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🏛 | Appointment of female executives, less than 1%, stalled at a low level. "Enhancement of pregnancy / childbirth / child-rearing support" is an issue

Photo Teikoku Databank surveys corporate attitudes toward promoting women. The average female manager rate is 7.8%, slightly increasing from the previous year

Appointment of female executives, less than 1%, stepping on at a low level. "Improving support for pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing" is an issue

If you write the contents roughly
Enhancing work-life balance is likely to be the key to promoting the success of women.

The Act on Promotion of Women's Advancement was enforced in 2016, and now it is related to women's advancement for business owners with more than 301 full-time employees ... → Continue reading

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Work life balance

Work life balance(British: work–life balance) Means that each person is their ownTimeWhat, at work and otherwiseProportionWhat kind of balance is it divided by?[2]..According to the definition in the English dictionary Collins, how each person organizes his or her daily life, for example, what to do at work.TimeTsukai,friendExchange withHobbiesHow many hours do you spend on your activities?[3].

Simply put, the percentage of daily time between work and non-work life (friendship, family, hobbies, etc.).To put it simply, do not fall into "workaholic" (workaholic), and keep your mind and body healthy by allocating time and hobbies with friends and family, and prevent death from overwork and suicide.in Japan"workLifeAlso translated as "harmony of."

The Cabinet Office of Japan (a country with a strong tendency to "overwork" in the world and a government that tends to overwork the people) (has a unique interpretation that is slightly different from the original English meaning. Deeds) "Each citizen works with a sense of satisfaction and fulfillment, fulfills his or her work responsibilities, and家庭Also in the local life, such as child-rearing period, middle-aged and elderly人生It is possible to select and realize various ways of life according to each stage of "" (it has a slightly different meaning from the original English)InterpretationDoing[4]..By forcibly screwing in the expression "various ... choices" that was not included in the original English at all, in the end, it allowed the working environment of a company with a time allocation that would lead to workaholics. I'm trying to do it[Needs verification].


Work/laborwageTo getLifeIt is a source of food and is an important element that supports individual lives. In addition,人生It is also a source of food and it is an important factor to find rewarding and rewarding work. But in recent years, I have sacrificed much of my other personal life for work.Workaholic(Worker-holic) conditionfatigueCollectdepressionRepresented byMental illnessSuffering fromDeath from overwork,suicideOr have run out of time to look after homeFamily collapseSuch as falling intotragedyThe cases that give birth to[5].

If you do not work, you will not be able to earn income, and this will cause financial distress. Conversely, spend most of the time on workLong working hoursIn addition to deteriorating physical and mental health, it also causes harm to the harmony with home and the community. Balancing work and (other) life is a balance[4].

The sudden increase in tragedy caused by the imbalance between work and life will cause great anxiety for the people (workers) about their daily lives and their future.社会Will reduce the vitality of[4].. Furthermore, due to being busy and unable to live a stable lifeBirth rateDropYoungerIt is also thought that it will lead to a decrease in the population[4][6].

Therefore, in order to suppress many tragedy caused by the imbalance between work and life, "harmony between work and life",Work life balanceCame to be screamed.

Status of each country

In OECD countries, full-time workers take 14-16.5 hours of rest per day, including leisure, personal care and sleep.[1].. The longest was 16.5 hours in Italy and the shortest was 14 hours in Japan.[1].. Men were 30 minutes longer on average than women[1].

The United States of America

According to a survey conducted by the American consulting firm Work-Life Balance Mastery & Motivation Mastermind, 89% of male workers and 87% of females answered that it was impossible to achieve work-life balance.In addition, as many as 98% of workers answered that the programs that companies have prepared for workers to achieve work-life balance are ineffective.[7].


In Canadaprime minister OfJustin TrudeauStresses the need for work-life balance to serve the nation[8].. As part of thatThe 42th Summit of Developed CountriesI came to Japan before (Ise Shima Summit)2016(28)May 5I took a day off from public affairs(English editionと と も にMie OfMt. AomineNear the top of the mountainShofukuji TempleTake a walk through the groundswedding anniversaryEnjoyed a vacation tailored to[8].

South Korea

South KoreaThen from 2018 onwards by the governmentLong working hoursCorrection ofminimum wageWas raised. However, due to the reduction in working hours, the number of workers working to compensate for the reduced salary increased, and there were adverse effects such as the workers being dismissed because they could not bear the increase in hourly wages.[9][10].


Japan's declining birthrateGender equalityIt is often said in the context of, but not only the birth rate improvement and gender equality policies,working timepolicy,Non-regular workersInvolved in general reform of work styles such as policies.

2007(19)May 12, Government, local government,Business world,Labor world"Work-life balance charter" was established by the agreement of[11]Currently, various efforts are being made by public and private sectors.

According to the Labor Contract Act enacted in December 2007 (Heisei 19), Article 12(3) states that "a labor contract is concluded with consideration given to the harmony of work and life between workers and employers, or It should be changed”, and the work-life balance has a basis based on the positive law.

The government has launched the national movement “frog! Japan campaign” to promote work-life balance[12].

Actual working environment and work-life balance

Japan isInternational Labor OrganizationConvention on Working Hours of1 No.,30 No., 47, 153[13]Etc.) has not been ratified,overtime workAs long as the requirements ofworking timeCan be eliminated (Labor Standards Law, Article 33, Paragraph 1, Article 33, Paragraph 3, Article 36, Paragraph 1). In Japan, overtime pay (Premium wage) Is legally required (Article 37, Paragraph 1 of the Labor Standards Act), and penal provisions are applied to users who do not pay it (Article 119 of the Labor Standards Act).Service overtimeThere are some offices where[14][15][16]Moreover, the number of vacation days is small, and the annual paid leave acquisition rate is significantly lower than other developed countries.[14][17](Japan has not ratified the Convention on Paid Leave (No. 132)[18]).

Japan's long working hours are oftentrade frictionAs a result of this, the difference in working hours between Japan and Western countries was criticized by Western countries as unfair competition. For this reason, the government adopted a 1987-hour week system in principle over 10 years since the Labor Standards Act was revised in 40 (exceptions still exist in 2012: Labor Standards Act Articles 36 and 131, etc.). Therefore, this reduction in working hours is not related to work-life balance efforts.[19].

HSBC HoldingsIn the “Best country ranking for overseas work” 2016 survey by the HSBC EXPAT of the International Banking Division, Japan ranked 45th among the 20 countries and regions surveyed, but in this “work-life balance” Was the lowest[20].

Related literature/articles


  1. ^ a b c d How's Life? 2020 Measuring Well-being (Report). OECD. (2020-03). Chapt.10 Work-Life Balance. two:10.1787 / 9870c393-en. ISBN 9789264781160. 
  2. ^ Dictionary.com
  3. ^ Collins
  4. ^ a b c d "What is the harmony between work and life?". Cabinet Office. 2012/10/18Browse.
  5. ^ Gambles, R / Lewis, S / Rapoport, R (2006) The Myth of Work-Life Balance. The Challenge of Our Time for Men, Women and Societies.
  6. ^ Kosuke Motani "Measurement! Japan's regional power" Nihon Keizai Shimbun, September 2007.ISBN 9784532352622
  7. ^ "98% of workers say "company work-life balance program makes no sense"-US survey”. Mycomi Journal (February 2008, 6). 2012/10/23Browse.
  8. ^ a b "Canadian Prime Minister Enjoys Wedding Anniversary on Mountain Climb"Chunichi ShimbunMorning edition, May 2016, 5
  9. ^ "It should be time-saving... Work style reform, Korean dreams and reality”. Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2019, 5). 2019/5/27Browse.
  10. ^ "Koreans are disappointed after raising the minimum wage”. Toyo Keizai Online (May 2018, 2). 2019/5/27Browse.
  11. ^ http://wwwa.cao.go.jp/wlb/government/ Government efforts-Cabinet Office
  12. ^ "Frog! Japan Campaign". Cabinet Office. 2012/10/18Browse.
  13. ^ ILO Convention 153 -International Labor Organization
  14. ^ a b "The actual image of the overworked Japanese Working hours in Japan far from the level of developed countries”. Productivity newspaper. 2012/10/18Browse.
  15. ^ "Overtime service/wage unpaid at Kobe Steel, recommendation for correction (Japan Labor Research Organization)". Kyodo News (September 2003, 5). 2012/10/18Browse.
  16. ^ ""Sukiya" unpaid overtime litigation ended Zensho accepts claims (47NEWS)". Kyodo News (September 2010, 8). 2012/10/18Browse.
  17. ^ "Are Japanese people working too hard? Paid leave international comparative survey 2011”. Expedia Japan. 2012/10/18Browse.
  18. ^ ILO Convention 132 -International Labor Organization
  19. ^ "New Law of Employment Society" Kazuo Sugano 2002
  20. ^ ""Best country to work abroad" What is the biggest reason why you don't want to work in Japan?”. (June 2017, 1). 2017/1/5Browse.

Reference document

Related item

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Promotion of active participation by women

Promotion of active participation by women(Joseikatsu Yakusuishin) is a series of measures to realize a society in which all women who have the desire to play an active role in their work can fully exercise their individuality and abilities.First Abe CabinetIs one of the most important measures below,Shinzo Abeprime ministerAdvocates "creating a society in which all women shine." The basic method is2015(27)May 9Promulgated, enforced on the same dayAct on Promotion of Active Participation in Women's Professional Life(Women's Achievement Promotion Act).

Background of measures

As measures until the promotion of active participation by women is promoted,1985(Showa 60)Equal Employment Act,1991(3) Parental leave law (currentChildcare Nursing Care Leave Act),2003(15)Next-generation upbringing support measures promotion lawHas been enacted, and “support for work-life balance” and “equal promotion” for men and women in employment management have been promoted. In addition, in June 2003, "In all fields of society,2020By then, I expect that at least 30% of women will be in leadership positions."[1]Such a goal was shown.

However, on September 2014, 26Labor Policy CouncilProposal (Construction of a new legal framework for promoting the success of women)[2]The following points were pointed out, and it was shown that the gap between the target and reality is large.

  • Women accounted for 43.3% of the total employers (2,406 million).More than half of themNon-regular employment.
  • The employment rate decreases during childbirth and childcare.M curveIs still outstanding.. The number of women who wish to work but are not working reaches 315 million.
  • The percentage of women (7.5%) in the decision-making layer (managers and above) isParticularly low level internationally.

Under the second Abe administration, in 2 (Heisei 2013)Japan Revitalization Strategy"," "Japan Revitalization Strategy" Revised 2014" (June 26, 6)Cabinet decision), "Consider a new comprehensive framework for steadily advancing efforts to promote the success of women, without making them temporary," and women in national/local governments and private businesses. It was decided that the measures, etc., that each entity should take, including grasping the current situation of appointment of the[3].. The reason isLow birthrate and aging populationAlong withAccelerating labor shortageIt is expected that women will be required to utilize their potential abilities, and due to changes in the industrial structure, the momentum to utilize diverse human resources will increase. Prime Minister Abe in 2014 (Heisei 26),187th Diet OfBelief speechIn response to the proposal of the Labor Policy Council, the Abe Cabinet submitted a bill to promote women's advancement to the Diet, with the theme of building a "society for women".Dissolution of the House of RepresentativesDue to this, the deliberation has not been completed and will be discontinued. Next year189th DietSubmitted the bill again to, and was approved.

Outline of measures

The pillar of the policy is toFormulating an action planTo companies that are excellent in their obligations, information disclosure, and implementation status of initiatives related to the promotion of active participation by womenMinister of Health, Labour and WelfareCertification of (Eruboshi certification). The nation takes every opportunity and publicizes such things by directly engaging with companies.[4].

2016(28) From April 4,301 people moreEmployers of other workers are required to understand the status of women's activities and analyze their issues.General Business Plan of ConductIt was obligatory to formulate, report, and publicize. For business owners who employ less than 300 workers, it is mandatory to make efforts. In order to further promote the initiatives for promoting the active participation of women in companies, it is effective to promote information disclosure of the status of active participation of women in the company and the content of efforts to promote the active participation of women. In addition to disseminating the effects, the "Women's Empowerment Promotion Database" within the "Women's Empowerment and Workplace Support Comprehensive Site"[5]Encourage the use of information and recommend information disclosure[6].

Among the companies that have submitted the General Employer Action Plan, the companies that excel in the implementation status of efforts to promote the success of women can receive the “Eruboshi Certification”. Eruboshi certification has three stages according to the number of items that meet the criteria, and companies that have received certification can use the certification mark for products, advertisements, business cards, job vouchers, etc.You can appeal that you are a business owner that promotes the success of womenIn addition, the point evaluation in,Japan Finance CorporationIt is subject to low interest rate loans (-0.65% from the base rate).

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry TheTokyo Stock ExchangeIn collaboration with2012(24) We have selected and announced “Nadeshiko Brand” as a listed company that excels in promoting women's success. The Nadeshiko brand promotes investment in companies by accelerating the efforts of each company by introducing listed companies that excel in promoting the active participation of women as attractive brands for investors who emphasize "improving corporate value in the medium to long term". The aim is to go.2018From (30), in addition to the conventional selection of “Nadeshiko Brand”, we are actively working on the selection of “quasi-Nadeshiko” that evaluates companies that excel in promoting women's active participation from a broader perspective and the promotion of active participation by women. Create a list of “Nadeshiko Challenge Companies” as a mechanism to appeal this to the outside world. Companies that wish to be selected will reply to a "Women's Activity Survey" conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in advance, and then 1-2 companies will be selected for each industry from the companies that have met the prescribed selection criteria. .. Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareHas made it mandatory to formulate an action plan for the promotion and promotion of female employees to expand to SMEs with 101 to 300 employees from April 2022, 4.[7].

Minister for Women Achievement

NameCabinetInauguration dateRetirement dateFactionRemarks
Secretary of State (Measures for exercising women's vitality and supporting childrearing
Planning for comprehensive promotion
And in charge of coordinating office work under the jurisdiction of each administrative department)
1Masako Miyoshi cropped 3 Tim Hitchens and Masako Miyoshi 20150401.jpgMasayoshi MiyoshiFirst Abe Cabinet2012/12/262014May 9LDP
Secretary of State (Measures to create a country where women play an active role and all women shine
Planning for comprehensive promotion
And in charge of coordinating office work under the jurisdiction of each administrative department)
1Haruko Arimura.jpgArimura Haruko Remodeling cabinet2014/9/32014May 12LDPMinister for Administrative Reform
Minister of State Civil Service System
2First Abe Cabinet2014/12/242015May 10Minister for Administrative Reform
Minister of State Civil Service System, reappointed
3Katsunobu Katō.jpgKatsunobu Kato First remodeling Cabinet
First remodeling Cabinet
2015/10/72017May 8LDPMinister of XNUMX million activities
Abduction Minister
4Seiko Noda 200809.jpgSeiko Noda First remodeling Cabinet2017/8/32017May 11LDPMinister of Internal Affairs and Communications
5First Abe Cabinet2017/11/12018May 10Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications, reappointment
6Satsuki Katayama (cropped) .jpgSatsuki Katayama Remodeling cabinet2018/10/22019/9/11LDPMinister for Special Missions, Cabinet Office
(Gender equality,Local creation,Regulatory reformResponsible)
7Hashimoto Seiko (2019) .jpgHashimoto Seiko First remodeling Cabinet2019/9/112020/9/16LDPMinister for Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games
Minister for Special Missions, Cabinet Office(Gender equality
8Yoshihide Suga Cabinet2020/9/162021/2/18
9Marukawatamayo.pngTamagawa Marukawa2021/2/18(Current position)LDP


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ About promotion of challenge support measures of woman 15 Gender equalityPromotion Headquarters decision
  2. ^ Building a new legal framework to promote the active participation of womenSeptember 26, 9 Labor Examination No. 30
  3. ^ 28 “White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare” p.273
  4. ^ 28 “White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare” p.274
  5. ^ Database of women's achievement promotion companiesMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  6. ^ 28 “White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare” p.274
  7. ^ June 2019, 10 Chunichi Shimbun 29 pages

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