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🏛 | The actual situation of "Internet work" revealed by the election consultant Is Mr. Kawai the tip of the iceberg? "Twitter, blogs, summary sai ...


Photo Katsuyuki Kawai

The reality of "net work" revealed by election consultants Is Mr. Kawai the tip of the iceberg? "Twitter, blogs, summary sai ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
"Facebook and Twitter are regarded as problems in the US presidential election, and Japan should also discuss direct laws and regulations on Internet work.
 

Former Minister of Justice Katsuyuki Kawai said, "Net ..." over the trial of the House of Councilors Anri Kawai, who is accused of violating the Public Offices Election Act (acquisition). → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Regulation

Regulation(Kisei,British: Regulation) Is a license, intervention, procedure, prohibition, etc.RulesTo set things upRestrictionIt means to do.

It is divided into direct regulation (political regulation) and indirect regulation, and further, direct regulation is divided into economic regulation and social regulation.

Purpose of regulation

External diseconomyAvoidance of
Environmental regulations, safety regulations, etc.
Information asymmetryAvoiding disadvantages due to
Quality indication, safety indication, etc.
Economy of scaleAvoiding disadvantages due to the existence of gender
Larger industries such as power plants are more efficient
Fostering kindergarten industries and facilitating declined industriesConstructionConversion
Entry restrictions, etc.
Food supply and demand adjustment
Food price stability, etc.
Realization of public interestUniversal serviceAchievement of safety
There are entry regulations, price regulations, withdrawal regulations, threshold regulations for hazardous substances, safety regulations, etc. in postal services, communications, transportation, etc.

Type of regulation

Command and Control type
A method of direct management by order and regulation. It is effective in surely preventing that it should not occur.
Economic method
External diseconomyA method of indirectly managing by intervening to reflect (social cost) in the price. It is characterized by being more economically efficient in a perfect market because the means of accomplishment are left to each entity to give them more freedom.
Perfect competitionRegulations for market realization
Market regulation, information disclosure regulation, market rule development, etc. for the market to function well.
Information asymmetryCancellation ofMoral hazardPrevention ofReverse selectionPrevention ofMonopolyBan,Information disclosure,labelingな ど

Related item

References

  • DeregulationWhite paper
  • OECD Report on Regulatory Reform Review

外部 リンク

Facebook

Facebook(Facebook, abbreviation: FB) isアメリカ合衆国CaliforniaMenlo ParkThe largest in the world operated by Facebook, Inc. headquartered inSocial networking services(SNS)[5].. Facebook, Inc. is a major USITIs a company,GAFA[6][7][8],Faang[9][10]Other than FacebookInstagram.,Facebook Messenger,WhatsAppAre offered.

The name Facebook isアメリカ合衆国Some ofUniversityIt is a popular name of a book that is offered in the year when students are enrolled to promote interaction among students(English edition)Is derived from[11].

Overview

In 2004Mark ZuckerbergOf ZuckerbergHarvard UniversityWas my roommate or classmateEduardo SuberinWas founded. afterwardsAndrew McCorrum,Dustin Moskowitz,Chris HughesAnd so on[12].. Initially, membership was limited to students with email addresses in Harvard's domain,Duffel BagLocal universities,Ivy leagueUniversity ofStanford UniversityThe target was gradually expanded. Gradually, students from various universities were added to the target, and eventually it was opened to high school students, and finally to all people over the age of 13. On Facebook today, anyone can become a member by declaring that they are 13 years old or older at the time of user registration[13].

If you register as a user before using the site, you can create a personal profile, add other users as friends, exchange messages, and receive automatic notifications when your profile is updated. In addition, users will be able to join groups of users with a common interest. User groups are categorized by company, school/university, and other attributes. Also, friends can be classified by putting them in a list such as "work colleagues" and "close friends".

In June 2005,Accel PartnersInvested $1,270 million in Facebook,Jim BreyerAdded $100 million from personal funding to Accel Partners investment funding[14].. August 2009Compete.comSurvey ranked Facebook as the most popular social networking service in the monthly active user rankings worldwide[15].Entertainment WeeklyChose Facebook as its "best" list for the past decade, and said, "The world before Facebook was sneaking up on ex-girlfriends, not forgetting the birthdays of colleagues in the company, and distracting friends. OrScrabulousI was playing an enthusiastic game like "It has said[16].

Initially it was limited to students, 20069/26After that, it was opened to the public. The Japanese version was released in 2008.real nameIt is a registration system,personal informationRegistration is also required[17].. After publication, the number of users increased rapidly, and the number of site visits increased in 2010.GoogleBecome a hot topic. In September 2011, it became the world's largest SNS with 9 million users worldwide[18].. Over 2012 billion people in October 10[19].

In September 2012, Facebook exceeded 9 billion active users[20].. 8.7% of them are fake[21].. August 2011Consumer reportsAccording to a survey, 13 million children under 750 and 10 million children under 501 violate the Terms of Service[22].. 2012 in 180PetaIt has bytes of data and increases by 24 petabytes of data every 0.5 hours.[23].

Facebook made its first public offering on February 2012, 2,CaliforniaMenlo ParkHeadquarters moved to[24].. Facebook is from May 2012, 5NASDAQStarted selling shares in the market[25].. Facebook was issued in May 2012 with $51 billion in sales in 2013Fortune 500Ranked 462 in the world and was selected for the Fortune 500 for the first time[26].. 2012,Webby awardAward[27].. Operating income for the second quarter of 2016 was 2,830 billion yen, an increase of 116% year-on-year. The monthly usage is 17 million (the company's subsidiary Instagram has a monthly usage of 1,200 million).

In terms of customizability, basicallyPlain textBut only forAjaxCorrespond to your own orア プ リ ケ ー シ ョ ンIt supports the latest technology such as being able to select (app) and add. Many of these applications are developed by ordinary users rather than those developed by Facebook. By allowing general users to develop various applications and publish them as Facebook tools, Facebook goes beyond its own capabilities.ServiceCan be provided.

In addition,mobileIt also supports terminals,BlackBerry,AndroidFor exclusive useWidgetIs prepared,iPhone,iPod touchMounted onSafariWhen you access with, the service is provided on a dedicated screen. iOS-equipped devices such as iPhone and iPad, and Android apps are also available separately.

Facebook, as Instagram has symbolized, prioritizes investment over short-term profits and is not making a profit for now. However, along with Google, there is no doubt that it is the “largest advertising company in the world”. In terms of traffic, Facebook has about 250 billion monthly visits (May 2019), making it the second-largest giant of Google with 5 billion in traffic and global traffic. Naturally, this huge amount of traffic is directly linked to advertising revenue.

Second-hand goodsSale or住宅-Job offerVarious recruitmentAdsThere is also a "Facebook Marketplace" that allows you to send a message, and the ability to send messages directly to other users. Also,写真,MovieIt also supports uploading (Facebook Video). capacityRestrictionThere is no. For photos larger than 604 pixels, the long side is reduced to 604 pixels. What your friends bought, in conjunction with purchasing activities on dedicated pages on Facebook and external sitesmovies,MusicThere is also "Social Ads," in which advertisements are displayed in the form of whether or not they were highly evaluated.

History

Harvard UniversityWas a student ofMark ZuckerbergDevised a game called "Face Mash" where the ID photo of the female student obtained by hacking was published on the Internet and the face of the exposed female student was compared to win the vote.[28].. This became a problem at the university, leading Zuckerberg to half-year probation at Harvard University.

In 2004, Zuckerberg launched a service called “The facebook” for Harvard students to interact with each other (registration required). A few days later,Stanford University,Columbia University,Yale UniversityIn response to requests from students such as "I want a similar site,"Ivy LeagueOpen to students. After that, it gradually became open to students throughout the United States and became an indispensable tool for student life. Participation was limited to university students who own a university email address (.edu domain), but in early 2006A high school studentIt was opened to the public by September 2006 and made available to anyone in the world with a valid email address.

April 2004, officially in FloridaLLC[29]Registered as. The three partners are Zuckerberg, Moskowitz and Saverin.

As the first recruited engineer by the advisorSteve ChenWorks. But in a few weeksPayPalI try to quit with my old friends by saying "make a video site". Don't ask Matt Caller, "I'll regret it all my life. Facebook will soon become a big company. I think there's a video site that can be swept away and thrown away."YouTubeLeave to make).

Kevin Efflsi recommends to Zuckerberg that an extremely knowledgeable person in operation is needed. HeVeritasTheSymantecHe sold himself to the company and was willing to accept consulting for a few weeks, but he became a captive of Zuckerberg and Facebook and became a full-time employee, which increased the company's credibility. Jeff Rothschild said, "I thought they were creating a dating site, but understanding their vision, it was completely different from the site they've been on. We are trying to create the most effective channel to exchange."

On September 2006, 9, "News Feed" and "Mini Feed" functions started.

August 2007, 10,MicrosoftIs an exclusive contract for advertising,Windows LiveandXbox LiveIncluding the system integration with, Facebook invested $2 million (about 4,000 billion yen) and acquired 264% of the company's stock. Microsoft has valued Facebook with a market capitalization of $1.6 billion (about 150 trillion yen). By the way, GoogleYahoo!With riceMySpaceと広告を契約中(3年契約、9億ドル約990億円)。MicrosoftがYahoo!買収にあたって提示した金額は446億ドル(約4兆9,060億円)であり、FacebookはYahoo!の3分の1の市場価値があると見られている(2008年4月)。

October 2007, 10, GoogleOpenSocialPublished API.Orkut,Salesforce,LinkedIn,Ning,,,Friendster,OracleAnd others will participate.

Facebook, January 2008, 1API"JavaScript The release of the "Client Library" has spurred the openness of SNS not only in the SNS industry but also in the IT industry as a whole. The total number of applications is about 1. About 7,000 applications are added every day.

May 2008, 5, MySpaceDataPortabilityAs a partner, Yahoo!,ebay,Twitter,PhotobucketAffiliated with.

August 2008, 5,Facebook ConnectAnnounced. May 2008, 5, Google announced.

On May 2008, 5, Facebook refused to connect to Google's Friend Connect as not meeting Facebook's privacy standards.

Mark Zuckerberg visited Japan on May 2008, 5 to give a talk. The Japanese version was released to the public on the spot.

2009 was aheadMySpaceBecame the world's largest SNS site.

August 2009, 9,Windows LiveandXbox LiveAnnounced that it has adopted for the system integration with.

Released "Microsoft SDK for Facebook Platform" on November 2009, 11.

July 2010, 7 Active Users Announce Over 22 Million Users Worldwide[30].

On September 2010, 9, a movie ``The story behind the establishment of Facebook''Social networkWill be released. Published in Japan on January 2011, 1.

August 2011, 9,Bing TranslatorThe machine translation function using was installed.

December 2011, 12 HeadquartersPalo AltoFrom Stanford Research ParkMenlo Park OfSun MicrosystemsMoved to the site[31].

August 2012, 5,NASDAQAt the marketIPO.

August 2020, 5,Facebook Supervisory Board20 initial members (committees) were announced[32][33][34].

Features

In addition to the basic functions for social networking, it has the following characteristic functions.

Facebook Connect

Facebook Connect is a function that allows you to authenticate with Facebook and associate it with Facebook's social network by adding the link information with Facebook to the desired page of the external site. What Facebook users do on these external sites is also reflected on Facebook as activity information.[35].

Facebook Page

There is a "Facebook page" on Facebook that can be created by celebrities and companies, where you can advertise and attract fans.Originally named "Fan Page".

Smart list

Automatically classify registered people.

Japanese corporation

Facebook Japan Co., Ltd.(Facebook Japan Kabushiki Kaisha) is a Japanese corporation of Facebook.

History

In February 2010, Facebook Japan Co., Ltd., the first overseas corporation outside the United States, was established in Japan (Tokyo).Minato-ku) Established. On behalf ofYahoo! JAPANTaro Kodama, who is from his hometown, is appointed (the position is Country Growth Manager). InitiallyShiroyama Trust TowerI had an office in February 2013,Ark Hills Sengokuyama Mori TowerMoved to[36], Completed in August 2020 and January of the same yearToranomon HillsMoved to business tower[37]-[38].. The number of users in Japan was approximately 2010 million as of December 12[39]..Over 2011 million people at the end of September 9[40].. It was widely reported in 2012, and it started to be reported in many media that it became more popular than Japanese SNS. 2015122,500 million people at the moment[41].

Facebook Incorporated uses "Facebook" (known as Facebook) in Japan 200711/21"Facebook" and "facebook" (designated as Kaohon, Ganphone, Gampon) 20105/25Applied for a trademark. Japan was a backward region for Facebook, but at the beginning there were very few Japanese services, problems such as the Japanese version not reflecting the English version layout in real time, etc. It was mentioned. From this point, posting negative articles on Facebook is far from the world trend.[42][43]Only Japan stands out.

2019At the end of the year, there were 2,600 million active users in Japan. AcquiredInstagramAlso has 3,300 million active users[44].

International development

2017At the beginning, the number of users worldwide was over 18 billion.[45]

Japan

2008Japanese translation in MayThe interfacepublish. This is not translated by the management side, volunteer usersThird partyIt was the result of free work using the translation application. May 5,CEO OfMark Zuckerberg JapanHeld a press conference at and thanked all the users involved in the translation[46].. On the same night, Facebook developer event "Facebook Developer Garage Tokyo" will be held in Tokyo.Shibuya WardIt was held in.

Japan at the time Facebook enteredmixi,Mobage,GREEExisting SNS such asTwitterIs not pushed by and spread[47][48]It was also called "Facebook underdeveloped country".Kunihiro Maeda(Space of interestfounder,Tamagawa UniversityFaculty of Business Administration, Part-time Lecturer,Tokyo UniversityAs for these factors, the number of interpersonal relationships between Japanese and overseas is small in the first place.Social MediaIs holding users, "The advantage of a global networkJapaneseVulnerable to[49].. Maeda also said that Facebook accounts are required to register a real name, a face picture of the person, and a profile in the real world. I feel." "If you can't communicate in English, you can't get into the main network at all," he said.[50]

People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China(Excluding Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR)Great firewallThe connection restrictions to Facebook are regulated by[51], Of similar servicesHuman networkHas attracted many users. As of February 2011, there are 2 Facebook users.[52].. Although Facebook established a subsidiary in the People's Republic of China in 2018,Communist partyGovernment withdrew approval[53].

India

2015As of June, there are about 6 million users, the second largest in the world after the United States.[54]

チュニジア

From 2010 to 2011チュニジアOccurred inJasmine RevolutionFacebook plays a major role in exchanging information. Also,2011 Egypt MayhemThen.April 4 ExerciseA large group calleddemo,strikeI called.Hosni MubarakPresidentSome were evaluated as "Facebook Revolution" because they were forced to resign[55].

On the other hand, Facebook is a real name ( 2012Is more widely usedstage name,Pen nameIfPopular nameAlthough now possible, this is limited to celebrities whose contacts can be easily identified[56]) Because it is a registration system, to escape from the pursuit of the governmentKanaRequest real names from activists registered in[57]Or, there was also a situation where the activity was flooded, such as the activist who was forced to disclose his real name was arrested by the authorities[58].. Due to these restrictions, in actual exerciseReviews,FlyerIs the mainstay, Facebook andTwitterIt is also pointed out that only "not organized the demo"[59].

Security and privacy issues

Facebook's security vulnerabilities are often pointed out. In 2011HTTPSIntroduced always-on connection[60]But stillmobile phoneIt is considered to be the site that poses the most serious threat to mobile terminals such as[61].

Timeline is a feature announced on September 2011, 9. Initially, it was scheduled to start in October 23. However, on September 2011, a privacy protection agency, the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), submitted a request for investigation to the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC), citing timeline privacy concerns. Facebook also changed its privacy policy in December 10. As a result, EPIC and other privacy advocates and individuals have sued Facebook on the FTC for their personal information being provided to third parties without their consent. As a result, the two parties settled on November 9, 29, "Do not use misleading expressions regarding security and privacy" and "Use the opt-in method that users explicitly consent to change privacy settings". did. To avoid the risk of getting stuck in the timeline, you need to review your privacy settings[62].

others,AppsAbout "Birthday" (formerly "My Calendar"), which is one of the above, once you join the membership (unless you change the settings), you will unknowingly ask your friend "Can you enter your birthday?"ス パ ムPoints to keep sending solicitations[63]AndiPhoneThe Facebook app at will arbitrarily register the contacts registered on the iPhone to Facebook, and Facebook will automatically send an "invitation email" to the registered contacts every two weeks.[64]There are also problems such as.

In June 2013, the subscriber's personal informationUS National Security AgencyMass monitoring program operated byPRISMBy the AmericanInformation agencyWas provided toWashington Post,GuardianTherefore, it is reported.[65][66][67][68]

On June 2013, 6, the official application for Android was sending the phone number of the terminal without permissionSymantecIt becomes clear by the analysis of. In response, Facebook acknowledged the fact that it was the program that collected and sent the phone number.バ グIt was justified. The collected phone numbers are said to have been deleted, but they have not been confirmed by a third party.

As a new function from December 2013,personal informationThe "information transfer" mechanism has been adopted in which when a user presses a "request" button for an address or address on the screen, a small screen is displayed on the user side asking whether or not it is possible. However, in the small screen, a button called "friend" is also displayed next to the name button of "disclosure destination (=requesting person who wants information)". If the user who is requested to press the "friend" by mistake, the personal information will be disclosed to all the "friends" as well as the original user who requested the request.[69]

201511/3,F-SecureA man who works for a company is a cartoonistToshiko HasumiAccused a user of being said to have liked the illustrations published by Facebook as a racist. The name, place of residence, school from which I was born, and work place were published as a list from the information on Facebook. Posts of harassment in those addresses were posted on the Internet, which became a problem.[70][71].

2016Collects and analyzes voice from the user's mobile phoneTargeting adsAnnounces official comments negative to alleged use for[72].

March 2018 outflow

A leak of personal information was reported in March 2018, and it was announced on April 3, 2018 that it was about 4 million people[73][74].. Facebook's user information leak issue to about 8,700 million people was regarded by Congress as ZuckerbergUS SenateJudicial committee[75]And the US House of Representatives Energy and Commercial Task ForcePublic hearingSummoned to[76].

Special provision of personal information to advertisers in June 2018

20186/8AttachedWall Street JournalElectronic version, Facebook is the advertiserNissan MotorFor several companies such asPhone NumberAnd personal information such as the results of analysis of intimacy of relationships[77].. About this, Nissan is a company that works with Facebook.AppsI explained that when I changed the system, I was able to browse until the change was completed.[78].

March 2018 outflow

Announced that personal information was leaked on September 2018, 9[79][80][81].

Outflow on September 2018, 9
Outflow contentThe target number of people
  • Name
  • Contact information (phone number, email address, or both, which is registered in your profile)
  • Username for unique URL
  • Sex
  • Language setting
  • Dating status
  • Religious
  • Birth Place
  • Self-reported residence
  • birthday
  • The type of device used to access Facebook
  • Educational History
  • Career history
  • Last 10 locations checked in or tagged
  • Website
  • People and pages you follow
  • 15 most recent searches
About 1400 million people
  • Name
  • Contact information (phone number, email address, or both, which is registered in your profile)
About 1500 million people
Access Talk stolen, but no access to personal informationAbout 100 million people

March 2018 outflow

On October 2018, 10, it was reported that personal information of 6 people was leaked[82].

Password plaintext storage problem

On March 2019, 3, we announced a problem that passwords for hundreds of millions of users discovered in an internal survey in January 21 were stored internally without undergoing encryption processing. The passwords that were stored without proper encryption processing were tens of millions of Facebook users, hundreds of millions of Fecebook Lite users, and tens of thousands of Instagram users. According to Facebook, passwords are usually stored in their systems using technology that makes them unreadable, but some users' passwords were stored in a readable format. It is said that these passwords were not in a state of being viewed outside the company, and that it has not been confirmed that unauthorized use or access has been made inside the company. This issue was fixed from discovery to announcement[83][84][85].

Readable passwords for hundreds of millions of people on Facebook, Instagram, and Facebook Lite released on March 2019, 4 (Plaintext) Updated the announcement that it was stored in-house and revised the number of Instagram passwords originally set to "tens of thousands" to "several millions". About 2,000 people in the access logs ran about 900 million queries against data containing plaintext passwords[86].

Collect email passwords for 150 million people

Admitted that from April 2019, May 4, we have collected contact information and email passwords for 2016 million users.[87].

Human rights/censorship issues

Censorship measures

September 2016, 9 at Vietnam WarNaked girl running away after suffering from Napalm bullet attackPhoto of(Fin con uto The censorship measures that were being taken on the company's website for the work "Fear of War") were withdrawn. Many people criticized censorship measures.ノルウェーOf a human writerTom Egeland) It started with the use of this photo in a post about a war photo. Facebook immediately removed his post. Respondents posted the same photos one after another, but Facebook continued to delete them each time. NorwegianErna Solberg (Erna Solberg) Prime Minister also posted this photo, but was deleted a few hours later. In a subsequent statement, he explained that he was "corresponding to child pornography" and acknowledged the importance of this photo and decided to withdraw censorship, but he did not apologize.[88].

Bride auction problem

It was reported that a girl living in South Sudan was auctioned as a bride on Facebook and subsequently married on November 11rd, which became a problem. The post where the auction took place was posted on October 3th, and then Facebook deleted the post on November 10th, more than two weeks later, by which time the girl was already married.[89][90][91].

Other issues

Defect in automatic translation function

2020 year 1 month,Myanmar OfAung San Suu KyiOn the official page of the national adviser,BurmeseChinese President (Party General Secretary) during a visit to Myanmar written inXi JinpingThe name is FacebookAutomatic translationDepending on the functionEnglishSo I translated it into "Shithole". Facebook side, because not on the "Xi Jinping" in the company's Burmese word book, and explained that was translated into all the words beginning with "shi", "shithole" and apologized for this situation[92].

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

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