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🏛 | [Vietnam] Japan-Vietnam summit meeting, 12 document exchanges between public and private [economy]


[Vietnam] Japan-Vietnam summit meeting, 12 document exchanges between public and private [economy]

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In 92, Japan resumed Official Development Assistance (ODA) for Vietnam.

Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga and Vietnam's Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc held a summit meeting in Hanoi on the 19th.Prime Minister Hook ... → Continue reading

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Official development assistance

Official development assistance(Seifukai Hatsuenjo,English: Official Development Assistance, ODA[1]) Is for the improvement of economic development and welfare in developing countries.Industrialized countries Of政府as well as the Government agency Developing countryDo againstassistance,InvestmentThat is.

The beginning of Official Development Assistance (ODA)

World DepressionAdvanced byBlock economyProlonged recession due toSecond World WarFor the stability of the world economy confused by1944/ToBretton Woods regime(IMF system) has been established.And1945/In December, for the reconstruction and development of the postwar worldInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) andInternational Reconstruction and Development Bank(IBRD, commonly known as the "World Bank") is established.1947/In June, the European Reconstruction Plan (Marshall Plan) Concept is announced.AmericaWith the support ofEuropeMakes a remarkable reconstruction.

Oliver FranksPointed out by the issue of large economic disparities between developed and developing countries (North-South problem) To support developing countries1960/ToInternational Development Association(IDA, commonly known as the Second World Bank),1961/ToDevelopment Assistance Committee A support system will be set up in quick succession with (DAC). 1961, AmericanKennedyPresident United Nations General AssemblyIn a speech, in developed countriesNational incomeAiming for 1% relocation and 5% annual growth in developing countries10 years of developmentIs advocated.

Overview of world ODA

DAC (Development Assistance Committee) Looking at the implementation status of ODA by each country on a net basis, the United States has long been number one in the world,Cold Warの終結を背景に、1989年に日本がアメリカを追い抜き、その後も1990年を除き、2000年までの10年間、世界最大の援助国となった。しかし、2001年には再びアメリカが首位に立ち、2006年にはイギリスが第2位となり、2007年には、ドイツが第3位、フランスが第4位となり、日本は2009年まで第5位の位置にある。この間、日本はODAの予算を削減し続けたが、欧米諸国は「povertyHas become a hotbed of terrorism, "and has been increasing its ODA budget.

However, the contribution to the international community is not simply evaluated by the net amount of ODA.[3]..The World Development Center (CGD) commitment index shows ODA vs.RUBThe emphasis is on the ratio.Looking at this ratio to GNI, Sweden ranked first in 2009 at 1%.Japan ranks 1.12st with 0.18%.Even when Japan was number one in the world on a net basis, its ratio to GNI was below the average of DAC countries. The international target by the OECD sets a value of 21% of GNI in each country.[4][5].

Overview of Japan's ODA


Bilateral aid

Developed countries will directly support developing countries with paid or unpaid funds.

  • Loan aidIs a type of "government loan" among bilateral aid, and is defined as a loan with a (gift factor) of 25% or more.What is a grant element?loanAn index that shows the lenient conditions, in other words, the low burden on the recipient country.interest rateThe lower the loan period and the longer the loan period, the higher the grant element value. (If the grant element is 100%, it is a "gift.")YenBecause it can be lent atNews (Chinese),tv setでYen loanIs sometimes reported, butYen loanIs a type that constitutes loan aid together with "other loan aid (investment and loan)".
  • Grant AidIs a type of "gift" of bilateral assistance, and the recipient country is not obliged to repay it.
  • Technical cooperationIs a type of "gift" of bilateral assistance, and aims to create a labor force that will be the basis of the future country, such as human resource development and technology transfer.It accepts trainees, dispatches experts, conducts development surveys, and provides the latest equipment.Most trainees are accepted.
  • The organizations in charge of "loan aid such as yen loans," "partial grant aid," and "technical cooperation"Japan International Cooperation Agency(JICA) .
  • Japan's cumulative total of bilateral assistance is the People's Republic of China, and by the end of 2, ODA loan: about 1 billion yen, grant aid: about 2007 billion yen, Technical cooperation: Approximately 3 billion yen is provided.[6]By fiscal 2007, Japan would have provided China with about 6 trillion yen of ODA, including multilateral assistance.Chinese dignitaries are grateful for such Japanese ODA.[7].
    • Due to the rapid economic development of China, only ODA loans out of loan assistance to China in 2008Beijing OlympicsIt was discontinued under the agreement between the two countries. On December 2010, 12, the People's Republic of China was harshly calling for official development assistance to China within the government and the ruling party.Ambassador of Extraordinary Plenipotentiary OfUichiro NiwaTo increase official development assistance to ChinaMinistry of Foreign AffairsIt turned out that he had given his opinion to the ministry.One of the reasons is that Niwa "warned" the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that "if ODA to China is discontinued, it will be criticized by the Chinese side."[8][9]. But,2018/May 10, The government announced that it will officially discontinue ODA to China in 2018.The reason is China's economic development, which has more than doubled Japan's GDP.[10][11].
    • The amount of redemption for the ODA loan at the end of 2003 was approximately 9401 billion yen in total principal and interest.[12].
    • If the redemption amount of loan aid is high, Japan's net expenditure by country for the whole year may be tentatively negative.[13].. Of the bilateral assistance in 2011, the actual results of ODA to China areTechnical cooperationを主とした無償資金協力としての贈与が計3億ドル、新規の政府貸付等(有償資金協力)が5億6千万ドルとなり、同年の中国への二国間政府開発援助は計8億6千万ドルである。しかし、日本の通年国別支出純額においては、同年の中国に対する二国間援助額の合計8億6千万ドルから、過去の政府貸付の一部である13億4千万ドルの償還額を控除すると支出純額は計-(マイナス)4億8千万ドルとなる[13].

Multilateral aid

Japan isUnited Nations World Food Program (WFP),United Nations Development Program (UNDP),United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF),World Bank (IBRD),Asian Development Bank It provides multilateral assistance by funding international organizations such as (ADB).

In particular, Japan's investment ratio in the Asian Development Bank is 15.7%, which is the highest along with the United States, and successive presidents are Japan.FinanceBureaucrats are in office.Of this, Japan provided 1986 trillion yen of financial assistance to China via the Asian Development Bank between 2007 and 2, and will make up for it after 3000, when the loan to China was completed. Medium financial assistance is increasing. From 2008 to 2008, 2011 billion yen of financial assistance to China via the Asian Development Bank has been decided. [3].

2015 Official Development Assistance Charter (ODA Charter) and OOF (Other Official Flows)

The ODA Charter is a government guideline on basic principles and priorities regarding Official Development Assistance (ODA).1992/ToKiichi MiyazawaCabinetCabinet decisionThen,The 1st Junichiro Koizumi Cabinet 2003/Revised in August and furtherFirst Abe Cabinet 2015/Revised in FebruaryCurrent outlineIt became.

In the final versionCooperation between ODA and OOF (Other Official Flows, public funds other than ODA)Matters related to were added.However, it seems that OOF will still be publicly funded support.

Assistance for military equipment has been excluded from ODA assistance by DAC countries for many years, and the OECD has informed ODA recipient countries that:

Military aid: No military equipment or services are reportable as ODA. Anti-terrorism activities are also excluded. However, the cost of using donors' armed forces to deliver humanitarian aid is eligible.[14]

Military Assistance: No military equipment or service can be reported as ODA.Anti-terrorist activities are also excluded.However, the cost of using the armed forces of the donor country to serve humanitarian aid is permissible.

Despite these provisions2016/ToJapanからBenigno Aquino IIIUnder the administrationフィリピンAgainstSDFThe machine was rented for a fee[15].

Principle of aid implementation

ODApovertyIt is not the case that any developing country can help.
There are four principles that should be called the criteria for selecting aid

United Nations CharterODA is implemented after comprehensively judging the aid demand, economic and social conditions, bilateral relations, etc. of developing countries based on the above principles (especially sovereignty, equality and non-intervention in domestic affairs) and the following points. And.

  1. Balance environment and development.
  2. Avoid military use and use for promoting international conflicts.
  3. terrorism,Weapons of mass destructionUnder development from the perspective that developing countries should allocate their domestic resources appropriately and preferentially for their own economic and social development, while maintaining and strengthening international peace and stability by preventing the spread of National military spending, weapons of mass destructionmissilePay close attention to trends such as the development and manufacture of weapons and the import and export of weapons.
  4. In developing countriesDemocratizationPromotion ofMarket economyIntroductory efforts andBasic human rightsas well as the 自由Pay close attention to the security situation.

(The above is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website "Official Development Assistance Charter"[4] From)

Transition of Japan's ODA

Postwar reconstruction era

Japan was the American "between 1946 and 1951 after the defeat.Occupied Area Relief Government Fund(GARIOA) and "Occupied Area Economic Reconstruction Fund”(EROA) about 18 billionDollarReceived ODA[16](Paid in 1973).Canada,Mexico,チリ,Brazil,Argentine,PeruOthers also provided assistance with daily necessities and food. In 1953, using loan funds from the World Bank, which is a multilateral aid,Tokaido Shinkansen,Tomei Expressway,Kurobegawa Fourth Power StationEtc. (paid in 1990).From these experiences, the current Japanese policy isdamConstruction etc.InfrastructureIt is also said that the emphasis is on maintenance.

To the ODA contributor

Regarding recent changes in ODA performance [5] reference.

Characteristics of Japanese ODA and recent trends

The characteristics of Japan's ODA include the following points.[17][18].

Low gift ratio

Japan's ODA requires repayment by the recipient country, not a giftYen loanThe ratio is high.This is because Japan did not have the financial resources to make gifts as it transitioned from an ODA-supported country to a supporting country, and it expanded Japan's export market through low-interest loans for the development of hard infrastructure. It is said that the policy purpose of doing so was also in the background.In addition, paid ODA loan cooperation means "return what you borrowed", which encourages "self-help efforts," which is also Japan's aid philosophy, and has the aspect of fostering the spirit of independence in developing countries. ..It has been pointed out that although the Western principle of free aid puts "humanitarianism" in the forefront, it often creates addiction and hinders the spirit of independence.[19].

High hardware support ratio

Japan's ODA is道路-bridge-Train-Power plant OfinfrastructureThe ratio of maintenance is large.manyJapaneseIt is this form of support that is associated with the word "ODA".It has been pointed out that politicians and Japanese companies are cohesive over such a large amount of orders for hard infrastructure development, and intermediaries are getting unreasonably large amounts of compensation.However,2000 eraSince then, the percentage of "tide (so-called tied aid) projects" that limit contractors to Japanese companies has dropped significantly, falling below 2001% as of 20, and the order rate of Japanese companies has also declined. ..In addition, the development of hard infrastructure itself is important for the economic development of recipient countries and the accompanying poverty reduction, and the World Bank andDevelopment Assistance Committee(DAC: Development Assistance committee) Also evaluates such a method of supporting hard infrastructure development.

On the other hand, human resource developmentlaw・ There is a growing idea of ​​focusing on software support, centered on institutional construction and education.This has the side of avoiding criticism that it is biased towards hard infrastructure,Japanese Government"Reliably deliver assistance to each individual level, not to the level"Human securityTo the recipient countryDemocracy,Rule of law, Government transparency and civil servantscorruptionIf we do not eradicate, economic growth and poverty reduction will not be fully achieved.Governance(Good governance) ”, The emergence of an international aid philosophy is also behind the scenes.

Typical examples of software infrastructure development support include support for drafting basic and economic laws that form the basis of economic development and democracy.裁判 所We provide support for the operation and enforcement of laws and regulations.Legal supportCan be mentioned.Not limited to Japan in recent years世界Each country is focusing on legal development support.

Asia center

Japan's ODA isAsiaIs great for.All donor countries, not just Japan, have regional biases in the recipient countries for historical, geographical, and economic reasons, and in the case of Japan, Asia falls under this category.In addition, Japan's ODA to AsiaSecond World WarThere is also a special factor that originated from the post-war reparations.

In recent years, Asia has been developing to the extent that it is said to be the driving force of the world economy, and the factors include the motivation to work and culture of Asian countries, as well as the development of economic infrastructure by Japanese ODA.Also, the poverty rate is still highAfricaOn the other hand, the idea of ​​utilizing Japan's aid experience in Asia is also growing.

Problems with Japan's ODA

The following points are often pointed out as problems with Japan's ODA.

Tide aid

Tide assistance means that the donor country limits construction projects such as material procurement sources and services to Japanese companies for ODA projects such as development projects such as infrastructure development. Also known as "stringed assistance."Companies that undertake business (trading company-General contractorEtc.) and politicians' cohesion has been regarded as a problem.[Original research?]1970 eraAt that time, there was concern that the donor country (contractor) might promote its business by unilaterally pursuing profits, just by developing infrastructure.Since there is no normal cost consciousness in either case, the transaction itself is set with a very high profit margin, and the structure is such that individuals and traders who mediate can take commissions as much as they want.Political commerce,BlackoutPeople and politicians called are getting hungry[Source required], The view that it is behaving in a big way with taxes[Who?]There was also.In response to these criticisms1980 eraSince then, untied assistance that does not specify the procurement source of materials or the contractor of construction projects has increased.Currently, the latter half of 90% is untied assistance.The order rate of Japanese companies has also continued to decline to 1993% in 29.

There is a so-called "anti-Japanese opinion" that only Japanese companies receive orders for contributions, but Chinese and Korean companies receive orders instead.Southeast AsiaIn various places, infrastructure and products made in Japan are overwhelmingly evaluated more than in other countries, and there is an opinion that their criticism is not legitimate.COPIn the opinion that the "environmental mafia that catches interests" insists, for example, even if Japan tries to export high-performance coal-fired power plants, the principle of untied assistance is used as a shield.Ministry of the EnvironmentThere are criticisms of being hindered by the initiative.

Misappropriation problem

The problem of misappropriation over ODA entrustment costs has also been discovered. (OsakaTennoji Ward), Over the project of accepting technical trainees from developing countries by ODA2000-2003/It has been found that the entrustment fee of 274 million yen was misappropriated during the period.In addition, the institute pays close attention to staff involved in misappropriation. disposalThe problem is exacerbated by the fact that we have not requested the return of the diversion.From Wikinews brief).

Accident during construction

August 2007, 9,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSouthernVinh Long ProvinceSo, Japan's Official Development Assistance (ODA) is under construction for about 248 billion yen.Can Tho BridgeCollapsed, killing at least 52 workers and injuring more than 100[20] However, it was rarely reported in Japan.In response, Deputy Foreign Minister Kimura visited the site and expressed his condolences and regrets to the victims.[21]..The Vietnam Accident Investigation National Committee concluded that the cause of the accident was the uneven subsidence of the temporary pillar foundation, and after repeated examinations by the Japanese government on points for improvement of safety measures, the construction was resumed and completed in April 2010.

ODA to China

Japan's ODA to ChinaChina reparations after the warIt is said that there was also the nature of abandoning[22].Japan International Cooperation AgencyAccording to Japan, Japan's ODA to China is about 1600 billion yen for "Grant-in-aid for aid", about 3 trillion yen for "yen loan", and about 3 billion yen for "technical assistance", for a total of 1900 billion yen. It will be over 3 million yen[22]..Meanwhile, China has achieved rapid economic development,Military expenditureIn addition to the fact that China, which receives a large amount of assistance from Japan, is providing strategic assistance to other developing countries, "Japan's assistance is China's.CitizenIt is not known to China. ”“ Since the plate indicating that it was made by ODA was removed, there is a history that China has taken unavoidable measures even if it is said to be “hidden”. There is a voice of concern[22]..China completed with a ODA loanBeijing Capital International AirportThanks plate about, the general public does not stop byVIP roomHead toescalatorThere is no way for the general public in China to know the aid from Japan, such as being posted overhead.For paid projects in the first placeInterestIt's a kind of repaymentAdvance Your CareerThere is a recognition on the Chinese side that[23].Licheng Ma("People's Daily"The majority of the people do not know about Japan's support because it has hardly been advertised," said the critic. "The yen loan is from China.ModernizationIt is a strong support for Japan and is a sign of Japan's apology and sincerity.We must make a reasonable evaluation in this regard.We must not deliberately refrain from or underestimate Japan's contributions because of historical entanglement. "[24].SingaporeMedia"The Straits Times』, The Chinese governmentJapanThe facts of the past assistance and contributions made byChinese peopleShould be educated by theseChugoku TheJapanIt is preaching that we should take on the challenge of historically forgiving[25]..In addition, China's completed with a ODA loanBeijing Capital International Airport OfstockHowever, it may be sold to foreign capital without prior consultation.北京市In the facility ofSex shopHas also been discovered that was open[26].


  • The ODA recipient is with JapanTrade-Direct investment(Companies' overseas expansion) is closely relatedEast Asia,Southeast AsiaIt is biased toward the countries of Japan, and while setting the purpose of poverty reduction,LLDCMany (poorest countries)AfricaThe amount of aid to countries is still small.However, it is also true that each donor country, not limited to Japan, has regional bias in the recipient countries due to historical, geographical, and economic reasons.[27].
  • There is a strong tendency for the budget to be taken over based on the previous year's budget, and the method of determining the ODA budget is not fluid.
  • Ministry of Finance,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareMinistries and agencies that are not related to diplomacy are also involved.
  • There are many activities by ODA and the buildings built by them in the world, but there are not many people who know that they are due to ODA, and the people who are ODA, and it is correct. Not recognized.Above allPeople's Republic of ChinaDespite having provided a large amount of assistance for many years, the people are hardly informed of them, and conversely.Jiang peopleRemarkably since the 1990s when he was President of the People's Republic of ChinaAnti-Japan educationBy doingChinese peopleOnly hatred of Japan increased.On the other hand, as the actual situation of China becomes known in Japan, there are increasing calls for ODA budget cuts, asking for the budget to be used for Japan rather than for assistance to China, which has many diplomatic conflicts.In this way, ODA is often not evaluated correctly both domestically and internationally.
  • Even if infrastructure is improved by ODA,maintenanceThere are cases where there are no local personnel or equipment to do this, and eventually it becomes useless.

Evaluation of ODA after the Great East Japan Earthquake

Great East Japan EarthquakeIn Japan, not only developed countries but also developing countries are included.世界Received a great deal of support from each country[28]..This has been perceived as a result of Japan's ODA so far, and has led to a positive review and evaluation of Japan's ODA, which had been viewed negatively until now.[19][29],2011/(Heisei23 years)May 10Was established inNational Strategy CouncilBut ministers andPrivate lawmakerThe importance of ODA was pointed out by both parties[30].

Based on the meeting, the Cabinet decided on December 2011, 12, "Basic strategy for revitalizing Japan"Strategic and effective utilization of ODA" is set as a priority measure for the time being, and specifically, "Development of robust infrastructure", "Development of human resources to support the economies of developing countries", and "Basics" Expansion of human resources base through educational support, "improvement of health, medical care, and hygiene", "support for disaster countermeasures in developing countries utilizing Japanese technology", "support in agriculture and food fields, etc.", "basic for inclusive growth"Legal system maintenance supportClarified "Promotion of[31].

However,"Basic strategy for revitalizing JapanIs growing rapidlyAsiaFrom the perspective of capturing vitality, we are assuming overseas expansion centered on Asia.[30][31] But,National Strategy CouncilIs also a member of the DietSadako OgataJICA President gave Japan's ODA from AsiaAfricaThe policy of converting to is explained in the same meeting.[32],Basic strategy for revitalizing JapanIs not in line with the policy.


  1. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs argues against ODA reduction pressure, which is becoming more important in China”. Sankei News (February 2021, 12). 2021/12/5Browse.
  2. ^ a b OECD, "DAC Members' Net Official Development Assistance in 2009", 2011-08-06
  3. ^ "Illusion of international contributionVirgil Hawkins, Global News View (GNV). Retrieved May XNUMX, XNUMX.
  4. ^ OECD, Aid statistics: Statistics on resource flows to developing countries.
  5. ^ Hideki Ogawa (2007)"World ODA Trends and Japan"Legislation and Investigation 266
  6. ^ People's Republic of China Data Book by Country(Japan International Cooperation Agency official website p54)
  7. ^ Li ZhaoxingForeign Minister "The Chinese people can develop the country with their own wisdom, power and determination. Of course, I am grateful for the help of my friends." 2004Association of Southeast Asian NationsInterview at the conference
    Wu DaweiVice-Minister for Foreign Affairs "I am grateful for the Official Development Assistance provided by Japan."Xinhua News Agency2004/11/31[Needs verification]
  8. ^ Ambassador Niwa's Request to Increase ODA to China Support for Economic and Military Powers Difficult to Understand the People (Page 1/2) --MSN Sankei News Archived August 2010, 12, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/policy/101219/plc1012190129002-n1.htm Archived August 2010, 12, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ “Toward the end of ODA to China, XNUMX trillion yen in XNUMX years, supporting modernization”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2018, 10). https://www.asahi.com/sp/articles/ASLBR33GYLBRUTFK004.html 2018/10/23Browse. 
  11. ^ “Government to end ODA to China New conference established with third country support”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 10). https://r.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO36797300T21C18A0MM0000 2018/10/23Browse. 
  12. ^ Basic data on ODA to China
  13. ^ a b 2012 White Paper on Government Development Assistance (ODA) Japan's International Cooperation p.193
  14. ^ Definition of ODA (English version), OECD.
  15. ^ Japan rents SDF aircraft to the Philippine Army, Reuters (May 2016, 5)
  16. ^ Kenji Takita "Economic Assistance for the International Community and the Occupation of the United States to Japan-Focusing on Assistance for Galioa and Eroa-" Law Bulletin 121 (9,10), 2015.p325-328.
  17. ^ Toshio Watanabe, Yuji Miura "ODA (Government Development Assistance)"Chuko Shinsho(2003), pages 36, 108, 151
  18. ^ Atsushi Kusano"Why does Japan help the other side of the globe?"Asahi Shinsho(2007), page 60
  19. ^ a b Mitsuya Araki (June 2011, 6). "The country that returns the favor" is shaking. The "favorable reaction" occurred in the great earthquake. ". Nikkei Business (Nikkei BP). http://business.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/world/20110609/220634/?P=1 2017/1/31Browse. 
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/release/h19/10/1175721_814.html
  22. ^ a b c Masayuki Takada (July 2022, 3). "ODA to China ends at the end of this month" Criticism of "Japan's support, unknown in China". Asahi Shimbun. originalArchived as of October 2022, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20220331075846/https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASQ3Y6X5YQ3YUHBI028.html 
  23. ^ (PDF) 『派遣議員団としての所見』House of Councilors〈参議院政府開発援助(ODA)調査 : 派遣報告書〉、2004å¹´11月、78頁.https://www.sangiin.go.jp/japanese/kokusai_kankei/oda_chousa/h16/pdf/2-4.pdf.2022/4/3Browse. 
  24. ^ (PDF) 『対中国 ODA(政府開発援助)見直し論議』National Diet Library〈〉、2005å¹´2月18日、5頁.https://dl.ndl.go.jp/view/download/digidepo_1000718_po_0468.pdf?contentNo=1.2022/4/3Browse. 
  25. ^ "Japan-related coverage of major overseas media (September 9-September 21)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs(November 2012, 9). originalArchived as of October 2012, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20121102032758/http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/sekai/2012/0927.html 
  26. ^ (PDF) 『対中国 ODA(政府開発援助)見直し論議』National Diet Library〈〉、2005å¹´2月18日、3頁.https://dl.ndl.go.jp/view/download/digidepo_1000718_po_0468.pdf?contentNo=1.2022/4/3Browse. 
  27. ^ Atsushi Kusano, "Why Japan Helps the Other Side of the Earth," Asahi Shinsho (2007), p. 71
  28. ^ Good luck Japan!The world is with Japan
  29. ^ Hirokazu Hiratsuka, Director of Asian Research Department, Mizuho Research Institute "Relationship between Japan and Asia after the Great East Japan Earthquake-The sense of solidarity created by the difficult situation should not be extinguished-"
  30. ^ a b Summary of the 3rd National Strategy Conference
  31. ^ a b Basic Strategy for Japan Revitalization-Overcoming the Crisis and Challenge to the Frontier-
  32. ^ Summary of the 1rd National Strategy Conference ――Page 6


  • Yasutami Shimomura et al. "International Cooperation: The New Trend (New Edition)" Yuhikaku Publishing (2009)
  • Atsushi Kusano"Thoughts at the ODA Site" NHK Books (2010)
  • Atsushi Kusano "Why Japan Helps the Other Side of the Earth" Asahi Shinsho (2007)
  • Toshio Watanabe, Yuji Miura "ODA (Government Development Assistance) What Japan Can Do" Chuko Shinsho (2003)

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