Second Kishida reshuffled cabinet launched today Kono, Takaichi and others unofficially appointed
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Mr. Yasukazu Hamada, who has experience as defense minister in the past, was unofficially appointed as defense minister, laying out a stable lineup ahead of discussions on revisions to the National Security Strategy and increases in defense spending.
The second Kishida reshuffled cabinet will be launched this afternoon.Taro Kono, Chief of Public Relations Headquarters of the Liberal Democratic Party, and Minister of State for Economic Security as digital minister... → Continue reading
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Military expenditure(Gunjihi,British: military budget) OrDefense spendingWhat is (Kokubohi, Defense budget)?軍隊And sometimesParamilitary organizationBy country or region, includingPersonnel expenses,SecurityInvolved inweaponProcurement and maintenance costs for materials, costs for training and actual operations using them, etc.Military policy,Military operationIt is the total of various costs related to.The military spending of the whole world2016About 1 trillionDollarIt is estimated that.TopAmericais about $6110 billion, accounting for 36% of the world total, followed by China (about $2150 billion) and Russia (about $692 billion).Japan ranks eighth with $461 billion.
Military spending is narrowly definedarmy-Navy-air force OfPersonnel expenses(salary,useCosts, etc.), for maintenance and expansion of equipment, etc.ExpensePoint to.Therefore, it generally refers to the sum of the expenses under the jurisdiction of the land, sea, and air forces.In a broad sense, security forcesBorder guard,Coast Guard(in JapanJapan Coast Guard), Paramilitary organizations, technologies that can be used in the militaryResearch and Development(R & D) Includes investment.
The budget classification method and the degree of disclosure differ from country to country.Liberal democracyIn the nationParliament,News agency,researcher,public opinionIt is difficult to falsify the total amount of the military budget.on the other hand,Dictatorshipfrom abroad in the countryMilitary powerIt is not uncommon for Japan to make its military budget look low in order to spread its image as a peace-loving country in the international community and to suppress public dissatisfaction.for exampleJapan OfMinistry of DefenseEstimates that China's military spending is spread over other items of the national budget and is actually about 1.5 times the announced defense spending..
Military benefitsIssued to secure financial resources for spending and arms racePublic debtCost of redemption of principal and interest (=)interest(Payment), etc. may be included in military spending in a broad sense.
Therefore, even if you say "military spending" in one word, the content that refers to each country may be somewhat different.Therefore, some correction may be required when making comparisons.
As for the breakdown of military spending, personnel spending generally accounts for the largest proportion.
The source of military spending is basically paid by each and every citizen.taxIs.In addition, when a war is imminent, the government will issue it when necessary.Public debtMoney raised by (debt) Is also added.
As of 2016, the world's military spending is the United States,Chugoku,RussiaLarger in the order of the worldGDPAccounts for 2.3% of the total.. 2019IISSAccording to the report, global military spending increased by 4% from the previous year (the highest growth rate in the last 10 years) to about 190 trillion yen..
またChinese PLA(Chinese military) and IranRevolutionary GuardUnder the umbrellaCompanyArmies with other economic entitiesDeveloping countryThere are many.The content is consumed by soldiersfoodIn-house productionfarmFrom militaryTrackA wide range of transportation and weapons exports.These economic activities allow the military to save on food and other purchases and to earn non-national income.
Army and economy
Military powerTo have, that is, to have and maintain an army, in addition to the labor costs of the generals,weapondevelopment and procurement costs, daily training costs,ammunition,fuelIt costs stockpiling costs.The nationMilitary powerTo maintain the economy, we need its economic base.
However, from an economic point of view, the military is a non-productive organization.[Annotation 1],investmentEven if it is done, the investment amount will not be recovered by reproduction, it will only be consumed.[Annotation 2]..Generally speaking,BoomOccasionally, the deprivation of labor by the military and the military sector often impedes economic activity in the private sector.However,recessionIt also has the property of providing employment and benefits in the munitions industry and the military to the overworked population when there is more labor than private companies need, such as at times, and they maintain consumption. This is expected to have the effect of suppressing an excessive decline in the economy.However, military spending is usually paid by tax from the people, which may further reduce demand.
- variousEconomic model
Guide the scale of military spendingモデルAs one ofLouis Fly RichardsonThere is a model of△ 𝑥 = 𝑘 𝑦 − 𝑎 𝑥 + 𝑔 where 𝑥 and 𝑦 are the military power (arms) of 𝑋 and 𝑌 respectively, 𝑘 is the threat coefficient, 𝑎 is the attrition coefficient, 𝑔 is the level of alertness of 𝑋 to 𝑌. expressed in the formulaIn short, the scale of the military expenditure of 𝑋 is expressed as the sum of the threat of 𝑋 and the military power of 𝑋, plus the degree of wariness of 𝑌.
In the Friedman model, 𝑈 is the armaments effectiveness of 𝑌, 𝐼 is the attrition coefficient of 𝑋, and 𝑘 is the threat coefficient of 𝑋.In this model, the power difference between the two countries is emphasized by being squared.
Use of military spending information
Military spending information is used for various purposes such as analysis of the world military situation.Specifically, it is difficult to compareMilitary powercan be represented by the same base number converted to the same base number (generally converted to dollars).The absolute amount of military expenditure, the national budget,GDPThe percentage of each country is a measure of how much effort is being put into the military buildup of each country.For example, the United States has responded to the growing threat from Russia byNATOCalls on member states to increase military spending to 2% of GDP. "First Army PoliticsTo advocatenorth koreamilitary spending is estimated to reach 22% of GDP.
- Military power comparison
Military spending is often used to compare military strength in each country, but there are large differences in the definition and breakdown of each country, and moreover.物 価LevelPurchasing power parityThere are also differences, so if you do not take them into consideration, the comparison will not be very accurate.
Military spending is one factor used to compare the military power of each country, but military power is not only military spending, but also general soldiers.moraleAnd skill / combat experience, weapon performance and availability, command capacity, industrial production capacity and food production capacity, domestic resource capacity,Military strategyIt is not enough to simply compare military spending because of the involvement of numerical, non-numerical, and multifaceted factors such as the geographical environment and social system.
In the domestic affairs of each country, the central government is the nationbudgetIt is used when deciding.For example, in Japan国会 OfBudget CommitteeDefense spending is not only for Japan's security, but also for news reports.welfareThe appropriateness of the budget scale may be debated in comparison with the relationship.Japan will keep its defense budget within 1986% of GNP (Gross National Product) until FY1.Defense cost 1%Was the guideline.
Historical military spending
Occurred in FranceParis terrorist attacks,2016 Nice Truck TerrorismSuch terrorism as well as the fear of retaliatory attacks against military operations in which the UK is involved have led to growing calls for a substantial increase in defense spending in the UK. A 2016 poll found that 54% of British voters wanted more defense spending, 20% said the status quo and only 15% said they would cut..
- Gallik, D. 1988. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, 1987. US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
- Hobkirk, MD 1983. The Politics of Defense Budgeting: A Study of Organization and Resource Allocation in the United Kingdom and the United States. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.
- Kennedy, P. 1987. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Random House.
- Kennedy, Chikara Suzuki, Translated by Chikara Suzuki, Economic Transition and Military Struggle from 1500 to 2000, Soshisha, Definitive Edition, 1993
- Lee, WT 1977. The Estimation of Soviet Defense Expenditures, 1955-75: An Unconventional Approach. New York: Praeger.
- Maroni, AC 1984. The Defense Budget. In Presidential Leadership and National Security: Style, Institutions, and Politics, ed. SC Sarkesian. Boulder, Colo .: Westview Press.
- Poole, JB, and AJF Brown, 1982. Bibliographic Note: A Survey of National Defense Statements. Survival 24: 220-28.
- ^ つ ま りProductivityis zero
- ^ "economistHurst took up this point and argued that all armaments were wasted.He also argued that armament was absolutely necessary until global and lasting peace was achieved.AlsoAdam SmithHe also argued that the need for military spending is universal because of the need for defense for the state.
- ^ "World military spending: Increases in the USA and Europe, decreases in oil-exporting countries". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute(SIPRI) Homepage. April 2017, 4Browse.
- ^ World military spending 185 trillion yen Asia 4.6% increase Territorial disputes continue to be tenseYomiuri ShimbunMorning edition April 2017, 4
- ^ "(PDF)”. Ministry of Defense materials. As of February 2018, 2originalMore archives.April 2017, 4Browse.
- ^ http://www.epochtimes.jp/2016/04/25504.html
- ^ Kyoto Shimbun February 2020, 2 morning edition
- ^ "World 19-year military spending increased by 4%". Kyodo News (September 2020, 2). April 2020, 2Browse.
- ^ "Increased NATO defense spending burden / Germany and France, XNUMX% target" illusion "/ financial situation has an impact". Mainichi NewspapersMorning edition. (May 2017, 2)
- ^ http://www.news.com.au/world/asia/north-korea-spends-whopping-22-per-cent-of-gdp-on-military-despite-blackouts-and-starving-population/news-story/c09c12d43700f28d389997ee733286d2
- ^ Frank Harris (editor) (February 1898). Saturday Review Magazine
- ^ Terror attacks drive public support for higher military spending A. Tovey, The Daily Telegraph, 18 Jul 2016
- List of countries by military expenditures
- List of countries by past and projected military expenditure (current US $)
- List of countries by past and projected military expenditure (constant US $)
- List of countries by military expenditure per capita
- Permanent war economy
- Military funding of science
- Military keynesian
- Military industry complex
- Extraordinary military expenses special account
- Peace dividend
- Munitions industry
- Guns versus butter model
- Military-civil conversion
- List of countries by Global Militarization Index
- ,Military bond
201312/17 OfCabinet"Basic policy of national defense" (May 1957, 32, National Security Council and Cabinet decision)It is a matter decided as an alternative to. "Active pacifismFrom the standpoint ofinternational peaceTo contribute toPhilosophyage,People's Republic of ChinaThe external attitude ofMilitaryThe trend is "concerns of the international community." this is外交,defenseIs the basic policy inThe Constitution of JapanUnder the systemJapanese govermentIs the first thing that.
The main contents are as follows.[Note 1].
1 Purpose of formulation 2 Basic principles of national security (1) Philosophy of Japan (2) National interests of Japan and goals of national security 3 Security environment and national security issues surrounding Japan (1) Global security environment and challenges (2) Security environment and challenges in the Asia-Pacific region 4 Strategic approach to national security that Japan should take (1) Strengthening and expanding Japan's own capabilities and roles (2) Strengthen Japan-US Alliance (3) Strengthen diplomatic and security cooperation with partners for peace and stability of the international community (4) Actively contribute to international efforts for peace and stability of the international community (5) Strengthening cooperation through universal value to resolve global issues (6) Strengthening domestic bases that support national security and promoting domestic and international understanding
- ^ National Defense Basic Policy25 Defense of Japan Document 2013
- ^ a b "(PDF)”. Cabinet Secretariat (December 2013, 12). As of December 17, 2018originalMore archives.April 2018, 12Browse.
- ^ "National Security Strategy (Overview)". Cabinet Secretariat.As of August 2019, 5originalMore archives.April 2020, 5Browse.
- ^ "First “National Security Strategy” Cabinet decision". NHK NEWS WEB (February 2013, 12). As of February 17, 2013original[Broken link]More archives.April 2013, 12Browse.
- Imperial Defense Policy --Basic policy on Japan's national security under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan