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🏛 | Science Council of Japan, to report within the year Confirmed by Minister of Technology Inoue and Mr. Kajita


Photo: Chairman Takaaki Kajita (left) and Minister of Science and Technology Inoue = 23rd morning, Kasumigaseki, Tokyo, discussing what the Science Council of Japan should be

Confirmation of Science Council of Japan and Mr. Kajita to report within the year

 
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We would like to think about the future of the Science Council with each other. "
 

Shinji Inoue, Minister of Science and Technology, will meet with Chairman Takaaki Kajita of the Science Council on the 23rd, consider the ideal way of the meeting, and report it within the year ... → Continue reading

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Science Council of Japan

Science Council of Japan(Nihongakujutsutsugi,British: Science Council of Japan , Abbreviation:SCJ) IsJapan OfNational Academyso,Cabinet Office OfSpecial institutionOne of (as of 2020).JapanesescientistIt is a representative institution for both inside and outside of Japan, aiming to improve and develop science.Administration,industryAnd in national life科学The purpose is to reflect and permeate (Article 2 of the Science Council of Japan Act)[4]).Organizational members of international academic institutions that are members of each country (NMO --National Member Organization) And also bears those international contributions[5][6].

Academic Research CouncilAs its predecessorAcademic System Renewal CommitteeAfter the discussion of 1949Inaugurated in[7][8][9]..A direct election was held by researchers, and at that time it was called the "Scholars' Diet".[10][Annotation 1]..Realized the establishment of many centers and research institutes by recommendation to the government[14][13],Three Principles of Nuclear ResearchSuggestion[13].Antarctic Special CommitteeAlso contributed to the Antarctic expedition[15][16].. HoweverScience and Technology Agency,Science and Technology ConferenceThe influence on the government will decline with the establishment of[17][18], "It was until the 1970s that it was fully effective as a policy advocacy body."[19].

The end of confusion 1983The law was amended, and member selectionRegistered academic cooperation organizationBased on recommendations byPrime MinisterTurns into an appointment[20][21]..In addition, the theory that the Science Council of Japan is unnecessary is being called out.[22][23][Annotation 2],Central Reform Basic ActAfter the reform process that originated in, the organization was reorganized from 2004 with the revision of the law in 2005.Members(English editionIt became a method, and the organization was changed from 7 parts to 3 parts, and the vertical division was broken.Proposals for policiesScience and Technology CouncilAnd segregated[15][18][24],for the publicScience cafeAlso joined the activity[19].

On the other handInternational Academic ConferenceWe are a member of more than 40 international academic societies on behalf of Japan.[22][25][26][27], The international contributions of each organization are also covered by the Science Council of Japan budget[5][28][27].International Science Council (ICSU) (CurrentInternational Academic Conference) Spent $ 14 to occupy the third place in the world[22][29],From JapanHiroyuki YoshikawaChairman,Reiko KurodaProduced a vice chairman[8][30]..Also, the Science Council of JapanAsian Academic ConferenceLeading the secretariat and the secretary general[26][31][32].

Philosophy

Prime MinisterIs in charge and the cost is covered by the national budget, but the activities are carried out independently of the government.[33](Articles 1 and 1 of Chapter 3 of the Science Council of Japan Law[4]). 「科学に関する重要事項を審議し、その実現を図ること」「科学に関する研究の連絡を図り、その能率を向上させること」を職務としているHis duties are "to deliberate important matters related to science and to realize them" and "to communicate research related to science and improve its efficiency".[33](Article 2 of Chapter 3 of the same law[4]).

1949The preamble to the Science Council of Japan Act enacted in 24 states, "The Science Council of Japan is peaceful in Japan, with the consensus of scientists, on the belief that science is the foundation of a cultural nation. It will be established here with the mission of contributing to the reconstruction and welfare of human society, and contributing to the advancement of science in partnership with academic societies around the world. "[4][34]..At the first general meeting on January 1, the same yearYoshida ShigeruResponsible for greetings on behalf of the Prime MinisterShunkichi Ueda"In order to achieve that mission, we are given a high degree of autonomy so that we will not be subject to the occasional political and administrative conveniences, and here is the plenary session. It has an important feature. "[35].

In addition, at the end of the general meeting on the 22nd of the same month, a statement was adopted stating "Expression of determination as a scientist at the inauguration of the Science Council of Japan", in which "We are about the attitude that Japanese scientists have taken so far." I strongly regret and pledge to contribute to the peaceful reconstruction of Japan and the promotion of human welfare, with the belief that science is the foundation of a cultural or peaceful nation. " Is[35][36][Annotation 3].

Incidentally, 1980In (55), a statement "About the Scientist Charter" was issued.[37], 2008In (20), the "Science Council of Japan Charter" was adopted.[34].

Members and selection method

Types of members and term of office

After the revision of the law in 2004, the Science Council of Japan consists of 210 members and about 2,000 collaborative members.[41][42][43]..会員はMembersSpecial occupation, Cooperative membersGeneral staff Ofgovernment officialBecome (part-time)[44][45]..設立当初、会員は研究者による直接選挙で選ばれていたが、その後1984年からは各分野の学協会推薦方式に変更になり、さらに2005年からは現会員が次の会員を選ぶAt the time of establishment, members were selected by direct election by researchers, but after that, the method was changed to the academic association recommendation method in each field from XNUMX, and from XNUMX, the current members select the next member.(English editionIt is a method[46][47]("#Selection method and its transitionSections and "#History of reformSee also section).

The term of office for both members and affiliated members is six years, and about half are reappointed every three years.Members cannot be reappointed (substitute members can be reappointed once), but affiliated members can be reappointed up to twice.[42][46]..会員は内閣総理大臣から任命され、連携会員はMembers are appointed by the Prime Minister, and cooperating members arePresident of Science Council of JapanAppointed by (Article 7, Article 15, Article 17 of the Science Council of Japan Act)[4], Japan Science Council Act Enforcement Ordinance Article 1[48], Science Council of Japan Article 12[49]).

In addition to the members and affiliated members, "Science Council of Japan Advisor" (established in the 21st term) and "Science Council of Japan Foreigner Advisor" (established in the 23rd term) are set up.[50].. further"Honorary memberIs certified[51][52], The secretariat has about 50 staff (as of 2008)[43].

Until the reorganization in 2005, there were no collaborative members, and the title was a member of the Research Liaison Committee.Registered academic research organizationHas been selected from[46][53], 1997 as of 2,370[53]..For details on how to select members, see the next section, "#Selection method and its transitionFor the background of the election method reform,#History of reformSee section.

The three years from the appointment of a member to the next appointment is one unit of the activities of the Science Council of Japan, and the term of office of the president and vice president is the same three years (reappointment is possible).However, officers are often replaced during the term of office.Basically, the activity unit for 3 years is one term, and now it is the 3th term ( 2020(Reiwa2) December- 2023(Reiwa 5th year) September)[20][54][55]..The 12th term, when the member selection method changed, was extended for one and a half years.[20][23][54], The 19th term has been shortened by one year[54][56].

Election method and its transition

Voting system (members) from the time of establishment to before the revision in 1984
Initially, member selection was a method in which researchers registered and elected by a free candidacy system.[46][47][57]..Under the free candidacy system, researchers registered by department, specialty, and region voted directly as voters.[22][46][47]..6 people were elected in the national and local districts (210 regions), and all were re-elected for a term of three years, but there was no limit to the number of reappointments.[46][47][7]..The number of voters was 1 in the first period and 4 as of December 3999.[58].
The President of the Science Council of Japan, who experienced the first and second electionsNaoto KameyamaAccording to the report, "There are various scandals such as forcibly instructing a person to vote in a classroom or research institute, collecting blank papers, contacting each other in groups A and B and exchanging votes. He introduced that "there is" and pointed out that "there are some grounds for these rumors."[57]..Election rules were inadequate at the time, and even monetary campaigns were not illegal, and the election rules were reviewed after the third term.[59]..According to the chairman of the 4th term, the improvement effect was seen in the 4th term election.[59].
Academic society recommendation method (members) from 1984 to 2005 before revision
Introduced from the 1985th period of July 7[46]..The first academic society that wants to recommend members is "Registered academic research organizationIt had to be acknowledged.Since the Science Council of Japan has a research liaison committee for each academic field, the academic society will decide in which academic field the candidate / recommender will be assigned.Next, the academic society reports the "member candidate" to the Science Council of Japan Member Recommendation Management Association and receives "certification" of membership.Furthermore, the recommenders notified by each academic society select "member candidates" from the candidates who are recognized as having membership qualifications for each academic field.The recommender must be a member of each academic society.選出された会員候補は日本学術会議からSelected member candidates are from the Science Council of JapanPrime MinisterRecommended and appointed by[60].
In the 17th term, falsehoods at the time of registration of the cooperative society were overlooked, and in the 18th term, improvements were made to disclose the registration information to members.[61]..In addition, although the academic society is registered with the research liaison committee in the field, there was also the problem of whether the academic society was appropriate for the committee.[61]..In addition, when the member is recommended once every three years, the budget is increased by that amount, for example, in 3, about 1994 million yen was added.[62].
Selection method by co-optiation method after 2005 (members / cooperative members)
It was introduced from the 2005th term of 20.[46], From scientists who have "excellent research or achievements" who are considered to be suitable for active members and collaborative members, up to 5 members including member candidates and collaborative member candidates, of which 2 or less are recommended To do[44]..この際、優先順位をつけることはできず、人数は5名より少なくてもよく、連携候補者だけの場合でも構わないAt this time, it is not possible to prioritize, the number of people may be less than XNUMX, or even if there are only cooperation candidates.[44]..そこから選考委員会・分科会による選考が行われるFrom there, selection by the selection committee / subcommittee is carried out.[44]..なお、会員の定年は70歳であるため、少なくとも1期は務められる年齢であることが推薦時に望まれているSince the retirement age of members is XNUMX years old, it is desirable at the time of recommendation that at least one term be served.[44].
The chairman when considering this methodHiroyuki YoshikawaWith rules such as "I do not recommend people close to me", "I recommend people with the best academic achievements", and "I do not recommend people who continue to stick to their own field", and there are several stages of selection. He thought that the harmful effects such as factionization could be removed.[63]..Also, as of January 2014Takashi OnishiThe chairman conducted an internal analysis that even if it was suitable for selecting a successor with qualifications, it was not suitable for selecting from a group with different ideas and opinions from those who are already members, and said, "We have an advantage over other systems. Whether or not to have it depends on the proper recommendation and selection by current members and affiliated members. "[64].

Successive Chairman / Vice Chairman

The first period at the time of inaugurationNaoto KameyamaIs the chairman (1-2nd term), and the vice chairman of the Humanities and Social Studies DepartmentSakae Azuma, Natural Sciences Department Vice ChairmanYoshio NishinaServed by[54]..It is said that my wife worked on the drafting of the Science Council of Japan Law.[66], Nishina went to Europe and America for the first time on behalf of the Science Council of Japan[67][68][69]. afterwards,Seiji Kaya(In the middle of the 3rd-4th period),Kiyoo Wadati(Phase 5),Shinichiro Tomonaga(6th-7th term),Fujio Egami(8th term) and others will serve as chairman[54]..Tomonaga, who served as chairman of the 6th-7th term (January 1963-January 1)[54], During his tenure as chairman[54] Of 1965ToNobel Prize in PhysicsAward[70]..After receiving the award, the government asked for a commemorative project, and Tomonaga replied, "For academia, not for myself." As a result, the Science Council of Japan hall has been constructed.[71][Annotation 4].

From the 11th period to the middle of the 12th periodKoji FushimiWill serve as chairman, but due to the turmoil of law revision, the 12th term will beRyogo Kubo, Yuzo Tsukada and the chairman have changed (however, the 12th term will be extended for one and a half years)[24][20][54]. afterwards,Jiro Kondo(13th-15th term),Masao Ito(Phase 16),Hiroyuki Yoshikawa(17th-18th term) will serve as chairman[54]..Yoshikawa, who served as chairman in the 17th-18th term,International Science CouncilHe also serves as the chairman of (ICSU) and is committed to reforming the Science Council of Japan in line with administrative reforms.The role of the Science Council of Japanパ ラ ダ イ ム シ フ トYoshikawa's idea of ​​seeking "Yoshikawa theory" is also called "Yoshikawa theory", and he led the reform while collecting criticism.[18][21][74].

Thanks to Yoshikawa's effortsScience and Technology CouncilIt is said that the opinion of the Science Council of Japan was respected considerably in the discussion in[74]..Served as Vice Chairman in the 18th termKiyoshi KurokawaServed as the 19th chairman[75][76], Served as chairman halfway through the 20th term when the organization was reorganized[56][54](However, the term of office for the 19th term is two years.[56][54]).Kurokawa became the first chairman with experience as a clinical doctor, succeeding Yoshikawa's reforms and promoting organizational reforms in 2005.[10]..Attended as a reference in the Diet deliberations accompanying the revision of the law[56]{{Efn |House of Representatives,House of CouncilorsIn both housesMEXT Scientific Committee[56]..Kurokawa, who has a long experience in the United States and returns emails in English,Asian Academic ConferenceGet on track[10], Japan-Canada Female Researcher Exchange Program Launched[77][78].

From the rest of the 20th term to the middle of the 21st termIchiro KanazawaIs the chairman[54]..第21期の残りはThe rest of the XNUMXst termSeigo HirowatariServed, thenTakashi Onishi(22th-23th term),Juichi YamagiwaContinued with (24th term)[54]..During this period, the "Master Plan for Large-scale Academic Research Plans" has started in 2010.[79][80][81][82], Master Plan 2010, 2011, 2014, 2017, 2020[80][83][84]..In September 2020, we published "Questions from the Future-Concepting the 9th Anniversary of the Science Council of Japan".[85].. The 2020th term from October 10Takaaki KajitaIs the chairman[54].

Honorary member

Article 35 of the Science Council of Japan Constitution "The Science Council of Japan is an honorary member of the Science Council of Japan (hereinafter referred to as" "Honorary member" is set based on "Can be awarded the title of" Honorary member ").[86],Nobel PrizeThose who have made significant contributions to the outstanding research achievements of the class, the activities of the Science Council of Japan, and the international development of the Japanese scientific community are selected.[51].

By October 2020Isamu Akasaki,Reona Esaki,Makoto Kobayashi,Masatoshi Koshiba,Yoichiro Nanbu,Toshihide Maskawa,Eiichi Negishi,Suzuki Akira,Tonegawa Susumu,LeeIn addition toHiroyuki Yoshikawa(International Science Council(ICSU) Chairman, 17th-18th Chairman of the Science Council of Japan, members of the cooperation,Japanese AcademyServed as a member[30][87]) Is certified[51][52].

Organizational structure

Organization up to the 19th term

For one chairman, there were two vice-chairmen, one in the humanities and one in the natural sciences.[54][88]..第一部から第七部までの7つの部会があり、会員210名はいずれかに所属したThere were XNUMX subcommittees from Part XNUMX to Part XNUMX, and XNUMX members belonged to one of them.[89]..各部に部長、副部長、幹事2名の役員が置かれておりEach department has a general manager, a deputy general manager, and two secretaries.[46][88], The specialized fields of each department are as follows[22][89].

Part XNUMX to Part XNUMX may be simply referred to as "sentence, law, economics, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine".[46]..In Part 18, although the Nursing Research Liaison Committee was established in the 20th term, nursing researchers could not become members (because of organizational reforms, they became able to become members after the XNUMXth term).[10].

In addition, a steering council, a standing committee, a special committee, and a research liaison committee have been established.[90], The Steering Council had committees such as "Public Relations", "Finance", "Recommendations", "International Conferences", and "Bilateral Exchanges" as annexed committees.[75][76][88]..第18期以降は「アジア学術会議」の委員会が設置されていたAfter the XNUMXth term, a committee of "Asia Academic Conference" was set up.[75][76]..単期の委員会として第17期では「50年史編集準備委員会」がAs a single-term committee, in the XNUMXth term, the "XNUMX-year history editing preparatory committee"[88], "Nobel Prize 18th Anniversary Committee" etc. in the 100th term[75]In the 19th term, "New Science and Technology International Executive Committee for Sustainable Society" and "Science Council of Japan Reform Promotion Committee" were established.[76]..なお、会員以外に「委員」が設けられていたIn addition to the members, there were "committee members"[46].

Organization after the 20th term

With the revision of the law in 2004, the organization was reorganized in October 2005, such as changing the position of vice chairman from a two-person system by research field to a three-person system by activity field.[54][91].. 2020年現在の組織を以下に示すThe organization as of XNUMX is shown below.[2].

  • General Assembly-As a general rule, twice a year in April and October[92], Held in 3 days[2][92](Extraordinary general meeting can also be held[92]). The highest voting body of the Science Council of Japan, consisting of 210 members[2][92].
  • Officers-Chairman and 3 vice-chairmen (3 vice-chairmen are in charge of organizational management, relations with the government, and international activities)
  • Secretariat-held monthly.Deliberation on the operation of the Science Council of Japan.It consists of the chairman, vice chairman, general manager of each department, deputy general manager, and secretary.
  • Three parts-Part 3 (Humanities / Social Sciences), Part XNUMX (Life Sciences), Part XNUMX (Science / Engineering).Members belong to one of the departments.
  • Four functional committees-Selection Committee, Scientist Committee, Science and Social Committee, International Committee.
  • 30 academic committees
  • Extraordinary task committees
  • Secretariat--with 50 full-time employees[43].

International activities

Members of international academic institutions

The Science Council of Japan is a member of many international academic institutions (NMO - National Member Organization[5],NAO - National Adhering Organization[28])[5][28][33][93], For example

Can be given.また、日本学術会議の委員会(分科会)で加盟するものとしてIn addition, as a member of the committee (subcommittee) of the Science Council of Japan

and so on.前述のICSUなども含めて、日本学術会議は1996年には47団体、2000年には50団体、国際学術機関の構成員となっていたIncluding the aforementioned ICSU, the Science Council of Japan was a member of XNUMX organizations in XNUMX, XNUMX organizations in XNUMX, and international academic institutions.[22][25]..In some cases, committees and subcommittees hold academic lectures in collaboration with domestic related academic societies.[5][33][93].

These membership fees are covered by the budget of the Science Council of Japan (national budget).[5][6]For example, in 1995 (Heisei 7), a total of 6950 yen was budgeted as an "international contribution".[102], 2000 in ICSU as of 14Dollar, Paid $ 8 to IUPAC[22]..国際学術機関によっては加盟金を払えなくなる国もある中While some international academic institutions may not be able to pay the membership fee[6]In the aforementioned ICSU (International Council for Science) contributions, Japan paid the third largest membership fee as of 2000.[29]..なお、日本学術会議が分担金は既存の学会が占めてしまい、新しい提案が通らないケースがあると言われているIt is said that there are cases where the Science Council of Japan does not accept new proposals because the contributions are occupied by existing academic societies.[103][Annotation 5].

Co-sponsored international conference

Among the international conferences on academics in each field held in Japan, we support and cooperate by holding jointly with academic research organizations about international conferences that are considered to be particularly important, such as general meetings of international academic institutions.These co-sponsored international conferences are held with the oral consent of the Cabinet.Royal familyThere is also the presence of members of[107]..The first sponsorship of the Science Council of JapanInternational Union of Pure and Applied PhysicsIn September 1953 in connection with (IUPAP)Kyoto UniversityIt was the "International Theoretical Physics Conference" held in[108][109][110][Annotation 6].

At the time of holding the International Theoretical Physics ConferenceUNESCO,Ford foundationReceived assistance from[109][111],Rockefeller FoundationIn support fromAmerican National Science Foundation(NSF)(English editionThere was the effort of the deputy director[111]..Although the event is an invitation system, many informal meetings are held outside the venue.[111], For participants from overseasRichard P. FeynmanThere was[108]..Some of the donations from the general public came from elementary school students, and the media at that time was also very interested.[110]..For a while after the event, it was known as "Kyoto Conference" overseas.[110].

Shoji Nagamiya"The significance of co-sponsoring an international conference by the Science Council of Japan is that it opens the way for expansion into a comprehensive scientific field that does not close only to specialization."[112]The Science Council of JapanJapan Physical Society"International Conference on Nuclear Physics" (held in 2007) co-sponsored by IUPAP and Japan Microbiology FederationInternational Union of Microbiological Sciences ConferenceAt (held in 2011), efforts were made such as holding public lectures for the general public and inviting various speakers from related fields.[112][113][114].

At the opening ceremony of the 2007 International Conference on Nuclear PhysicsEmperor Akihito TheYuuki Hideki,Yoshio NishinaWith these episodesnuclear weaponsAfter touching on the tragedy ofNuclear PhysicsSaid that he wishes to contribute to peace and happiness.[112]. thisWordsTouched the chords of researchers inside and outside Japan, and received a lot of feedback both at home and abroad.[112][Annotation 7]..In addition, at the 2011 Congress of the Confederation of Microorganisms, Emperor Akihito attended a commemorative ceremony and a commemorative round-table conference, and celebrities from Japan and abroad gathered.[113][114][115]..Regarding this, he recalls that the chairman of the national organizing committee of the conference showed that Japan attaches great importance to the field of microbiology.[113]..However, the venue was set to be on high alert.[115][Annotation 8].

Representative dispatch business

A project aimed at "collaborating with academic societies around the world, grasping international academic trends, communicating research, collecting and exchanging information and materials, etc."派遣されるのは日本学術会議会員に加え、以前は研究連絡委員会委員も対象であったIn addition to members of the Science Council of Japan, former members of the Research Liaison Committee were also dispatched.[116].. In April 1950, the "Internal Regulations for Dispatching Representatives to International Conferences on Academic Relations" was enacted, and in 4, it was revised as the "Guidelines for Dispatching Representatives to International Conferences".[117]..国際学術機関の国際会議などに参加しておりParticipating in international conferences of international academic institutions[6]As of 1993, about 70 people were dispatched annually.[118]..The first person to travel to Europe as a representative of the Science Council of Japan was the first vice president.Yoshio Nishina[54]so, 19499 of the monthInternational Council for Science(ICSU, later International Council for Science,International Academic Conference) Attended[67][68].

Bilateral academic exchange

It started in 1983 and dispatches a delegation of members of the Science Council of Japan.当初は年に2か国で、1983年度はInitially in two countries a year, in XNUMXAmerica,Malaysia, 1984スウェーデン,Kingdom of Thailand, 1985France,South KoreaIt developed. 1985年には7名の代表団を送っており、科学技術政策や教育、学術研究の問題点について調査、議論していたIn XNUMX, a delegation of seven people was sent to investigate and discuss problems in science and technology policy, education, and academic research.[119].

In 2009(English editionAnd in 2012(English editionAnd in 2013Israel Academy of Sciences and HumanitiesIn 2014, Korea Administration Research Institute(English editionAnd in 2015(English editionAgreement and memorandum of cooperation with[120].. 2020年現在は各国のAs of XNUMX, each countryAcademyAlso holds public symposiums and workshops[120].

In particularカナダStarted "Japan-Canada Female Researcher Exchange Program" in 2005[77]..これは2004年当時の会長・This is the chairman of XNUMXKiyoshi KurokawaEstablishes a project to commemorate the 2004th anniversary of the start of diplomacy between Japan and Canada in 75Canadian EmbassyIt started when I was consulted by[77][78]..女性研究者の交流事業が中心になったのはカナダの女性進出が進んでおり日本は遅れていたためでThe reason why the exchange program for female researchers became the center is that Canada's advancement of women is progressing and Japan is behind.[77],Ochanomizu UniversityIs requested to workKimiko Murofushi[Annotation 9]Promoted by[77][78].. 2010-2012年度は体制見直しのため休止されたものの、日本学術振興会とAlthough it was suspended in XNUMX-XNUMX due to a review of the system, it was with the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.Royal Society of CanadaContinued to be co-sponsored by[121][122][123].

Other international activities

Soviet-Chinese Academic Inspection Team

Yoshio Nishina The 1950In March, he went to the United States as a representative of the Science Council of Japan.Nishina aimed to "cooperate across countries to reject military research," hoping that Japan would bridge the gap between US and Soviet scientists.Nishina is in the USSoviet UnionI searched for contact points with (Soviet) researchers, but there was no way to do it at that time.[67][69](Nishina is next 1951Died in January[124][Annotation 10]).

Then, in 1952, the Science Council of Japan submitted a request to the government to "open the way for academic exchanges with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China."[125].. From May 1955th to June 5th, 7, he served as the fourth president.Seiji KayaThe academic inspection team represented by the Soviet UnionPeople's Republic of Chinavisit[126][127][125]..In the fall of the same year, a scientific inspection team represented by Guo Moruo, the director of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, visited Japan.[125]..The following year, 1956, a report from the academic inspection team was published (Science Council of Japan 1956).

G Science Academic Conference

G7 / G8 SummitAt the same time, the G Science Academic Conference is being held jointly with the academies of the countries participating in the summit and related countries. In the G8 eraロシアAlso participated, and the related countries in 2008Brazil,People's Republic of China,India,メキシコ,Republic of South AfricaMet.A joint statement compiled by the chairmanPrime MinisterHanded to[129].. "Future Scientist Development" was also taken up at the 2016 conference, and in 2019, the Science Council of JapanYoung academyAre attending the G Science Academic Conference[130].

Asian Academic Conference

From 1993 to 1999, Japan was the hostAsia10 countries[Annotation 11]Held a forum called "The Asian Conference on Scientific Cooperation (ACSC)", which gathered representatives of scientists from[132][26]..Approximately 2000 million yen was used to hold the forum from the budget of the Science Council of Japan, and in the future it was an issue to shift to a format in which each country would bring a contribution.[132][Annotation 12].

In 2001Asian Academic ConferenceBecame "The Scicence Council of Asia (SCA)"[26], The venueBangkok(2001 years),Kuala Lumpur(2002 years),バ リ(2003 years),Seoul(2004) and turned around[31]..参加国は2004年にParticipating countries in XNUMXEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euJoins[26], 2015 countries in 16[133], As of 2020, 18 countries are participating[32]..In 2014Taiwan OfCentral Research Institute(Academia Shinika) also officially joined[32]..アジア学術会議は日本学術会議に事務局が置かれておりThe secretariat of the Science Council of Japan is located at the Science Council of Japan.[32]Initially, the President of the Science Council of Japan was also the Executive Secretary.[26]..なお、会長は会議の開催国から出すことになっているThe chairman is to be issued from the host country of the conference.[26].

IGBP plan

1986,International Science Council(ICSU)Global / Biosphere International Collaborative Research Plan(International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, IGBT Plan)[134]..In April 1990, the Science Council of Japan recommended to the government "Implementation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Collaborative Research Program (IGBP)" in order for Japan to participate in this.[134][135],Ministry of EducationIn response to this, proposed "Promotion of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Collaborative Research Program (IGBP) at universities, etc."[136].. The IGBP project is a "research plan aimed at elucidating changes in the earth with an emphasis on the interaction between the global sphere and the biosphere."[137]In April 2000, the Science Council of Japan recommended "Promotion of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Collaborative Research Program (IGBP)" because it will be extended after 1999.[134][138].

Budget scale

The breakdown in 1993-1995 is as follows.[62][102], As of 2020, a total of 2 million yen has been recorded as an activity related to international affairs.[139]..As mentioned above, "Asian Academic ConferenceWas held by the Science Council of Japan as a forum from 1993 to 1999.[26]..In addition, as of 2000, it was said that it targeted eight international conferences a year and provided 8 to 1 million yen per conference.[22][Annotation 13].

1993 Year1994 Year1995 Year
Total amount (international academic exchange related expenses)2 yen2 yen2 billion0875 millionThree thousandYen
International contribution0 billion7472 yen0 billion6745 millionThree thousandYen0 billion6952 yen
International conference held in Japan0 billion7354 yen0 billion8617 yen0 billion6621 yen
Representative dispatch0 billion4400 yen0 billion4400 yen0 billion4400 yen
Bilateral exchange0 billion0682 yen0 billion0682 yen0 billion0682 yen
Holding of Asian Academic Conference0 billion2216 millionThree thousandYen0 billion2219 yen0 billion2220 yen

影響

Recommendations, reports, recommendations, etc.

The Science Council of Japan publishes recommendations and reports to the government, as well as opinions, statements, and discourses to the outside world.[141],

  • Recommendation-"Scientific matters are strongly recommended to the government"
  • Request- "A manifestation of the desire to realize scientific matters to the government and related organizations"
  • Statement-"Announcement of intentions, etc. regarding scientific matters, which are considered to be particularly necessary to achieve the purpose"
  • Report-"Answer to government questions about matters that need to be considered by professional scientists"
  • Recommendations-"Announcements of opinions, etc. that departments, committees or subcommittees wish to realize on scientific matters"
  • Discourse by the President- "Discourse from the President of the Science Council of Japan on urgent issues, etc."

There is something like[142]..In addition, in the proposal to the outsideEnglishPlate andChineseMay issue a version[143][144][145][146].

Performance and transition, influence of other organizations

The Science Council of Japan is advised by the governmentTokyo UniversityInstitute of Particle and Nuclear StudiesAnd many moreShared Research InstituteRealized the establishment of[13][14][59]..In 1954, "A Statement Calling for Public, Democratic, and Voluntary Principles on Nuclear Research and Utilization" (Three Principles of Nuclear Research) Suggestions[15][147][148][149].. In 1955, he published a talk with the chairman who dispatched an Antarctic academic expedition in 1957, and made a proposal to the government.[16][150]..The Science Council of Japan "Set up and select dispatched staff"Antarctic Special CommitteePromoted by[16].

Initially, the Science Council of Japan (STAC) was in charge of the relationship between the Science Council of Japan and the government, and the recommendations were reflected in the administration.[17].. HoweverScience and Technology AgencySTAC changed clothes with the Science and Technology Council of the agency, and furtherScience and Technology ConferenceIs said to have been inaugurated, "there is virtually no dedicated route for implementing the recommendations of academic conferences, and it is left to the discretion of the ministry in charge."[17]..Also, in the 2005 reformScience and Technology CouncilThe content of the proposal was divided so that there would be no duplication.[18].

The table below shows the results from the 1st to 16th periods.[141]..ただし、会長談話は第14期から、対外報告は第13期から始まったものであるHowever, the chairman's discourse started from the XNUMXth term, and the external report started from the XNUMXth term.[141].

Government recommendationRequest to the governmentPublished views and statementsChairman's discourseExternal report
Phases 1-12 (1949-1985)[54]20 cases on average
(240 cases in total)
28.4 cases on average
(341 cases in total)
7.5 cases on average
(90 cases in total)
Phase 13 (1985-1988)[54]5 of3 of2 of16 of
Phase 14 (1988-1991)[54]5 of1 of1 of3 of16 of
Phase 15 (1991-1994)[54]1 of4 of2 of7 of61 of
Phase 16 (1994-1997)[54]1 of1 of0 of2 of12 of

In October 2020, it was pointed out that the last recommendation was not made in August 10.[151]..The above table does not include "proposals"."Recommendations" at the Science Council of Japan refer to "presentations of opinions, etc. that departments, committees, or subcommittees wish to realize on scientific matters."[142], 2008 "proposals" have been made since 321[152]..However, there are criticisms that the recommendations are only emailed to government officials.[153]..It should be noted that the "recommendation" must be dealt with whenever the government receives it.[22], Experienced as President of the Science Council of JapanTakashi OnishiSaid in a 2020 interview that the one-sided "strong personality" recommendation is no longer used.[154].

また、政府から受けた諮問に対して答申を返しており、その内訳は第1期22件、第2期15件、第3期13件、第4期9件、第5期7件という実績であった[141]..ちなみに日本学術会議が第5期であった1960年(昭和35年)に、科学技術会議が第1号の政府答申を行っているBy the way, in XNUMX (Showa XNUMX), when the Science Council of Japan was in its fifth term, the Science Council of Japan made the first government report.[155].. In the reform of 2005, it was separated from the Council for Science and Technology Policy.[18], The Science Council of Japan and the Science Council of Japan have come to be called "two wheels of a car"[156][157][158],Tokyo UniversityHonorary professorWas worried that "it is not the case in reality"[157].

Since 2007, there has been no consultation from the government, and no report has been issued until October 2020.However, even after 10, there are 2007 cases as of October 2020, in which deliberation is conducted after receiving a "deliberation request" from the government and government agencies, and the report is compiled.[152][159].Central Education CouncilWhen the debate on university education reform arose due to the report, in 2008Ministry of educationEstablished "University Education Field-Specific Quality Assurance Review Committee" at the request of[81][160][161].. In 2010, he answered "About the ideal way of quality assurance by field of university education".[161][162][163]After that, he worked with related academic societies on "reference standards for curriculum organization by field".[81][161][164].

Incidentally, 1962On March 3th, at that timeMinister of International Trade and IndustryMetAichi KoichiVisited the Science Council of Japan in Ueno at that time. Aichi himself went to say, "I hear that scholars are in trouble with research funding, so let's talk to them directly."Shinichiro Tomonaga,Yuuki Hideki,Shoichi Sakata,Mochinori Goto,Seiji KayaI listened to their voices.Tomonaga explained the problems of machines such as accelerators and changes in the concept of basic research, Yukawa explained the importance of research in the boundary area and the lack of research funding and financial system for it, and Sakata in promoting international cooperation. I complained about the problem.In addition, Goto complained, "In addition to" special research funds, "creative research cannot be done without increasing the proportion of" ordinary research funds. "Free research is the source of academic development." Requested that research expenses should be the same as before the war[165].

Impact on research expenses and research institutes

Authority regarding Kakenhi

Academic Research CouncilHad the authority to allocate scientific research funds[166]..In the past, the Science Council of Japan (hereinafter referred to as the Science Council) also had the role of reporting to inquiries regarding research funding.Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research) ”and“ Scientific Testing and Research Expenses ”[14]..Also, before the reform in 2005Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceThe judges of Kakenhi also recommended[167][168].

Ministry of EducationWhen the Science Council of Japan was newly established in 1967 and changed the examination method and the selection method of examination committee members from 1968, the Science Council confronted the Ministry of Education.[14][166][169]..The Ministry of Education proposed that "the Science Council recommends more candidates than the fixed number, and the Ministry of Education selects and appoints them", and the Science Council side says "(the candidates recommended by the Science Council) are not selected by the Ministry of Education. Requested a "appoint" proposal, but the Science Council effectively rejected the nomination of members for the year[14][169](For details, see section "#Rejection of recommendation by Kakenhi JurySee).

It is said that a trial formula was introduced in the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research in 1969, and the Research Funds Committee to correct the imbalance of judges due to the subdivision of the first and seventh parts. Established "Proposal for Subdivisions, Details, and Number of Allocation Committees for Scientific Research Fund Allocation" after taking a questionnaire[170].. Since 2000, the Science Council has recommended judges through academic societies.[22], 2005 Reform Loses Science Council of Nominations[168].

Recommendation for establishing a shared research institute

In 1955, at the recommendation of the Science Council of JapanTokyo UniversityToInstitute of Particle and Nuclear StudiesIs established[14].. furtherInstitute of Applied Microbiology, University of Tokyo,Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka UniversityThe establishment of many joint research institutes was realized by recommendation.[59][13]..In 1953Institute for Basic Physics, Kyoto UniversityHas been established, but this is by Kyoto University and the Science Council of JapanYuuki Hideki OfNobel Prize in PhysicsThe Yukawa Memorial Hall, which was set up as a commemorative project for the award, is moving forward.[171][172].

On the other hand, the concept of the Experimental Geography Research Institute (later the Solid Earth Science Research Institute) was difficult.[173][174][175]. 1963, A symposium will be held on the issue of establishing an experimental geoscience research institute[173]..その後1965年(昭和40年)の第44回総会で「固体地球科学研究所」として採択され、12月に政府に勧告されるAfter that, it was adopted as "Solid Earth Science Institute" at the XNUMXth General Assembly in XNUMX (Showa XNUMX), and recommended to the government in December.[174].. afterwardsNagoya UniversityTo become an affiliated research institute ofToyokawaTo be concrete, such as securing land inBudget requestHowever, the plan was not easily approved.[175].

Ritsumeikan UniversityProfessor Hitoshi Otaki in 2001Electrochemical SocietyAccording to the journal, "If you set up all the recommended research institutes, you will need to spend more than the national budget at that time." "The policy" was proposed, and "it seems to be a fact that the government authorities were fooled."[22],Ministry of EducationHara Genkichi points out that there were many research institute proposals that had disappeared before I knew it.[166].

Master plan for large academic research plans

The Science Council of Japan has set up the "Large-scale Academic Research Plan Review Subcommittee" as a task-based committee, and the "Master Plan on Large-scale Academic Research Plans" has started in 2010.[79][80][81][82].. It selects research plans totaling billions of yen or more over a long period of 5 to 10 years or more. In Master Plan 2017, "Academic value of the plan", "Agreement of the scientist community", "Implementing entity" Selection criteria such as "validity of the plan", "social value", and "adequacy as a large-scale research plan" are listed.[83]..However, just because it is selected as a master plan does not mean that a concrete plan will be advanced or a budget will be attached, and it will be a judgment material when each ministry or private organization supports it.[83][84]..There are "priority large-scale research plans" and "large-scale research plans" that are certified by the master plan. The former is said to be "prompt promotion is desirable" and the latter is said to "emphasize academic significance".[84].

In 2010, "Large-scale academic facility planning / large-scale research planning-planning / promotion measures and master plan formulation-" was reported as a proposal, but "the opinions of the academic society community are not always fully reflected." Following criticism, Master Plan 2011 will be reorganized in 2011[80]..After that, every three years, 3, 2014, 2017 and so on.[80][83][84]..The number of adoptions in 2014 and 2017 is as follows.

  • Master Plan 2014-27 priority large-scale research plans, 207 large-scale research plans[79]
  • Master Plan 2017-28 priority large-scale research plans, 179 large-scale research plans[83]

Three Principles of Nuclear Research

January 1949Soviet Union Atomic bombWhen it was reported that the development ofYoshio NishinaBunsaku ArakatsuProposes a statement at the General Assembly in October of the same year that nuclear power should not be used as a weapon for peaceful use only, "a request for the establishment of effective international control over nuclear power."[69]..Nuclear research was banned when the Science Council of Japan, which was occupied by Japan, was founded. In 1951San Francisco Peace TreatyWas signed, and the occupation status was lifted in 1952, at the Fourth Committee of the Science Council of Japan and the Steering Council.Nuclear powerDiscussion begins on peaceful use research in Japan[176][177].

At the 1952th General Assembly in October 10Seiji KayaKoji Fushimi"Kaya / Fushimi Proposal" is submitted by A-bomb survivors.Hiroshima UniversityMeet the great opposition of Takeshi Mimura and others[176][178]..Mimura argues that nuclear research should be refrained until the US-Soviet conflict is resolved and the world is determined to use it for peaceful use.[69]There were many opinions that it should be refrained from making recommendations to the government without consensus among researchers.[176]..Although the Kaya-Fushimi proposal will be withdrawn, the Science Council of Japan will set up a "XNUMX Committee" to deal with the nuclear power problem.[69][176]..Discussions also proceeded at the Nuclear Special Committee.[176][177].

1953, when he went to the United StatesEisenhowerI learned about the president's nuclear policyYasuhiro NakasoneAbout nuclear power in JapanRyokichi SaganeAsk for advice and consider the nuclear budget after returning to Japan[179].Reform partyThe nuclear budget proposed by these three parties will shock the Science Council of Japan[69][177]..At that time, there is an anecdote that Nakasone said, "Since the Science Council does not move anything about nuclear power, I struck the side of the scientist with a wad of bills."[177], According to Nakasone, against Seiji Kaya who went to protestOsamu InabaIt ’s a word that[179]..After that, Fushimi also drafted the "Nuclear Charter" draft.[69][177]..During this period, in March 1954Bikini atoll OfHydrogen bomb experimentByDaifuku RyumaruHas been revealed to have been exposed[69].

In April 1954, the "Statement Demanding Public, Democratic, and Voluntary Principles on Nuclear Research and Utilization" (Three Principles on Nuclear Research) was compiled.[15][147][148][149]..The "Three Principles of Nuclear Research" are the "Three Principles of Nuclear Energy."[15]And "Atoms for Peace 3 Principles"[148][149], "Science Council of Japan's Three Principles of Nuclear Energy"[69]Also called.According to Yoichi Fujimoto, the prototype of "public, democracy, voluntary" isTaketani MitsuoIt should be in the 1951 "Remodeling" paper[176], In making a proposalTakashi Mukaibo,Yoshio FujiokaAlso contributed[148][180]..These three principles are 1955Basic Nuclear LawIs reflected in[177][181].

Collaboration / communication

District activities / local science council

In the era when it was a direct election by researchers, there was a frame for local districts, so until the 12th period when the election system was revised, a "local district meeting" was set up.[182]..After that, it changed into a "district meeting" and functioned as a window connecting the region and the Science Council of Japan.[182]..In particular, the Kinki district established the "Academic Culture Roundtable" in the 15th term and played a role of connecting the Kinki district conference and Kinki prefectures.[182]..In addition, the "Regional Science Council" will be held from 2018, and the first one will be京都Held as "Science Council of Japan in Kyoto"[183].

Young academy

2000Toドイツ(German versionHas been launched[186], "Young Academy Committee" will start activities at the Science Council of Japan in June 2009[185]..Furthermore, in 2010, the "Young Academy Activity Review Subcommittee" was established as a working unit and was held in the same year.(English editionSend a representative to (GYA)[185]..As of 2019, GYA is composed of 83 young researchers from 200 countries, and about 5 are re-elected every year for a five-year term.[184]..Japan sent four members at the time of its establishment, and subsequently discharged executive committee members and individual activity leaders.[185].

Great East Japan EarthquakeLater, at the 2011st GYA General Assembly held in late March 3, Shoji Komai proposed the "Project to Support Young Scientists in the Disaster".[185]..In the same year, the Young Academy Committee called on each academic association to cooperate, and as of April 2014, 4 organizations have participated.[187].."Young Academy of Japan" (abbreviated as YAJ) as a permanent organization in the 23rd term[188][189]Is installed[190], "Young Scientist Network Subcommittee", "Young Scientist Future Study Subcommittee", "International Subcommittee", etc. are active.[191].

The 2016st Young Scientist Summit will be held in 1[191]..Japan is hosting the Asian Young Scientists Conference, which began in 2013 with a representative at the Young Academy World Congress.[130][Annotation 14].. In 2019, two people from the Young Academy of the Science Council of JapanG Science Academic ConferenceParticipate in the meeting[184].International Forum on Science and Technology and the Future of MankindRepresentatives also attended (STS Forum)(English editionAnd Tsukuba Conference are planning their own sessions[189][192].

The committee of the Science Council of Japan considers young people under the age of 45[130], Young researcher organizations of related academic societies have different age standards, and there may be a secretary in their 50s.[191]..In other countries, senior academies and young academies are independent organizations, and senior and young members have different membership requirements. In many countries, young people are under 40 years old.[130]..In addition, at the young academy in Germany, there is a condition that it is within 7 years after obtaining a degree at the time of election.[186].

Publications / Public Relations

Monthly magazine / news

The Science Council of Japan has been for members every month since its foundation.

  • "Science Council of Japan Monthly Report" Volume 1, Issue 1, January 1951-Volume 1, Issue 5, June 6,NCID AN00410327.
  • "JSC News"[193]
  • "Japan Academic News" Volume 1, Issue 1, March 1957-Volume 3, Issue 4, March 3,NCID AN00410316
  • "Science Council of Japan Monthly Report" Volume 1, Issue 1, January 1960-Volume 4, Issue 37, June 3,NCID AN00343434

Was distributed.これらは日本学術会議事務局、および同広報委員会によるもので、日本学術会議の予算で賄われていたThese were by the Science Council of Japan Secretariat and its Public Relations Committee, and were covered by the Science Council of Japan budget.[193]..また、1951年の時点で発行していた月報、総会記録、運営審議会記録は、学会や各種研究機関を通して周知し、会員外にも年額500円で販売していたIn addition, the monthly report, general meeting record, and management council record issued as of XNUMX were made known through academic societies and various research institutes, and were sold to non-members for an annual fee of XNUMX yen.[57].

From 100, when the Science Council of Japan celebrated its 1986th general meeting, the "Science Council of Japan News" will be published in the bulletins of various academic societies.[194]..ただし、会報として日本学術会議だよりの抜粋を記すだけの学会もありHowever, some academic societies only include excerpts from the Science Council of Japan newsletter.[195], As of 1995Japan Science Support FoundationIs the responsibility of[196]..In addition, a member of the Science Council of Japan wrote "News from the Science Council of Japan" in the journal of the academic society to which he belongs.[197]And "News from the Academic Conference"[15][82]I sometimes write an article as.

In order to strengthen public relations to the outside, the monthly report was published in 1996 (Heisei 8).

It was renewed as.これはthis isJapan Science Support FoundationIt is issued from, and it has been changed to a format that takes a subscription fee from the subscriber[193]. 2009On June 21, 12,J-STAGEAlso started to be released on[198].

Books / Year History

Edited by Science Council of Japan

Has been published, and based on the lecture of the Science Council of JapanJapan Science Support Foundationから

Series have been published[196][200].

Incidentally,

  • Science Council of Japan, "25 Year History of Science Council of Japan," Science Council of Japan, March 1974,NCID BN03405773.
    • Science Council of Japan 25-Year History Popular Edition Editorial Committee, "Science Council of Japan 25-Year History" Academic Material Distribution, July 1977,NCID BA31737157,NCID BA73333212.
  • Science Council of Japan, "50 Year History of Science Council of Japan," Science Council of Japan, March 1999,NCID BA41012707.
    • Science Council of Japan, "50 Years of Science Council of Japan," Japan Science Support Foundation, March 1999,NCID BA48014937.

In addition to 25-year history and 50-year history[201],In the middle

  • Science Council of Japan, "Science Council of Japan 10 Years History-12th-1975th (1985-1985)-" Science Council of Japan, November 11NCID BN00675556.

Has been compiled[202].

Also, in April 2020

  • "Questions from the Future" Review Committee, Science Council of Japan Secretariat, Cabinet Office "Questions from the Future-Concepting the 100th Anniversary of the Science Council of Japan-" Nikkei Printing, September 2020,ISBN 9784865792348.

Has been published and can also be viewed on the homepage of the Science Council of Japan ("#External linkSee section).

Materials / reports

Science Council of JapanAcademic Research CouncilContinuing from the era of

  • "Japanese journal of mathematics: transactions and abstracts", 1925-1974, "Japanese journal of mathematics: transactions and abstracts"NCID AA00690968.
  • "Japanese journal of botany: transactions and abstracts (Original and Abstracts of the Japanese Botany Bulletin)" 1922-1975,NCID AA00690833.
  • "Japanese journal of zoology: transactions and abstracts (Original and Abstracts of the Japanese Zoological Bulletin)" 1922-1974,NCID AA00249591.
  • "Japanese journal of geology and geography: transactions and abstracts", 1922-1975, "Japanese journal of geology and geography: transactions and abstracts"NCID AA00239587.

Has been compiled, and even after that

And "Current Medical Research Themes" (NCID AN00077046), "Recent trends of geographical study in Japan" (1980 Reprint,NCID BA38050796) Was being edited.Also,Botanical Society of JapanAndKarl Thunberg"Thunberry Research Material" (March 1953,NCID BN02655695) Was co-edited.

From the Science Council of Japan,

  • Science Council of JapanFukui earthquakeSpecial Committee for Research and Research, "Fukui Earthquake Research and Research Bulletin of 23", Fukui Earthquake Research and Research Special Committee, Japan Academy of Sciences, 1949,NCID BN0211919X.
  • Science Council of Japan, "Soviet-China Academic Visit Report," Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1956,NCID BN09673265.
  • Science Council of Japan Atomic Bomb Disaster Investigation Report Publishing Committee, "Atomic Bomb Disaster Investigation Report Collection (Volume 1, Volume 2)" Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1953,NCID BN06150464.
  • Science Council of Japan, "Nuclear Symposium Bulletin", Nuclear Symposium Bulletin Publishing Committee, 1957,NCID BN07492598.

The investigation report was issued.Also edited by the Science Council of Japan by the Printing Bureau of the Ministry of Finance.

Has also been issued.

Operating expenses

All operating costs of the Science Council of Japan are borne by the national treasury.[204][205]. "Law concerning evaluation of policies conducted by administrative agencies"(Policy Evaluation Law), the ex-post evaluation of the activities of the Science Council of Japan is carried out by the Science Council of Japan Secretariat itself.[206].

Budget and its breakdown

The budget scale of the Science Council of Japan is about 10 billion yen.[43], BritishRoyal SocietyCompared to the three academies in the United States and the United States, there are differences in income sources, but they are significantly less.[207][208].. The breakdown in 1993-1995 is as follows.[62][102].. 1994年度の予算が多いのは、会員推薦時期によりその分の経費が計上されたためであるThe large budget for XNUMX is due to the fact that the expenses were recorded according to the member recommendation period.[62].

1993 Year1994 Year1995 Year
Total amount (expenses required to operate the Science Council of Japan)10 yen12 yen11 yen
Deliberation related expenses02 yen02 yen02 billion & 9282 millionThree thousandYen
International academic exchange related expenses (#International activitiesSee also02 yen02 yen02 billion0875 millionThree thousandYen
Member recommendation related expenses (#Members, etc.See also00Billion1957 yen01 billion0,005 yen00Billion2000 millionThree thousandYen
General paperwork costs05 yen06 billion0205 yen06 billion0182 yen[Annotation 16]

2020 Year of 10 MonthChief Cabinet SecretaryAccording to the announcement by, the total amount is about 10 billion yen, 5000 million yen for "proposals for government and society including personnel expenses", 2 million yen for "international activities with academies of each country", "science". It was announced that "dissemination and enlightenment of the role of" and "building a network between scientists" would be 5000 million yen each, and "secretariat personnel expenses, office expenses, etc." would be 2 million yen.[139].

In the 2020 budget, the total member allowance was 7500 million yen for members and 1 million yen for affiliated members, excluding transportation and accommodation expenses.[209]..Although there is a daily allowance for attending the meeting, it is reported that the secretariat is requesting members to "temporarily freeze allowances and travel expenses and decline receipt".[209]..In addition, it was said that it cost about 50 million yen as the labor cost of 3 full-time employees of the secretariat.[210].

Comparison with other countries

National Academy of SciencesAs of 1997, 210% of the operating cost of about 8 billion yen is public funds under contracts for administrative reviews and reports with the federal government.Royal SocietyIn the year from April 2013, about 4 billion yen of the income of about 1 billion yen was public funds.[205]..In this regard, Yoichiro Tateiwa, director of the NPO Fact Check Initiative, points out that there are "significant" tax cuts for corporate donations in the United States and "there is a mechanism for receiving and operating large amounts of donations that are not obliged to be used."[205].

In addition, the 19th Vice Chairman's (Tokyo UniversityHonorary professor,National Institute for Materials ScienceIn 2004, "Academic Trends" (Chairman) pointed out that only 3% to 8% of Europe and the United States are publicly funded, but "How can the academy maintain independence, neutrality, and fairness?" "We must eliminate funding from the institutions as much as possible," and said that Japan is fully borne by the national treasury, and that "there are many unavoidable parts in view of the social and cultural background." Was showing[211].

Chronological Table

Organizational history

Notices

  • 1950(25) --On April 4, at the 28rd General Assembly, the statement "Expression of determination not to obey scientific research for the purpose of war" was adopted.[216].
  • 1957(Showa 32) --March 3UKApril 4, sent an appeal to US and Soviet scientists and appealed to scientists around the world for a ban on atomic bombs.[222].
  • 1961(Showa 36) --The "Symposium for the Promotion of Humanities and Social Sciences" was held in January, and the "Recommendations for the Promotion of Humanities and Social Sciences" were announced at the general meeting in May.[223].
  • 1962(Showa 37) --At the general meeting in April, "Regarding the enactment of the Basic Law for Scientific Research" was resolved and proposed to the government in May.[224][Annotation 19]
  • 1967(Showa 42) --Adopted "Statement not to conduct scientific research for military purposes"[226].
  • 1976(51) --Resolved a recommendation calling for the enactment of the Basic Law on Scientific Research at the May General Assembly[227][228].
  • 1980(55) --Adopted the statement "About the Scientist Charter"[37]
  • 1999(11) --Recommended "Promotion of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Collaborative Research Program (IGBP)"[138]
  • 2008(20) --Announced "Science Council of Japan Charter"[34].

Pre-establishment history

Second World WarLater in March 1946,Academic Research CouncilDirectors' meetingImperial Academy, Academic Research Conference,Japan Society for the Promotion of SciencePropose the reorganization of the three groups[237].. ThisMinistry of EducationOrganizes a "Reorganization Preparatory Committee" to consider reorganization of the three organizations[147][237]..On the other hand, an American physicistAllied Supreme Commander General Command(GHQ) Deputy Director, Science and Technology Division, Economic Science Bureau(English editionDoctor[7][66] TheJiro HoriuchiIn contact withHiroshi Tamiya,Seiji Kaya,Ryokichi SaganeIn addition to these, in June of the same year, the "Japanese Association for Scientific Liaison (SL)" was organized.[7]..The scientific liaison committee will eventually have 55 members, and will be an advisor.Naoto Kameyama,Yoshio NishinaListed[7].

On September 9, the same year, Kelly joined three organizations (Academy, Academic Research Council, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science),Ministry of Education, Invite representatives of the Scientific External Liaison Committee and instruct them to submit concrete proposals for the reform of the academic system.[7]..In October of the same year, the three organizations embodied the concept of the new academy, and the Science and External Liaison Committee announced the "New Science and Technology System" on November 10, the same year.[7]..On November 11, the same year, Kelly gathered representatives of each group again, and since the activities of the three groups are part of the academic world, we requested that the Science External Liaison Committee take the lead in the future. On December 27, the Reorganization Preparatory Committee dissolved itself[7]..After that, the Director of the Science Education Bureau of the Ministry of Education became the facilitator, and the "Academic Research System Caretaker Association" was organized.[7][237], The number of caretakers will eventually reach 44[7][Annotation 20].

In July 1947, at the request of Kelly, the United StatesAmerican Academy of SciencesThe Academic Advisory Group visited Japan and recommended a report entitled "Reorganization of Science and Technology in Japan" to GHQ based on a one-month inspection.[7]..In August of the same year, the "Academic System Renewal Committee" was organized.[237].. The 108 members consist of 7 members from each of the 15 departments of "Legal Science and Engineering" and 3 members from the general department.[147][237], Chairman served[7][Annotation 21]..The report of the advisory group was transmitted to the Japanese side mainly through Kelly, which influenced the reform policy.[7]..In the discussions of the Renewal Committee, it was agreed that the academy would not have authority,Democratic Scientist Association(Minka) proposal, humanities volunteer proposal, and science liaison committee (SL) proposal conflicted[7]..The Renewal Committee reported the results of the deliberations to the government in April 1948.[147][237]..The Science Council of Japan Law Outline and the Science Council of Japan Outline have been legalized almost as they are.[7].

The members of the Science External Liaison Committee played a central role in both the Caretaker Association and the Renewal Committee, and Tamiya, Kaya, and Sagane, who were in their 40s at the time, played a central role in their activities.[7]..Kaya and Sagane strongly insist on the member recommendation method by direct election of researchers, and they are also members of the four external affairs committees set up in the renewal committee to negotiate with the government and occupation forces.[7]..While the Science External Liaison Committee was centered on active researchers, the academy was severely criticized by the general public as "the endowment, the hollowing out of authority, powerlessness, secrecy, and self-righteousness," and lost power due to reforms. To stay in the honorary institution[7]..In addition, according to the recommendation of the advisory group, the advisory body elected democratically should be a non-governmental organization, and an administrative committee should be established in the government to transfer the deliberations of the advisory body to the administration.[7].

Clash with government

Refusal of recommendation by Kakenhi Jury

Ministry of EducationIn 1967, the Academic Council (at that time)Seiji KayaWas to change the examination method of Kakenhi and the selection method of examination committee members from 1968 when the chairman) was newly established.[166]..Science Council confronts Ministry of Education on how to select judges[14][166][169]..The Ministry of Education presented a proposal that "the Science Council recommends more candidates than the fixed number, and the Ministry of Education selects and appoints them", but the Science Council side "(candidates recommended by the Science Council) are selected by the Ministry of Education. I just appoint without doing it. "[14][169]..Kaya, the chairman of the Science Council, made a proposal for Kaya that was close to the proposal of the Science Council for arbitration, but the Science Council did not respond.[166].

Since Kakenhi was significantly increased from that year (increased from about 41 billion yen in the previous year to about 50 billion yen), the Ministry of Education wanted to hurry the examination.[166], The Science Council replied, "The new method is a serious change related to the philosophy of the Science Council, and we cannot accept the recommendation of the judges this year because it requires careful consideration."[14][169]..Initially, the Research Funds Committee of the Science Council was favorable to the new method, so the Ministry of Education had negotiated as the chief examiner of the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Committee.Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo Director Toshinosuke Muto[Annotation 22]Later said, "That is an act of betrayal."[166].

In addition, the Science Council side recognized that "a revision that can be suspected to enable bureaucratic control of academic research and political control of individual researchers".[169]..On the other hand, in a 1982 book by the Ministry of Education, Genkichi Hara pointed out that many opinions accepted the Kaya proposal at the Science Council, but a minority opinion overturned it, and some powers of the Science Council were problematic. It is speculated that he might have had a plot to take responsibility for the Ministry of Education and to take the examination authority of Kakenhi from the Ministry of Education.[166].

In April 1968, the "Science Council of Japan Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research" meeting was held between members of the Science Council and representatives of the academic society.Shinichiro TomonagaExplains the situation[169]..The response of the Science Council was also supported there.[169]..As a result, the Science Council "virtually refused" the recommendation of the committee members in the same year.[14], Ministry of Education will select the judging committee[166][169]..In essence, the academic council and various academic societies were responsible for the selection, but some academic societies refused to cooperate.[166]..In addition, there were three cases of researchers who declined Kakenhi because they were against the new method even if Kakenhi was later adopted.[166].

This case was widely reported in various newspapers, and the tone of the old method was generally negative.[166]..Regarding the confrontation between the Science Council and the Ministry of Education, while some newspapers have stated that "academic freedom will be violated," the March 1968, 3 ""Asahi ShimbunThe editorial points out that the Science Council lacks self-reflection and humility and "forgets the general public," and that the aging of its members "is gradually being liberated from general researchers." Posted a criticism that he was losing interest in[166].

Statement on military research

Korean WarTwo months before the start of the war, in June 2, a draft statement was proposed stating that "we will never obey research that seems to promote and cooperate with the war," and finally "aimed at the war." Adopted under the title "Scientific research never does this"[235]. Also,Vietnam WarFrom the Science Council of Japan in 1965International Science CouncilWas dispatched to (ICSU)Yoshio FujiokaProposed an "Agreement on Sources of Funding" and confirmed that "ICSU and its affiliates must not accept or mediate funding from any military organization of the State for any purpose." Are[240].

1967 year 5 month,Japan Physical Society Sponsored by the Science Council of JapanInternational Union of Pure and Applied PhysicsAn international conference on semiconductors under its umbrella was held in Kyoto[226], To American participants at this conferenceU.S. ArmyIt becomes clear that there was funding from the Far East Research and Development Bureau[226][241]..Furthermore, it was discovered that the Far East Research and Development Bureau had provided millions of dollars in total to Japanese universities and research institutes from 1959 to 19 for research such as medicine that has not been studied in the United States.[241]..Was the chairman at that timeShinichiro Tomonaga House of CouncilorsBudget CommitteeDeveloped into a situation called[226], Tomonaga expresses regret at a press conference[241]..At the Japan Academic Conference, after passing through the Steering Council, discussions were held at standing committees such as the Freedom Committee for Academic Thought, the Academic Exchange Committee, and the Long-term Research Planning Committee, and a statement was issued under the joint name of the five chairpersons.[226]..The statement was almost the same as in 1950, but the title was "Statement not to conduct scientific research for military purposes."[226][242].

In 2015Ministry of DefenseIn response to the "Security Technology Research Promotion System" established by the Science Council of Japan, the Ministry of DefenseMinistry of educationAnd set up a "security and academic review committee"[235]..At the study group, the president of the Science Council of Japan and a member of the study groupTakashi OnishiWas invited to the study group as an expertRyo IkeuchiOpinion conflict[243]..Onishi argued that research for attacks was useless, but self-defense research was good, and that dual-use could be distinguished, but Ikeuchi argued that research for attacks and self-defense could not be distinguished, and research for self-defense was not allowed.[243]..From the perspective of guaranteeing academic freedom, Onishi said that there would be no problem because the research results would be disclosed, but Ikeuchi said that the Ministry of Defense staff would be involved in managing the progress of the research, so "it cannot be guaranteed." did[243]..There was also concern that the scale-up of cybercrime would be closer to "use of force" as a cyber attack.[244].

In 2017, the "Statement on Military Security Research" was released.[245][246][153], Report "Military Security Research" was also compiled[244][243]..The statement includes the statement that it inherits the 1950 and 1967 statements.[246][153]Also expressed concern that the Ministry of Defense staff, who are government personnel, will be involved in progress management under the "Security Technology Research Promotion System".[245]..In addition, the report stipulated that "it is often difficult to distinguish between technology for self-defense and technology for attack."[244]..Due to the statement of the Science Council of JapanMinistry of DefenseIt is reported that the number of applications for the "Security Technology Research Promotion System" decreased from 2015 in 58 to 2018 in 18 and 2020 in 9.[153].. Also in 2019Japan Astronomical SocietyCalled discussion in the academic journal "Astronomical Monthly Report"[242][47], March 2020Review discussion of Science Council of JapanBut this statement was noticed[247][153][Annotation 23].

National University AssociationChairman'sKyosuke Nagata The 2020At a press conference on March 3thGPS"Dual-use is difficult (difficult to draw)" and "I think that research for self-defense is correct no matter where the ministry is." The Science Council of Japan has expressed a critical view on the de facto ban on research by universities and researchers.[248]. Also,Tokyo UniversityProfessor'sTomonori TotaniPointed out the implications and problems of having the word "military purpose" instead of war and peace in the title of the 1967 statement.[242]From the influence of the Science Council of Japan, "Is it permissible for a small group of non-democratically selected researchers to impose uniform values ​​on all researchers and restrict their freedom? Raised the issue[249].

Government intervention issue

Served as a member from the first termKoji FushimiAccording to the report, the members who attend the Science Council of Science and Technology Administration were recommended by the Science Council of Japan (hereinafter referred to as the Science Council of Japan), and the government was to announce that person as a member.[66]. But,Goro HaniRegarding Katsusaburo Yamada, the government did not issue an announcement, and it was said that the council was held with vacancies.[66].

2014(26), the government requested explanation of the reason when recommending 105 members.The appointment of members was carried out as it was, but a list of 12 members including the 117 members who remained in the final selection was also submitted to the government.[250]. 2016(28), the Prime Minister's Office asked for a preliminary explanation in the supplementary personnel affairs, and the Science Council of Japan prioritized and presented candidates.However, the Science Council of Japan abandoned the replenishment because the official residence showed disapproval.[251]..Along with this, advance explanation was also given in the member recommendation in 2017.[251].. Back thenTakashi OnishiFormer chairman's eraDiplomatjournalist OfSato YuPointed out the problem that Chairman Onishi once accepted the rule change of prior change.[252]

2020(Reiwa 2nd year) A new member was appointed on October 10, but he is the appointed person.Yoshii KanThe prime minister excluded six of the 105 people recommended by the Science Council without giving any reason.[236][253].. This was the first measure to be excluded since the system was appointed as a member after receiving a recommendation from inside the organization in 2004.[236].. 『Red flag』Scoop as an opportunity[252], Criticism that the independence of the science council and academic freedom will be impaired[254].. Became chairman on October 2020, 10Takaaki KajitaProposed an explanation and a request for the appointment of six people to the meeting on the following day, and sent it to the Cabinet Office on the third day of the same month.[255].

On the 5th of the same month, Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga held a press conference, where (1) the Science Council was a government agency and its members were civil servants, and (2) (at that time).Yasuhiro NakasoneThe prime minister replied that he had no veto power.) In 1983, it was recommended by an academic society, but now it has changed to a form recommended by individual members, and members can appoint their own successors, (3) Academic He explained that the meeting has been discussing how it should be, and that it is necessary to make a judgment based on the law regarding the appointment from the point that comprehensive and bird's-eye view activities are required.[256][Annotation 24]..After that, the official residence showed disappointment in the 2016 replenishment personnel and abandoned the replenishment, the advance explanation was given at the time of member recommendation in 2017, and the six people were disappointed.Kazuhiro SugitaDeputy Secretary-GeneralIt also becomes clear that it was[251][260](Detail is"Refusal to appoint Science Council of Japan"Or"Yoshihide Suga Cabinet #Science Council Recommendation Refusal ProblemSee).

More than 90 academic societies issue joint statements[261][262], Universities and civil society also issued protest statements[261](The total number exceeds 10 groups at the end of October[263]). Also,NatureAlso criticized world-class academic journals such as[264]..The first opposition partyConstitutional Democratic Party OfYukio EdanoRepresentatives also accused it of "clear illegal activity"[265]. On August 10, the same yearLDP OfHirofumi Shimomura-Chairman of Government Affairs SurveyProposed to the government and showed the idea of ​​reconsidering and re-discussing the ideal state of the Science Council of Japan.[159], The issue of the Science Council of Japan will be discussed (Detail is"# 2020 review discussionSee section).

History of reform

Law revision in 1983

1981 year 5 month,Prime Minister's Office Of the Secretary of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsTaro NakayamaSays "There is doubt about the public election system" of the Science Council of Japan[266]..At the general meeting of the conference in October of the same year, the chairman of the conference at that timeKoji Fushimi"Do not change the character of the science council," "protect the election system of members," and emphasized "the importance of the role of the research liaison committee."[266]..Was the vice chairman at that timeKoshiro OkakuraAt the general meeting in October 30, the "Reform Guidelines" were compiled, centered on the Reform Committee chaired by "Reform outline, in which 20 out of 10 members in each department are selected by election and the remaining 1982 are recommended." resolution[266][267].

Chairman Fushimi and Vice Chairman Okakura resigned as "a renewal of the three roles is necessary to enter into negotiations with the government," and the chairman resigned in the middle of the 12th term.Ryogo KuboReplaced by[266]..New Chairman Kubo submits a "reform outline" to the Prime Minister,Yoshiyuki SuzukiIn November 1982 during the administration, the Prime Minister's Office Secretary of State presented the "Draft Secretary of Internal Affairs and Communications on Reform".[266][268][Annotation 25].. After the general meeting in February 1983 and the extraordinary general meeting in April, Chairman Kubo continued negotiations based on the "Reform Guidelines", but the Nakasone administration issued a "Bill to partially revise the Science Council of Japan Law" in April of the same year. Cabinet decision.The content is a recommendation system for each research liaison committee based on registered scientist groups.[269], Submitted to the Diet without prior agreement of the Science Council[268]..In response to this, Kubo resigned as chairman at the general meeting in May, saying that it was difficult to carry out his duties.Yuzo Tsukada will take over as chairman[20][270].

At the timeYasuhiro NakasoneIn the Diet, the Prime Minister said, "Since it is based on recommendations from academic societies and academic groups, the government only makes formal appointments. Therefore, it seems that each academic society or academic group has the right to recommend. If you think that the act of the government is a formal act, "he answered that it was a formal appointment.[271][272][Annotation 26].. The revised bill was passed by the Diet in November, and Chairman Tsukada issued a statement expressing regret.Tsukada and Vice Chairman resigned to "get angry" but have been reappointed[270].

In this way, the 12th term consistently took a stand against the revision of the government law.[23].. Since the early 1980s, "(English editionThe method was a government wish. "[266]..Even on the side of the Science Council of Japan, it is difficult to select researchers in multiple fields and interdisciplinary fields and representatives of academic societies that are in charge of important international academic societies under the public election system, so two-thirds are publicly elected and the remaining three minutes. There was a proposal to use 3 as a co-option method.[273]..With this revision of the law, the Research Liaison Committee was legally established and the capacity was expanded.[274]..In addition, the framework of specialized fields in research liaison committees, subcommittees, and specialized committees has been reorganized.[274].

Law revision in 2004

Government administrative reform (Central Reform Basic Act), The Science Council of Japan will also be required to reform.[18].. At the beginning of the 1997th term of 17, the chairmanHiroyuki YoshikawaDeclared that "Science Council of Japan is not a large petition organization like it used to be"[22], Almost alone write reform recommendations for internal discussions[275]..Yoshikawa set up a private advisory board, the "Future Advisory Panel," to discuss the basic reform concept of the Science Council of Japan, and presented a proposal at the 1999 Union Subcommittee, but the discussion was confusing.[18]..In the 18th term, the "Science Council of Japan Committee on the Ideal Way" was set up, and Yoshikawa published a paper in "Academic Trends".In addition, the Commission will report an interim summary at the April 2002 General Assembly, which will become the "Academic Conference Proposal" for reform.[18](Final report is February 2003[276]).

In addition,Central Reform Basic ActArticle XNUMX-XNUMX of the article stipulates that "The Science Council of Japan shall be placed in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, but the Science Council of Japan shall consider how it should be."[277],Science and Technology CouncilEstablished "Science Council of Japan Specialized Study Group" in May 2001[23][278][276].. The final report was issued in February 2003[278][279][280], "About the materialization of the reform of the Science Council of Japan" was compiled in July of the same year.[276]..It is said that this reflected the proposal of the academic conference.[158].

The law was amended in 2004, and members(English editionIt was decided to be elected by the method[74]..Of jurisdictionMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications Cabinet Legal Affairs BureauIn the bill examination materials submitted to, it was stated that "the Prime Minister is not expected to refuse the appointment of candidate members recommended by the Science Council of Japan" when changing the recommendation method.[281][282]..Due to the revision, the organization has also changed from 7 parts to 3 parts, and the vertical division has been broken down.Proposals for policiesScience and Technology CouncilWas separated from[15][24][18]..Also, with this reform, the Science Council of JapanGrants-in-Aid for Scientific ResearchLost the right to recommend the judges[283], "Registered Academic Research Organization" is "Science Council of JapanChanged to[19].

In 2003, when reform proposals were being finalizedJapan Atomic Energy Research InstituteNobuhiro Nogo was concerned that the Science Council of Japan, which is an organization of the government, should not speak about the matters under the jurisdiction of other government organizations, and was concerned that it would be perceived as being restricted. , The Science Council of Japan will only have abstract functions, except for international academic exchanges. "[284]..Due to the revision of the law, the election and organizational restructuring were carried out in 2005, but only the 19th term before the revision was shortened by one year to a two-year term.[56]。第19期は40代の会員は0名で平均年齢が63.5歳だったものが、第20期では40代会員14名(最年少会員44歳)、平均年齢58.8歳と若返りとなった。しかし国立大学偏重(公立・私立大学会員の減少)、選出地域の偏り(中四国の会員は1名)という特徴も見受けられた[285].

2005 Reform Homework

The law revised in 2004 had an incidental resolution, which was supposed to review the Science Council of Japan in the next 10 years.[56][234]..Was the 19th Vice PresidentMichiatsu KainouPointed out in "Academic Trends" in January 20 after the start of the 2006th term, "There is an understanding that a review after 1 years is a time-limited law," and said, "This revision of the law is Japan. It is hard to say that it was done by the intention of the Science Council of Japan itself, so the Science Council of Japan may be regarded as an encouragement to work on its own reforms as soon as possible. "[56].

In addition, Kaino requests the publication of the selection criteria for this member.[286]In the new organization, not only individual areas but also cross-disciplinary and bird's-eye view issues will be important, so to the members, "The main role is not limited to each specialized field. It's quite difficult if you don't have the ability to complete these missions, because it's about demonstrating, coordinating and managing. "[287].

In July 2014, the Cabinet Office held the "Science Council of Japan Experts' Meeting"Minister of Science and TechnologyIn March 2015, the report "Future Prospects of the Science Council of Japan" was compiled.[234][288]..In terms of activities, it was evaluated that "the purpose and purpose of reforms such as agile response to urgent issues and new issues have been realized, and the results have been steadily achieved in terms of activities." Although it was said that the department is showing the results intended by the reform, it was expected that "while respecting the purpose of the reform, we will continue to devise operational aspects."[289].

The improvement measures presented in this report require members to "open up the desired human resources and selection process."[289], "It is desirable to have human resources who can face each other from a bird's-eye view that is not bound by the framework of their specialty."[234]..Regarding communication, "Young academy”Activities and promotion of local activities were included[289]("#Collaboration / CommunicationSee also section).

In addition,Keio UniversityHonorary professor OfKonuma MichijiIn 2017, "Academic Trends" pointed out the problem that general researchers are becoming less interested in the transition from direct election of researchers to recommendation by academic societies and co-optiation method.[290]..In particular, corporate researchers do not consider the Science Council of Japan to be their representative, and "some people dislike the" independent "remarks of the Science Council of Japan, so they interact with academic researchers and society, especially the media. The future of the Science Council is in jeopardy if it is not strengthened. I had concerns such as[58].

Review discussion in 2020

Of the 2020 new member candidates recommended by the Science Council of Japan on October 2, 10 (Reiwa 1), 105 are appointed.Yoshii KanAppointment refused by the prime minister without revealing the reason[253], Criticism that the independence of the Science Council of Japan and academic freedom will be impaired[254]..After that, the official residence showed disappointment in the 2016 replenishment personnel and abandoned the replenishment, the advance explanation was given at the time of member recommendation in 2017, and the six people were disappointed.Kazuhiro SugitaIt also becomes clear that he was the Deputy Secretary of the Secretariat[251][260].

LDP TheTate ShioyaThe "Project Team for Examining the Ideal State of the Science Council" was organized and the first meeting was held on October 10, the same year.In November of the same year, the budget (national expense burden) and organizational form (privatization and NGOs were also proposed) were verified in the autumn administrative renewal review, and the LDP compiled recommendations on the ideal state of the Science Council of Japan in early December, and the end of the same month. Showed a policy to reflect the results of the administrative reform review in the budget compilation for the next fiscal year[291].. On October 10, Chairman Kajita visited Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga and directly submitted an explanation of the reasons for refusal of appointment and a request for the appointment of six people.Furthermore, regarding the ideal state of the Science Council of Japan, with Chairman KajitaShinji InoueMinister of Science and TechnologyIt was confirmed that future discussions will be promoted mainly by[292].

In the Diet reply on October 10, the same year, Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga explained that there were few private sector graduates and young people, and that there was a bias in graduates and universities, and that diversity was taken into consideration.[293].. HoweverTakashi OnishiCompared to 2005, the number of former presidents from the University of Tokyo has decreased from nearly 3% to about 17%, and the percentage of university enrolled in the Kanto region has decreased from 63% to about 5%, improving the uneven distribution of members. I argue that I can see[294]..In addition, the number of female members was 19 in the 13th term, but it is about 20% of 42 in the 20th term.[285]As of the 25th term, it has reached about 38%[295]..In addition, in the Diet response on the 30th of the same month, the Prime Minister saidFormer Imperial UniversityHe pointed out that affiliation accounts for 45%, industry is 3%, and young people under the age of 50 are only 3%.[296]..Opposition parties have criticized the answer, saying that three of the six people who were refused appointments belong to private universities and one woman.[297][298].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "National Diet of Researchers and Scientists"[11]And "The Diet of Scientists"[12][13]Also called.
  2. ^ In some literature, it is written as "Science Council of Japan useless theory"[22].
  3. ^ The draft isSakae AzumaAt the request ofSuekawa HiroshiWritten byGoro HaniProposed as a proposal of[35].
  4. ^ oldImperial AcademyIn the buildingJapanese AcademyBecause I lived with[72][73], The construction of its own hall has been considered for some time[73].
  5. ^ Although there are several international non-profit organizations[104], For exampleInternational Federation for Information Processing(IFIP) isIPSJBut,(English edition(IMEKO)Society of Instrument and Control Engineers [104],(English editionIs the Japan IFToMM Conference[103]He was a member representing Japan.Of these, the International Measurement Confederation became an NMO at the Science Council of Japan in 2011.[105], Not on the list of "affiliated international academic societies" as of 2020[106].
  6. ^ The "International Conference on Theoretical Physics" is also called the "International Conference on Theoretical Physics".Kyoto University,Japan Physical SocietyCo-sponsored by Kyoto UniversityYukawa Memorial HallEtc. became the venue[109][110].
  7. ^ According to Shoji Nagamiya, the chairman of the Organizing Committee, "This greeting was also electronically displayed in English, and many of the participants inside and outside the country were deeply moved, and the impressions and impressions were spoken throughout the venue until the end of the meeting."[112]Is said to be.In addition, Nagamiya said, "What impressed the participants most and impressed them most was the presence of the Empress and the opening ceremony of His Majesty the Emperor.speechMet"[112]"The attendance of Their Majesties has since become a big topic overseas, and we have received inspiring messages from participants both inside and outside Japan. Also, this attendance is a great support for the people of the Science Council of Japan. Was made possible for the first time by[112]Pointed out.
  8. ^ "International Union of Microbiological Sciences ConferenceThe event itself attracted about 4800 participants, but only about 700 people attended the commemorative ceremony and about 130 people attended the commemorative round-table conference (reception).[113][115].
  9. ^ Member of Science Council of Japan (Secretary of Part 19 of the 4th term)[76], Cooperative members[78]In succession.
  10. ^ After Nishina's death, Nishina's responsibility in academic administration is to be a disciple.Shinichiro TomonagaTaken over[124].
  11. ^ India,インドネシア,Singapore,Thailand,South Korea,People's Republic of China,Japan,フィリピン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Malaysia10 countries[131].
  12. ^ In 1995, 11 million yen was allocated out of the approximately 2220 billion yen budget of the Science Council of Japan.[102].
  13. ^ 1953年(昭和28年)には1件、1954年はなし。1955-1966年は年に1~3件、1967-1976年は年に3~5件、1977-1989年は毎年4件、1990-1995年は毎年6件と変遷している[140].
  14. ^ The Asian Young Scientists Conference has adopted the Declaration "Making a Clear Impact on a Sustainable Environment-Thinking about Key Issues and Possible Solutions through the Lens of Young Scientists"[130].
  15. ^ Co-author- Naoto Kameyama,Goro Hani,Ouchi Bei,Shoichi Sakata,Suekawa Hiroshi,Sakae Azuma[199].
  16. ^ In 1995, it was named "Other office expenses, etc." and was written as "General office work expenses, etc." in the remarks column.[102].
  17. ^ There is also a document that says March 1956 (Showa 31).[213].
  18. ^ In this Antarctic expeditionAsahi ShimbunPlayed a major role in planning, financial support, photo transmission, etc.[16][150][221].
  19. ^ The "Five Principles for Promotion of Basic Science" were confirmed at the general meeting in April 1961 (Showa 36) the previous year.[224][225].
  20. ^ The budget was used because the committee that was to be established under the Cabinet based on the "Resolution on the Promotion of Science and Technology" of the House of Representatives plenary session was not formed due to the opposition of GHQ.[7].
  21. ^ When selecting members of the Academic Research Renewal Committee, a method was adopted in which a member was recommended by the relevant academic societies and the member was selected by election.[238]..In the general departmentDemocratic Scientist AssociationIt is said that a representative was elected from a democratic organization such as[238].
  22. ^ Back thenNihon University教授[239].
  23. ^ August 2020, 10,Minister of Special Affairs, Cabinet Office (in charge of science and technology policy) OfShinji InoueSaid that he would respect the will of the Science Council of Japan, but called for responding to changes in the times in the 70 years after the war, and emphasized that "dual use can be in any field."[247].
  24. ^ In addition, although the government "has been established as a consistent idea since the revision of the law in 1983," there is no legal interpretation document that clearly states the Science Council of Japan Law that it is possible to refuse to appoint recommended ones.[257]Meanwhile, the Cabinet Office has released a 2018 document stating that the Prime Minister of the time is not obliged to follow the recommendations of the Science Council.[258].Katsunobu Kato Chief Cabinet Secretary"I decided at that time that it was not necessary to announce it immediately because the interpretation did not change."[258].Deputy Minister of the Cabinet Office OfHiromi MitsubayashiHe made it possible for the Prime Minister to disobey the recommendations of the Science Council, and stated that "this idea has been the premise since the members became appointed. We have not changed the interpretation."[259].
  25. ^ Sometimes written as "Draft by the Prime Minister's Office Secretary of State"[268].
  26. ^ The government responded to the Diet by saying, "We do not consider that the appointment of the Prime Minister will influence the appointment of members." "We have an appointment system, but we understand that this is substantive. "We don't have it." "The recommendation system is also a recommendation system only for the shape, and those who have been recommended by the academic society will not refuse, only the shape as it is. "I will appoint" "The government will not interfere or hurt, it is not such a thing"[272].

Source

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  3. ^ Reiwa 2nd year general account budget (PDF) Ministry of Finance
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