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🏛 | Governor Mikazuki declares "medical system emergency" / Shiga


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Governor Mikazuki declares ``medical system emergency'' / Shiga

 
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Governor Mikazuki does not impose restrictions on movement at this stage, but when meeting elderly people or people with underlying diseases, such as when returning home for the Obon festival, confirm a negative test in advance and be careful of behavior with a high risk of infection. I asked.
 

Governor Mikazuki declared a "medical system emergency" on the XNUMXth.At a regular press conference, Governor Mikazuki said about the maximum number of beds that could be secured... → Continue reading

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Infection risk

    Senior citizens

    Senior citizens(Koreisha)社会Compared to other members inageIt is a group of members with a high value. HoweverSenior citizensThere is no fixed definition of age.

    In Japanese, as a synonymOld man(Rojin),Elderly(Toshiyori),ElderlyThere are words such as (Otoshiyori). Also, this generationelderlyIt may be called (Rounen).

    Definition

    The line of old age is ambiguous and subjective,whoBy definition, over 65 years old[Note 1][2]People are considered to be elderly, and they are retired orOld age pensionIt is also possible to say people who are more than eligible for benefits.

    65-74 years old are early-stage elderly (semi-elderly), 75 years old and over are late-stage elderly[3]It is said that

    Regulations in the medical system

    Act on ensuring medical care for the elderly, And various laws and regulations associated with it[4]Stipulates that 65-74 years old is the early-stage elderly, and 75 years or older is the late-stage elderly.

    Definition in the Elderly Persons Employment Stabilization Law

    • Elderly - Act on stability of employment of elderly people, etc.(Abbreviation: Elderly Persons Employment Stabilization Law) means "elderly persons" who are 55 years of age or older.[5].
    • Elderly people, etc. --"Elderly" and "Middle-aged" under 55 (45+)[5]), And "middle-aged and elderly unemployed, etc." under 55 years old (unemployed people between 45 and 65 years old and other unemployed people who are particularly difficult to find employment, specificallyDisabled,Criminal lawAccording to the regulations such asProbationRegarding the mediation of the occupation of the person attached toProbation officeFrom the longPublic Employment Security OfficeThose who contacted the chief[5]Say something that does not fall under the category of "elderly people").

    Classification in demographics

    各種公的機関が行う人口調査では、64歳以下を「現役世代」(1歳未満を乳児、1~5歳を幼児、6~14歳を児童、15~44歳を青年、45~64歳を壮年)、65~74歳を「前期高齢者」(准高齢者)、75歳以上を「後期高齢者」(85歳以上を超後期高齢者)と区分している[6].

    How to call

    Excessive social security benefits, cognitive and physical deterioration,dementia・ Disgust for the elderly due to the fatigue and social burden of nursing care for the elderly who are prone to illness such as bedriddenElderly abuse (Ageism) Has increased.In response to this, there is a tendency to avoid expressions that emphasize age such as "older, older, older" and to devise and use value-neutral expressions such as "more experienced, senior". ing.For example, instead of old, senior (Senior), Elderly, aged, the name of the medical system for the elderly and the design change of the elderly driver sign.

    In the past, the term old man was widely used, but recently there is an opinion that it may be a discriminatory term.[7].

    JapanesePublic transportElderly peoplehandicapped・ Sick / injured ・Pregnant womanFor etc.Priority seatingIs provided,Japan National Railway,Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of TransportationSome businesses, such as "Silver seatWas expressed.From here, in Japan, the elderlysilverAlso called.In addition, elderly people call themselves "silverIt is often seen that it is expressed as ".To utilize the vocational skills of the elderly, "Silver Human Resource CenterThere are facilities named "" in various places.

    Medical aspect

    dementiaPrevalenceIs rare in the working age group under 65 years old with 2-10%,[8], Sudden increase after age 80, and more than half affected in Europe by age 95 and older[8].. OECD predicts that 20 years from now, Europe will have 1.5 times more dementia if the prevalence by age remains at its current pace[8].

    5 types of personality traits and Rachard

    1. Mature type-A type that has hope for the future without regretting the past. Generous.
    2. Rocking chair type (dependent type)-A type that accepts reality. They tend to rely on someone who provides material and emotional support. I try to live comfortably.
    3. Defensive type (armor type)-A type that tries to maintain the level of activity when young. Does not allow aging.
    4. Indignation type (hostile type)-A type in which dissatisfaction with old age appears as an attack on others (fireworks, automobiles). Blame others for the mistakes of life.
    5. Remorse type-A type that thinks that life was a failure and blocks it. I think it was because of my incompetence.
    [9][10]

    Aging

    When more than 65% of the population is 7 years old or older in a certain country / regionAging society, When it exceeds 14%Aged society, When it exceeds 21%Super aging societyCalled.

    In Japan, it was the lowest at 1935% in 4.7, but reached 2007% in 21.5, making it a super-aging society. In Japan, it was number one in the world until the 2050s, but after 1 it will be number two or less in the world.

    Relationship with society

    In general, some older people経 験It is said that he is proficient in various things.AgingDue to the decline in cognitive and motor functions associated with senility, and the decline in memory due to senility, etc.Retirement ageLaterContinued employmentMany people have retired from the front line without doing this, but the abundant experience and the intuition derived from that experience are the knowledge gained by learning and the elderly who demonstrate efficiency beyond the skills acquired by practice. It exists in it.It is said that young people should learn what they should learn and pass it on to future generations.

    Elderly people have been socially older than they used to beSeniorityAnd has gained a certain position due to the high turnout in elections, but unlike the present ageAncient timesからModernIn the early days, medical technology was not developed, so it became rarer as we got older, and for a long time, "old people" and "old people" and "ElderThere is a special honorific title for the elderly.ConfucianismKeiro's idea based on is helping the elderly to be respected.

    An organization organized by the elderlyElderly groupThat is.As a typical oneAged society,Silver Human Resource CenterThere is.

    Case in Japan

    According to the announcement by the Cabinet Office in 2018, the estimated population aged 65 and over (as of October 10) was 1 million. This is 3,558% of the total population[12].. As in the second life, the percentage of elderly workers was low because the elderly stopped working when they reached retirement age (1980% as of 4.9), but as of 2017, the number of elderly workers is increasing and they are older. Workers make up about 1% of workers[13].

    Living alone

    Aging society,Nuclear FamilyDue to the rapid progress of the conversion, the number of elderly people living alone has increased. 1955 households in 42[14]The number of elderly single-person households was 1965 in 79.[14], 2005 million households in 386[15], 2015 million households in 380[16]It has become.

    Traffic fatal accident by an elderly driver

    Nationwide in the first half of 2005 (April-September)Traffic accidentThe number of fatal accidents caused by elderly drivers has increased. In response to this situationNational Police Agency"In addition to safety education, it is necessary to consider measures according to the individual driving ability of the elderly."Old driver signObligation to make efforts to display and when renewing a driver's licenseElderly training for 70 to 74 years old, cognitive function test for 75 years old and overIncorporatedRoad Traffic LawAmendment of 2007Ordinary DietIt was submitted to the website and will come into effect in June 2009.

    Since 2017, major automobile manufacturers in Japan have installed a function to prevent accidents,Safe driving support vehicle"Safety Support Car S" (Support Car S) "Safety Support Car" (Support Car) is being actively introduced, and advanced safety technology experience sessions are held.

    In 2019, a series of elderly driving accidents became a big topic, andVoluntary return, Discussions such as license restrictions became active[17][18].. While there are voices requesting restrictions on licenses, there are also realistic voices such as "I can't live without a car in rural areas."[19].

    20225/13Further strengthening was done in the license renewal for those over 75 years old.

    Also, from the same day onwardsOrdinary carOnly, by applying for a license holder, a support car that grants a condition to limit the range of vehicles that can be driven to the support car.Limited licenseCan now be obtained[20].

    Isolation of the elderly

    Elderly people who have lost social connections such as work and familySelf neglect,solitary death, The problem is to commit a crime and seek a social connection from the prison.[21]..According to doctor Toshinori Kato, if you continue to work for a company for 30-40 years, your brain will also function by working at the company, and after retirement, the more lonely and isolated elderly people are, the more "essential brains". There will be a situation where you can't use the split, and your comprehension will decline, or you will not be able to pay attention to your surroundings and you will be reflected on your own.[22].

    Aggression of the elderly

    NHKAccording to a survey of 65 elderly people aged 487 and over, about half of them "may" get "sharp" because their emotions cannot be suppressed in their daily lives.[23], Furthermore, 3% answered that "it becomes difficult to control emotions with age"[23].. Masanori Nishita, a psychiatrist,Nuclear FamilyIn an established society, while elderly people live alone or with their spouse, they are abandoned by society because their range of action is narrowed due to the decline in motor function and they cannot keep up with the progress of IT and information technology. He strengthened his feelings, pointed out the possibility of becoming aggressive to society, and stated that it would lead to the phenomenon that "elderly people are sharpened" as "the reaction of the brain to the changing modern social environment". Is[24].. Furthermore, in Nishita, there is a case where "sharpening of personality" occurs due to aging, and people who were short-tempered when they were young become more and more impatient.[24]Or, cases that become aggressive due to deterioration of frontal lobe function[24]Is listed. According to doctor Toshinori Kato, deterioration of brain function causes deterioration of hearing and memory, and as a result, it may be difficult to understand other people's stories well and emotions may explode.[23].. Of a psychiatristHideki WadaPoints out that there are many elderly people who are not satisfied with their narcissism and "feeling runaway from the feeling of hunger that they are not taken care of by others."[25]. 


    footnote

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    注 釈

    1. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIn the material of the proposal "Health Japan 21",Working-age population,Childhood0-4 years oldChildhood5-14 years oldAdolescence15-29 years oldMiddle age30-44 years oldMiddle age45-64 years oldOld ageIt is classified as 65 years old or older[1].

    Source

    1. ^ "Health Japan XNUMX | Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare". www.mhlw.go.jp. April 2019, 6Browse.
    2. ^ [E-Health Net]Senior citizensRetrieved February 2020, 2
    3. ^ [E-Health Net]Senior citizensRetrieved February 2021, 10
    4. ^ 高齢者の医療の確保に関する法律施行令(平成19年10月19日政令第318号)、高齢者の医療の確保に関する法律施行規則(平成19年10月22日厚生労働省令第129号)、前期高齢者交付金及び後期高齢者医療の国庫負担金の算定等に関する政令(平成19年10月31日政令第325号)、高齢者の医療の確保に関する法律による保険者の前期高齢者交付金等の額の算定等に関する省令(平成19年11月22日厚生労働省令第140号)、後期高齢者医療の調整交付金の交付額の算定に関する省令(平成19年11月22日厚生労働省令第141号)
    5. ^ a b c Law Enforcement Regulations on Stabilization of Employment of Elderly People (Ministry of Labor Ordinance No. 46, 24)
    6. ^ "Statistics Bureau Homepage / I Population and households of the elderly”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. April 2013, 8Browse.
    7. ^ Is it discriminatory to use the word "old man"? Recently, the word "elderly" has become more common.Toyo Keizai Online March 2018, 8
    8. ^ a b c Addressing Dementia --The OECD Response (Report). OECD. (2015-03-13). two:10.1787 / 9789264231726-en. 
    9. ^ Takako Shindo, "Handbook of Care and Welfare, Psychology of the Elderly," published by Hitotsubashi Shuppan in 1999. Page 53
    10. ^ Tsutomu Kondo, "Understanding Elderly Psychology Revised Edition", published by Nakanishiya in 2010. Page 59
    11. ^ World Population Aging: 1950-2050, United Nations Population Division.
    12. ^ "Chapter 1 Situation of Aging (PDF)". Cabinet Office. April 2019, 7Browse.
    13. ^ "Chapter 1 Aging Situation (Section 2 1)". Cabinet Office. April 2018, 9Browse.
    14. ^ a b 44 White Paper on Health and Welfare
    15. ^ Heisei 17Census
    16. ^ "27 National Census-Aging Society from the Results of Preliminary Extraction Report-". April 2018, 5Browse.
    17. ^ "[Claim] Serious accidents for the elderly It is necessary to consider the retirement age system for licenses". Sankei News. Sokoku Shimbun (September 2019, 4). April 2019, 4Browse.
    18. ^ "[Car driving for the elderly needs more restrictions than before". Mainichi Newspapers (September 2019, 4). April 2019, 4Browse.
    19. ^ "[From the perspective of the reader] Serious accidents for the elderly License retirement age system "off the mark" "immediate consideration"". Sankei News. Sokoku Shimbun (September 2019, 4). April 2019, 4Browse.
    20. ^ Source:National Police Agency Website Support Car Limited License
    21. ^ "Grandpa and Grandma Crime-Relationship between Aging and Crime-". April 2018, 5Browse.
    22. ^ FNN PRIME 2018.
    23. ^ a b c Good morning Japan 2017.
    24. ^ a b c Nishita 2018.
    25. ^ Akane 2017.

    Source

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