro KoizumiThe Liberal Democratic Party after the administration followed the flow of the Nakasone Cabinet.NeoliberalismEconomicPro-US maintenance-Neo-conservatismBecame the main body.

Maruyama MasaoAccording to "Japanese conservatism is conservatism that adapts to the reality of the time (="Realism) And do not stubbornly adhere to the conservative principles of the French royalists. "[59]Is said to be.about thisHiroshi Nakamura"Traditionally shared by many Japanese people, the" political culture "that adapts to the situation or flow of circumstances, is authoritarian, and follows the power of the times."Grand PrixExplains that is a characteristic of Japan's political climate, and that there is a culture of "unavoidable" and "situation and position" that has no sense of values.[60].

In 2010, the Liberal Democratic Party is in the new platformEmperorThe Japanese are people who have a sense of belonging to the country.[61].

Religious conservatism

America

The term religious conservatism is used most oftenThe United States of AmericaIs. Since the 1980s, especially since 2001米 国Then it's called neoconNeo-conservatismChristian rightHas emerged.This differs from the traditional conservatism of regionalism and mutual non-intervention in that it should act positively for liberalism and the expansion of national interests.Religious right(Christian right) With the rise ofChristian fundamentalismな どProtestant OftheologyConservatism in the biblical sense ofBibleDescription ofLet's accept the text as it isThis trend is called conservatism.Conservatives in this sense, based on the Bible, said, "Peopleキ リ ス ト OfcrossTo emphasize the doctrine that they will be saved by the Atonement of Substitute byEvangelical(Evangelical), or self-proclaimed evangelist, and is sometimes referred to as such.AmericaSouthern BaptistsEtc. are the greatest forces of this conservatism.traditionalProtestantAmong the various factions, there are few factions that take the position of evangelicals other than the Southern Baptists.

Liberal theologyThe position of is close to the idea that all religions lead to salvation, although the roads are different.thoughtOf哲学Sensitive to tides, and threetheologyThere is a tendency not to respect the Bible.This position is unacceptable to the evangelicals.The faction is a group of Christians who do not disgrace such a position.On the other hand, the traditional Protestant factions, which are anti-evangelicals (anti-evangelicals), have criticized the evangelicals for distorting their purpose by confining them only to the wording of the Bible.

However, just because they are theologically conservative, they are also politically conservative.HawkIs not always the case.nuclear weaponsAgree to useAnti-community-NationalismTend to be biasedFundamentalistWith the use of nuclear weapons戦 争Conservatives who are in opposition toキ リ ス ト 教There are many people.They are,キ リ ス ト crossWhat did you want to convey with your death?BibleBased on his pursuit of what the mission he wanted to convey, "The message of the cross of Christ isReconciliation with people or reconciliation between people,PacifismBecause he has the idea that "is", he takes such a position.Also theyabortionI disagree with.

2009, the first black president in historyBarack ObamaSince he took office, all the peoplemedical insuranceIntroducing the systemminimum wageThere is a growing tendency for liberals and leftists as a whole, such as raising the number.On the other hand, it has been pointed out that the activities of white supremacists and racists have become more active after President Obama took office.[62]..In addition, the Obama administration's policy was "Big governmentA right-wing civil movement that opposes the idea of ​​"expanding the power of the federal government"Tea partyIs also expanding its power.

Catholic church conservatives

CatholicConservatives are theologically incompatible with Protestant conservatives,abortionIt is the same to oppose.

Eastern Church (Orthodox Church / Eastern Churches)

Liberal theologyEvangelicalismThe contrast isWestern church, Of which mainlyProtestantIt is a classification that applies toReformationAnd no history of the rise of liberal theologyEastern Church(Orthodox church-Eastern churches), There is no trend that fits this classification in history, and the theological viewDedicationThe terms "conservative" and "innovative" in attitudes toward formal and social issues are also used in a different sense than in the Western Church.

In the area of ​​theology and the consideration of the relationship between the church and society, we are fundamentally questioning from the stage of the logical framework in the Western and Western churches, and we try to distance ourselves from this.clergyman,Theologian, Many philosophers are produced in the Orthodox Church.

Just because it is theologically conservative does not mean that it is politically conservative or hawkish, as is the case in the Western Church, but like American fundamentalists, it has theological views and political views. There are almost no examples in the Eastern Church where attitudes are linked.

Islam

Iran revolutionAfter(I.e.In an Islamic legal society like, what is conservatism?UlamaRefers to the position of supporting politics by religious leaders such as.

Socialist country

Socialist countryInPlanned economySuch asSocialismThe position that emphasizes the principle of the above and opposes the introduction of market economy elements is called the conservative.People's Republic of China OfChen Yun,Soviet Union OfYegor LigachyovIs a typical existence.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Maintenance, Goo dictionary
  2. ^ Conservatism, Goo dictionary
  3. ^ BBC: Edmund Burke (1729-1797)(English)
  4. ^ The Scary Echo of the Intolerance of the French Revolution in America Today(English)
  5. ^ a b Law and Justice in Montesquieu's Works: Intersecting Readings of Legal History and Legal Theory
  6. ^ a b Tatsuya Sugimoto "Value in Conservatism as Political Thought / Political Philosophy Focusing on Conservatism in England and America" ​​Nihon University Political Economy Study 49 (4), p523
  7. ^ Tatsuya Sugimoto "Value in Conservatism as Political Thought / Political Philosophy Focusing on Conservatism in England and America" ​​Nihon University Political Economy Study 49 (4), p540
  8. ^ Tatsuya Sugimoto "Value in Conservatism as Political Thought / Political Philosophy Focusing on Conservatism in England and America" ​​Nihon University Political Economy Study 49 (4), p542
  9. ^ British: constant force
  10. ^ Viscount Hailsham. The Conservative CaseMiddlesex: Penguin Books, 1959. (English)
  11. ^ In the original language, the former is a proper noun (notation starting with a capital letter) and the latter is a common noun (notation starting with a lowercase letter).Hugh Cecil "What is Conservatism?" Waseda University Press
  12. ^ Michael Oakeshott "Being Conservative" ("Rationalism in politics』Collection, translated by Fumihiko Ishiyama,Keiso Shobo, 1988, p. 200)
  13. ^ Huntington, S. 1957. Conservatism as an ideology. In American Political Science Review 51: 454-73.
  14. ^ Anthony Quinton, Political Science of Imperfections, Toshindo, p10-11
  15. ^ a b c Tatsuya Sugimoto "Value in Conservatism as Political Thought / Political Philosophy Focusing on Conservatism in England and America" ​​Nihon University Political Economy Study 49 (4), p527-8
  16. ^ a b Tatsuya Sugimoto "Value in Conservatism as Political Thought / Political Philosophy Focusing on Conservatism in England and America" ​​Nihon University Political Economy Study 49 (4), p529-530
  17. ^ Eccleshall, p. Ix, 21
  18. ^ Eccleshall, p.
  19. ^ British: Taxation No Tyranny
  20. ^ British: Patriarcha or the Natural Power of Kings
  21. ^ Eccleshall, pp. 21-25
  22. ^ Eccleshall, p.
  23. ^ Eccleshall, p.
  24. ^ Moto Ninomiya "New Light in England: Neoliberalism and Neoconservatism" 2010, Hitotsubashi University
  25. ^ Kayoko Fujimori"The Birth of Conservatism in America and the Intersection of Ayn Rand" Fukuyama City University "Urban Management" No. 1, 2012 pp5-20
  26. ^ Kayoko Fujimori "From Impulse to Thought-The Birth of American Conservatism and Hayek's Road to Serfdom" City Management No.3 (2013) pp.22
  27. ^ Hitoshi Ochiai"Social Theory of Conservatism Hayek, Heart, Austin" Keiso Shobo 1987, p141
  28. ^ British: The conservative mind, from Burke to Santayana
  29. ^ Tatsuya Sugimoto "Value in Conservatism as Political Thought / Political Philosophy Focusing on Conservatism in England and America" ​​Nihon University Political Economy Study 49 (4), p538, 2013
  30. ^ British: conservative impulses
  31. ^ Kayoko Fujimori "From Impulse to Thought-The Birth of American Conservatism and Hayek's Road to Serfdom" City Management No.3 (2013) pp.9-26
  32. ^ http://www.ppionline.org/documents/equality_lipset.pdf(English)
  33. ^ Gross and Simmons 2007, p33, Rothman et al. 2005, p6, Klein and Stern 2009
  34. ^ a b c d e Brian Kaplan, translated by Maki Tsukitani "Is there any point in going to college?Economics Against Education ”Misuzu Shobo, 2019, pp.346-350.
  35. ^ Rothman et al. 2005, pp5-6
  36. ^ Gross and Simmons 2007, pp31-32.
  37. ^ Cardiff and Klein, 2005, p243, Gross and Simmons 2007
  38. ^ Moe, 2011, pp84-87.
  39. ^ Restoration Psychiatric History Study P.421 Asakichi Tokushige 1934
  40. ^ Restoration Psychiatric History Study P.423 Asakichi Tokushige 1934
  41. ^ Fukuzawa Yukichi Academic Recommendations Fukuzawa Yukichi
  42. ^ Meiji Constitutional History (Vol. XNUMX) P.321-322 Takeshige Kudo 1914
  43. ^ Inukai Tsuyoshi Inukai Vol. P.208-209 Yoshinao Washio 1938
  44. ^ a b Tokyo Senmon Gakko Reference Book Political Principles Tonami Shoin Collection Edition P.304-305 Kenkichi Ichishima 1889
  45. ^ History of the Constitutional Seiyukai Vol. P.11-12 1924
  46. ^ The record of the tongue-in-cheek battle of interest rate control at the XNUMXth Imperial Diet. Volume XNUMX P.8-9 Yojiro Maskawa 1918
  47. ^ The record of the tongue-in-cheek battle of interest rate control at the XNUMXth Imperial Diet. Volume XNUMX P.14 Yojiro Maskawa 1918
  48. ^ Interest rate control ordinance and unconstitutional issues Kobe Yushin Nippo February 1918, 2
  49. ^ Export union Koto bank
  50. ^ Japan-Russia Treaty Concluded and Export Union Plan for Russia Chugai Shogyo Shinpo January 1925, 1
  51. ^ Progress of export union to Russia with the consent of the government Jiji Shinpo February 1926, 2
  52. ^ The current state of the Alliance for the Republic of Socialist Savet P.71-72 Hitoshi Yamakawa 1928
  53. ^ a b c d Trade policy theory P.220-222 1934
  54. ^ a b Trade policy theory P.223 1934
  55. ^ Behind the power problem P.48-49 Ichizo Kobayashi 1938
  56. ^ Party Declaration / Platform LDP
  57. ^ Kentaro Hayashi"Conservatism, freedom and progress in modern times". "Contemporary Japanese thought system35 Explanation of "Neoconservatism"
  58. ^ Critical Rationalism and Liberalism / Conservatism: Kentaro Hayashi's Popper Theory "Bulletin of the Faculty of Education and Culture, Akita University Vol. 57, p 41-50, 2002
  59. ^ "Japanese Political Awareness" "Collection" Vol. 3, p. 328
  60. ^ Nakamura "Democratization under Occupation and Japanese Political Culture" (Kobe Gakuin Law Vol. 34, No. 1, 2004-4)
  61. ^ XNUMX (XNUMX) Code LDP
  62. ^ Racial and ethnic hate crimes in the U.S. Obama administration and recession effects Archived August 2009, 6, at the Wayback Machine.Asahicom June 2009, 6

References

  • Hitoshi Ochiai"Conservative Social Theory Hayek, Heart, Austin"Keiso Shobo 1987
  • Yatsuhiro Nakagawa "Philosophy of Conservativeism-What did the Intellectual Giants Say?"PHP Institute, February 2004.ISBN 9784569633947. 
  • Western part "Heroes of Thought Asking for the Source of Conservation" Kadokawa Haruki Office <Haruki Bunko>, January 2012.ISBN 978-4-7584-3629-8. 
  • Susumu Nishibe "Chapter 39 for Conservative Thought"Central public opinion new companyChuko Bunko>, November 2012.ISBN 9784122057357. 
  • Susumu Nishibe "Existence and Conservatism The Truth About" People and the World "Crisis" Haruki Kadokawa Office, April 2013.ISBN 9784758412162. 
  • Edited by Hirohisa Noda "What is Conservativeism?"Nakanishi Publishing, February 2010.ISBN 9784779504150. 
  • Behrens, R. 1980. The conservative party from Heath to Thatcher: Policies and politics 1974-1979. London: Saxon House.
  • Burke, E. 1976. Reflections on the revolution in France. Ed. CC O'Brein. London: Penguin.
  • Eccleshall, Robert. English Conservatism since the Restoration: An Introduction and AnthologyLondon: Unwin Hyman, 1990 ISBN-0 04-445346-9
  • Epstein, K. 1966. The genesis of German conservatism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gottfried, P., Fleming, T. 1988. The conservative movement. Boston: Twayne.
  • Hoover, K., Plant, R. 1989. Conservative capitalism in Great Britain and the United States: A critical appraisal. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Hayyek, F. 1960. The constitution of liberty. London: Routledge; Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press.
  • Huntington, S. 1957. Conservatism as an ideology. In American Political Science Review 51: 454-73.
  • Kirk, R. 1962. A program for Conservatives. Chicago: Regnery.
  • Kirk, R. 1986. The conservative mind: From Burke to Eliot. 7th edn. Chicago: Regnery.
  • Kristol, I. 1983. Reflections of a neoconservatives: Looking back, looking ahead. New York: Basic Books.
  • Lawson, N. 1980. The new conservatism. London: Center for Policy Studies.
  • Nisbet, R. 1979. The conservatism. Minneapolis: Univ. Of Minnesota Press.
  • Oakeshott, M. 1962. Rationalism in politics. London: Methuen.
  • O'Sullivan, N. 1976. Conservatism. New York: St Martine's Press.
  • Reichley, A. 1981. Conservatives in an age of change: The Nixon and Ford administrations. Washington, DC: Bookings Institution.
  • Scruton, R. 1980. The meaning of conservatism. London: Macmillan.
  • Wills, G. 1979. Confessions of a conservatives. London: Penguin.
  • Tatsuya Sugimoto "Value in Conservatism as Political Thought / Political Philosophy Focusing on Conservatism in Britain and America" ​​Nihon University Political Economy Study 49 (4), 517-550, 2013-03-05
  • Brian Kaplan, translated by Maki Tsukitani "Is there any point in going to college?Economics Against Education ”Misuzu Shobo, 2019
  • Gross, Neil and Solon Simmons 2007, The Social and Political Views of American Professors, Working Paper, Harvard University.
  • Rothman, Stanley, Robert Lichter, and Neil Nevitte, 2005, Politics and Professional Advancement among College Faculty, Forum3 (1). DOI: 10.2202 / 1540-8884.1067
  • Moe, Terry, 2011, Special Intersett: Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools, Brookings Institution Press (2011)

Related literature

Related item

外部 リンク

    Corona measures


     

    Back to Top
    Fermer