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Photo Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga delivered his first statement of belief after taking office at the extraordinary Diet session convened on the XNUMXth.

Government involvement is the last, first by myself, in the family area and the Prime Minister

 
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Regarding the Northern Territories issue, "We must put an end to the issue without putting it off to the next generation.
 

Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga delivered his first statement of belief after taking office at the extraordinary Diet session convened on the XNUMXth.In his speech, Prime Minister Suga said, "The society I am aiming for ... → Continue reading

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Northern Territories issue

Northern Territories issue(Looking for a kid,dew: Проблема прина длежности южных Курильских островов , British: Kuril Islands dispute, Northern Territories dispute) IsHokkaidoNemuro PeninsulaOff the coast ofRussian Federation Effective dominationdoingEtorofu Island,Kunashiri Island,Shikotan Island,Habomai IslandsIslands, ieNorthern TerritoriesAgainstJapanWants to returnterritorial dispute.

Overview

Japanese GovernmentSay that the Russian Federation is its territoryoccupation-Effective dominationAs for the northern territories that are currently operating, they are seeking the return as illegally occupied territories unique to Japan.1945å¹´(Showa20 years) Japan on August 8thPotsdam DeclarationOn the 15th the next dayTamane BroadcastAfter the public was informed of the surrender and stopped voluntary fighting1945å¹´From August 8th to September 28th,Red Army(Soviet army) Unilaterally abolished the Japan-Soviet neutrality treaty, which was still in effect at that time, and landed and occupied the Northern Territories.[*1].. During the invasion, the US-Soviet joint operation "Project hulaThe warships built in the United States and Soviet soldiers trained in the US military participated.

After that, the Northern Territories are stillSoviet Socialist RepublicAnd itInheritance officialRussian FederationHas continued effective control. The Government of Japan claims that the Northern Territories are territories unique to Japan, but the administration has not reached the full extent and Japan is seeking the return.

Kuril IslandsRegarding the designation ofSan Francisco Peace TreatyIn the Kuril Islands, the two islands (Kunashiri Etorofu) are not included.”[2], Shikotan Island and Habomai Islands form part of Hokkaido (genus island)[3]And The Soviet Union or the current Russian Federation has not signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty.

In the Soviet Union (currently the Russian Federation), the Kuril Islands are called the Kuril Islands, and the Kuril Islands are the Kuril Islands from Oshirijima Island to Kunashiri Island.

島 々

These four islands are claimed. TogetherNorthern regionCalled.

imageName範 囲
(square kilometer)
populationMountain peak
(Meter)
Peak nameCoordinate
Iturup Terra cut.jpgEtorofu Island3,186.647,500(2003)1,634Single Mt. Kanmuriyama45°02'N 147°37'E /45.033 degrees north latitude 147.617 degrees east longitude / 45.033; 147.617 (Ettorofu)
Kunashir.jpgKunashiri Island1,489.277,000(2007)1,822Grandpa44°07'N 145°51'E /44.117 degrees north latitude 145.850 degrees east longitude / 44.117; 145.850 (Kunashiri)
WW-Shikotan.pngShikotan Island2552,100412.6Shakotanzan43°48'N 146°45'E /43.800 degrees north latitude 146.750 degrees east longitude / 43.800; 146.750 (Shikotan)
Habomai 01.jpgHabomai IslandsIslands99.9411745-43°30'N 146°8'E /43.500 degrees north latitude 146.133 degrees east longitude / 43.500; 146.133 (Habomai)

Northern Territory History

ThisMapIs based on what the Matsumae clan submitted to the Edo Shogunate, and there is no original submitted, but the Matsumae clan conducted a Karafuta survey in 1635 and said that the map was made based on it. It is being appreciated. Speaking of Etorofu Island, the Ainu are indigenous and the ships of Shichiroubei of Ise country drifted in 1661.[4].1760 eraThere is a record that the Russians collected the Sayak (fur tax) from the Ainu on Etorofu Island. Also,Mogami TokunaiWas sent by the Tokugawa ShogunateExplorerFirst visited Etorofu Island1780 era, Three Russians live on Etorofu Island,OrthodoxIt is known that there were people who worshiped the Christianity, and at the same time, it was also known that there was a footprint of a Russian (although the Orthodox Christianity is also believed by non-Russian people and Example:Greek Orthodox Church,Bulgarian Orthodox Church,Japanese Orthodox Church>OrthodoxThat is not equal to Russians).

  • 1854å¹´
  • 1855å¹´
    • Japan and the Russian EmpireJapan-Russia Treaty of PeaceWe conclude the (Shimoda Treaty) and set the border line between Etorofu Island and Tokubanajima.
  • 1869å¹´
  • 1875å¹´
    • Japan and RussiaKarafuto-Kishima Exchange TreatyAnd tie "Kuriru Islands (le groupe des îles dites Kouriles)” is the territory of Japan, and Japan and Russia are jointly governed, but Karafta who has been in constant disputes between the two people is now territory of Russia. This treaty was written in French and a Japanese translation was made based on it, but this translation was incorrect. Based on an inaccurate Japanese translation, it was once interpreted that Tohokujima and the north are the Kuril Islands.
    • After the treaty was signed, the northern part of Tokusashijima was transferred to Kunashiri Island and Etorofu Island, which had been designated as “Kishima-kuni” by the administrative division at that time.Shimori IslandBecame Chishima country.
  • (1904å¹´ - 1905å¹´ Russo-Japanese War.Portsmouth TreatyWas sold to Japan by Karafuto Minami)
  • (1917å¹´-1918å¹´ Russian Revolution)
  • (1918å¹´-1922å¹´ Siberian troops)
  • (1931å¹´ Manchurian Incidentoutbreak)
  • (1937å¹´ Sino-Japanese waroutbreak)
  • 1940å¹´
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,MolotovCalls German Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Foreign Minister of GermanyVon RibbentropSuggestions for[5]According toJapan-Germany Ikoku UnionAs the Soviet government to make the "Japanese-German-Italian-Soviet Union"[6].. There were conditions to be resolved when concluding the agreement, among which was the abandonment of Japan's coal and oil mining rights in North Sakhalin.[6]..The alliance was extinguished after Germany launched a surprise attack on the Soviet Union.
  • 1941å¹´
    • January,Japan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyConclude.
    • Before the warUS President Roosevelt TheJoseph StalinTo Japan that the Japanese Army will attack the Soviet Primorsky Territory[7].. In connection with this, a US Air Force Base construction permit was granted in the Far East of the Soviet Union, and it was proposed to transport aircraft via Alaska.[7].. However, Stalin, who knows from Japan's intelligence agency such as Zorge, that Japan decided to launch a surprise attack on the United States against Hawaii[7]Rejects US bomber base construction[8].
  • 1942å¹´
    • On June 6, new U.S. Ambassador General Stanley handed Roosevelt's letter to Stalin[9].. Roosevelt once again referred to the Japanese invasion of the Soviet Union and called for the construction of a US military base in the Far East. Stalin must aggravate relations with Japan during the fierce German-Soviet battleAmbassador of Extraordinary PlenipotentiaryDeclared to[9].
  • 1943å¹´
    • In October, the US-UK-Soviet foreign ministers' talks will be held in Moscow (Moscow talks). According to Stalin's interpreter, at the Katherine Catherine Hall Supper on October 10, Stalin told Secretary of State Hull sitting next to the Soviet Union's intention to join Japan at the end of Germany.[10].. However, he was told in the form of whining and was kept secret for the time being. Then at the end of November,(I.e. OfTehranAt the US-UK-Soviet summit meeting (Tehran talks). In this meeting Roosevelt and Churchill promised to open the Second Front in Europe by May 1944. In return, Stalin stated that he would make a clear commitment to participate in the war against Japan after the German defeat and would make any "requests" for it later.[11].
    • Immediately before the Tehran meeting, a summit meeting will be held in Cairo between the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Three Central States. The United States, the United Kingdom, and the three major allies in China are fighting to stop and punish the aggression of Japan.Unconditional surrenderWas declared to aim for (Cairo declaration). The Cairo Declaration stipulates the deprivation of the Pacific Islands territories that Japan has taken from other countries since the First World War, the return of Taiwan and Manchuria to China, and the extermination of areas that Japan has taken away due to violence and greed. Has been. No mention is made of the South Karafuto or Kuril Islands.
  • 1944å¹´
    • December 12, Stalin is an American Ambassador to the Soviet UnionW. Averell HarrimanRequest for possession of South Karafuto or Kuril Islands[12][13].. This will later be included in the Yalta Agreement.
  • 1945å¹´January-August International situation during the war
    • February, SovietYaltaThe US, UK and Soviet leaders met at (Yalta talks). Here, between the winning countries,世界The division was discussed.Dainichi this empireTo drive defeatNazi GermanySurrender (European Victory Day) 3 months laterSoviet war against JapanIn return,Surrender of JapanLater, he signed the Far East secret agreement that the South Karafuto should be returned to the Soviet Union and the Kuril Islands should be handed over to the Soviet Union (Yalta Agreement).
    • April 4, the Soviet UnionJapan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyWill be notified to the Japanese side. The Japan-Soviet Neutrality Treaty is to be automatically renewed unless notified one year before the contract is renewed by the rules, and this Soviet notification1946å¹´It will expire on April 4[*2].. The Japanese side considers it to have expired after the expiration of the next year's period, but the Soviet Union later gave a notice of cancellation.
    • August 7-August 17,Potsdam talksIn the Soviet Union, the United States and other Allied Powers demanded a clear statement from the Soviet Union asking them to participate in the war in Japan because of the remaining period of the Japan-Soviet Neutrality Treaty.
  • August 1945 Soviet declaration of war on Japan
    • 8/8At 5 pm Moscow time (11:6 pm Japan time), the Japanese ambassador to the Soviet Union, who received a declaration of war against Japan by the Soviet Foreign Minister, makes a telegram from Moscow to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. The Soviet Army began advancing to attack at XNUMX:XNUMX pm Moscow time (Japan time: midnight the next day) under the circumstances that the declaration of war was not transmitted to Japan due to obstruction.[14].
    • 8/9, Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which obtained information from broadcasting stations in the USSR and the United States at 4:XNUMX am Japan time, grasped the participation of the Soviet Union and transmitted the information to the Japanese embassy.[14].. On the day at 11 am in JapanAtomic bomb to Nagasaki cityIt was also in a harsh situation such as being dropped.
    • 8/10, Japan's Ambassador Malik to Japan visited the Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo at 11:15 a.m.Declaration of warDocument was delivered to the Japanese side. Since the Japanese side has not officially declared war against the Soviet Union, the Japanese side considers it to be on-site defense action in the face of Soviet military attacks.
    • August 8, 10:10 pm, Soviet UnionRed ArmyOrder to the 2th Army of the 16nd Far East Front of the United States, "Cross the Sakhalin border on August 8th and cooperate with the North Pacific Fleet to occupy South Sakhalin by August 11th", but the Soviet Union Each side's military unit did not reach its mission due to lack of preparation.
  • August 1945 Ceasefire and subsequent invasion
    • 8/14,Gozen meeting, Joint declaration of US, UK, China, and Soviet Union (Potsdam Declaration), the Japanese side notifies the Allied Powers of the acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration.
    • 8/15Announces defeat in JapanTamane BroadcastWas washed away. Soviet Union unveiled preparations and implementation of operations for Kita Kuril Island, by August 8Kita Kuril Island OfShimori Island,Horokajima Island,Onsen KotanjimaOrdered to occupy.
    • Japanese territory on August 8NanabattaThe Soviet Union invades. At this time, the US-Soviet joint operation "Project hulaThe warships built in the United States and Soviet soldiers trained in the US Army also participated and were used in the subsequent invasion.
    • 8/16, Immediate ceasefire order was issued from Japan's major headquarters, so the Kanto Army General Command on the Japanese side decided to ceasefire and surrender.
    • 8/18, Soviet invasion and occupation of the Kuril Islands.
    • 8/23, Stalin saidNational Defense CommissionIn accordance with Decision No.9898", 50 Japanese POWs were transferred to POW camps in the Soviet Union, and an order was made to carry out forced labor.SiberiaToLabor forceAs a result of being transferred and isolated to various parts of the Soviet UnionSiberian detention problemBecomes
    • 8/28から9/1By then, the Soviet army occupied the northern territories of Etorofu, Kunashiri and Shikotan Island.
    • 9/2,Tokyo BayupperAmericaBattleshipMissouri OfdeckThe Japanese sideAlliesとSurrender documentConclude thisCeasefireBecomes In this document, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers and representatives of each country, including the Soviet Union, also signed as the Allied Powers, and an international ceasefire was confirmed. The Japanese army of the Kuril Islands had already stopped fighting on August 8, but the Japanese army of the Kuril Islands should surrender to the Soviet Supreme Commander of the Far East in response to a command from the Allies, "General Order 22". It was decided.
    • 9/3から5 DaySoviet militaryHabomai IslandsOccupied.
  • 1946å¹´ - 1949å¹´
    • 1946å¹´1/29,GHQ Directive No.677Has temporarily suspended Japan's administrative power over the Kurile Islands, Habomai, Shikotan, and other areas.[*3], Kuril became the administrative jurisdiction of the Soviet Union.
    • 1946å¹´On February 2, the Soviet Supreme Council declares the nationalization of the area of ​​the Kuril Islands (Krill Islands) dating back to September 2, 1945 (Order of the Soviet Supreme Council February 9, 20). At the time of August 1945, there were about 8 Japanese who lived in the southern part of South Sakhalin Island at the latitude of 50 degrees north latitude, but the Japanese who decided to live under the Soviet occupation were mainly engineers. As a result, many were forced to stay in the workplace.NanabattaSo, because the rice supply from Japan was cut off, the Soviet UnionManchuriaFrom soybeans,north koreaWhile rice was imported from Japan and distributed to Japanese people, North Korean workers such as forestry workers were also sent from North Korea.
    • February 1946, 2, the Far East Secret Agreement (Yalta Agreement) was announced at the Yalta talks.
    • About 1 Japanese people lived in the Northern Territories, but at the beginning of the occupation, the Japanese people were not allowed to return home. In December 7Allied Supreme Commander General CommandBetween (GHQ) and the Soviet UnionCaptiveOf the Japanese peopleWithdraw(“US-Soviet Agreement on Retrieving Japanese POWs in Soviet Union” was agreed, and by July 1949, almost all Japanese citizens had returned to Japan.[*4].
  • 1951å¹´
  • 1956å¹´ Post-war negotiations between the two countries
    Prior to the Japan-Soviet negotiations, the United States, which was the country that drafted the San Francisco Treaty, the United Kingdom,FranceWas inquired about the extent of the abandoned Kuril Islands during the treaty[When?][Who?].. In the US, Northern Territories have always been Japanese territories, so Japan's sovereignty must be justifiedState DepartmentIt supports the position of Japan by presenting an official opinion that has been written down as a memorandum of understanding. However, the UK and France did not give a favorable response to Japan. From France, it was replied that in the minutes of the San Francisco conference, Japan's representative would call attention to the fact that it referred to Etorofu as Minami Kuril.
    The Japan-Soviet Peace Treaty was concluded after the peace treaty was negotiated with Japan, which seeks the complete return of the Northern Territories, and the Soviet Union, which is trying to conclude the "transfer" of the two islands after the peace treaty was concluded. Instead, it was settled by a joint declaration that included a text stating that the Soviet Union would hand over Habomai Islands and Shikotan Island to Japan after the conclusion.
    With the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration, diplomatic relations between Japan and the Soviet Union are restored. On December 1956, 12, Japan and the Soviet Union exchanged ratification documents for the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration, which became effective on the same day.
  • 1957å¹´
    • Soviet border guardShell islandLanded on. Japan was under the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, but at this time the U.S. forces did not dispatch[*5].
  • 1960å¹´
    • Shinsuke KishiCabinetUS-Japan Security TreatyThe Soviet Union counteracts the revision. The Soviet Union insisted that the delivery of the Habomai Islands and Shikotan Island was "delivery of the region that was originally a Soviet territory based on the friendly relations between the two countries", and that the delivery (condition of withdrawal of foreign troops from Japan) was attached To do. The Japanese government argued that there was already Japan-US security when the joint declaration was signed.
  • 1962å¹´3/9: The Northern Territory Restoration Resolution is adopted at the plenary session of the House of Representatives in Japan together with the Okinawa and Ogasawara Administration Restoration Resolution.[19][20][21].
  • 1964å¹´7/10 : Mao ZedongRegarding the Soviet Union, the President of the Communist Party of China visited the Japan Socialist Party visiting China, saying, "Anything that can be put in my territory will be put in my own territory." So, "We haven't closed the accounts with them yet. By the way, about your Kuril Islands, that's not a problem for us. We should return it to you." I would like to say that I would like to support Japan on the Northern Territories issue."[22][23][24].
  • 1970å¹´11/11: Okonishi Nikov, Deputy Ambassador of the Soviet Union to Japan, makes an oral statement to Japan's Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs Mori on Japan's Northern Territories. In response to this, on November 11, the same year, Japan's Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs Mori verbally replied Okonishi Nikov, the temporary ambassador to the Soviet Union, to the above statement (answer to the Soviet Union).[25][26].
  • 1972å¹´
    • Masayoshi OhiraThe Foreign Minister proposed to refer the Northern Territories issue to the International Court of Justice, but the Soviet UnionAndrei GromuikoForeign Minister refuses[27].
  • 1973å¹´
    • Tanaka-BrezhnevTalks.It was agreed to conclude a peace treaty after resolving unresolved issues from the time of World War II ().
  • 1981å¹´
  • 1991å¹´
    • Soviet Union dismantled,Russian FederationIndependence and take over the territorial issue.
  • 1993å¹´
    • October: Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa and President Yeltsin meet, and after listing the names of the four northern islands, the Japan-Russia joint document announces that the Northern Territories issue will be resolved and a peace treaty will be concluded at an early stage. Was done (Tokyo Declaration).
  • 2010å¹´
    • July: Chinese Communist PartyHu JintaoIn response to the general secretary's efforts, Russia enacted September 9 when Japan signed the surrender document of World War II as "End of War Day"[28].
    • 11/1 : Dmitry MedvedevPresident of the Northern TerritoriesKunashiri Islandvisit. Allegedly "visited Russian territory"[29].
    • November 11: US Assistant Secretary of State at the press conferenceDmitry Medvedev"The United States supports Japan for the Northern Territories" regarding the visit of Kunashiri Island by the President[30].
    • 11/2: Deputy Secretary of State Philip Crawley of the United States at the press conference, "America recognizes Japanese sovereignty over the Northern Territories", and whether the US-Japan Security Treaty applies to the Northern Territories , "Article 5 does not apply because we are not currently under the administration of Japan"[31].
  • 2011å¹´
    • February 2: Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov says at the press conference following the Japan-Russia Foreign Minister talks that he "will welcome the investment of China and South Korea (third countries)" in the development of the Northern Territories.[32].
    • May 5: Three Korean members of the “Special Committee for Protecting Dokdo Territorial Territories” aiming to secure sovereignty over Takeshima visited Kunashiri Island. The Japanese government regretted that he was planning to visit this place, but he said, "It's rude to say about the actions of the members of the National Assembly." Visiting the control and management situation of a certain area"[33][34].
  • 2019å¹´
    • May 5: At the time I was accompanied by a visa-free exchange delegation to the Northern TerritoriesJapan Restoration Party所属の衆議院議員Maruyama Hodakaが国後島の宿舎で酒に酔い、元島民の団長に「戦争で北方領土を取り返す」というような趣旨の不適切な発言をしていたことが報道され、日ロ関係悪化が懸念されている[35].
    • June 6: Held in OsakaG20Prior to the Japan-Russia summit meeting to be held on September 29, Russian President Putin responded to an interview with a state-run broadcast that "there are no plans to hand over the Northern Territories to Japan."[36].
  • 2020å¹´
    • July 7: Northern Territory negotiations are virtually nullified with the enforcement of the revised constitution. This is because the revised constitution stipulates that the prohibition of ceding of Russian territory should be stated, and prior to this, the "Constitution Reform Memorial Monument" was erected on Kunashiri Island on July 4. Putin said, "A resident of a region of Russia, where this theme (that South Kuril is a complete Russian territory) is particularly important, set up a monument in reinforced concrete. It should be robust”.”[37].
    • October: Russia said it plans to deploy a missile system for military exercises on the Kuril Islands[38].
    • February 12:Russian Defense Ministry OfZvezda TV stationRussiaEtorofu IslandFor combat missions inS-300VM missile systemReported to have deployed several heavy artillery S-300 V4 versions of[38].Etorofu IslandIt was also confirmed that a short-range anti-aircraft missile system had already been deployed in[38].

Commentary

On September 1945, 9, Japan signed the instrument of surrender.At this time, the Japanese troops in South Sakhalin and Kuril Islands were ordered to surrender to the Red Army Far East Front, and South Sakhalin and Kuril Islands became occupied by the Soviet Union.

1952 yearsSan Francisco Peace TreatyWith the entry into force, Japan regained its independence, but in accordance with the treaty, it abandoned its sovereignty over the South Sakhalin and Kuril Islands.Since the Soviet Union has not signed this treaty, the restoration of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union was carried out in 1956.Japan-Soviet Joint DeclarationMade by At this time, no agreement was reached between Japan and the Soviet Union regarding the attribution of territory. Since then, there have been some joint statements and communiques between Japan and the Soviet Union, but no agreement has been reached on the conclusion of a peace treaty or territorial issues.

April 1941, between Japan and the Soviet UnionJapan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyWas concluded. Two months later, Germany suddenly invaded the Soviet Union,German-Soviet battleBroke out. The Government of Japan formulated a policy outline for the situation of the Nituan Fu Empire at the Gozen Conference, and decided to invade the Soviet Union when the German-Soviet war worked in Japan's favor. Furthermore, the Japanese militaryKanto Army Special Exercise(Seki Special Performance) was held and preparations were made for the Soviet invasion. However, unlike the Japanese government's intentions, the German-Soviet war was stalled, and Japan did not have the opportunity to invade the Soviet Union.

Soviet UnionBattle of Stalingrad-After the Kursk tank battle, the German-Soviet battle will be developed in an advantageous manner. Under these circumstances,1943å¹´In November, the Tehran meeting was held by the leaders of the three countries of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union, and extensive discussions were held on the immediate war, the division of victory interests among the Allied powers, and the postwar world strategy for hegemony of the Allied powers. The agreement at this time was from February 11.Yalta AgreementWas taken over by.

At that time, the United States aimed to reduce American casualties as much as possible, which required the Soviet participation in Japan. The Soviet people, who had suffered a great deal of damage in the German-Soviet war, were hesitant to participate in further wars, but they considered the balance of power in the post-war world.StalinAccepted the US request for entry. Initially, the joint name for the Potsdam Declaration excluded the Soviet Union, which is not in a state of war with Japan, but the Soviet Union participated in the Potsdam Declaration after participating in the war. After that, the San Francisco Peace Treaty, which was created under the leadership of the United States, also allows Japan to abandon South Karafuta and Kuril Island, which have already been occupied by the Soviet Union, as agreed by the Yalta talks.

1945å¹´Three months after the defeat of Germany, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan according to an agreement with the United States and Britain. Next day, crossing the So-man borderManchuriaManchuria was seized from the Japanese army based on the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between Soviet Union and China signed on August 8.It was agreed that the Japanese army in Manchuria would surrender to the Red Army, not to the National Revolutionary Army of Chiang Kai-shek.On March 14, the following year, the Red Army began withdrawing from Shenyang, declining the request to station Chiang Kai-shek, and on May 3, leaving a part in Lushun and Dalian, withdrew completely.On the other hand, South Sakhalin violated the Neutrality Treaty on August 12.[39][Source invalid], The Red Army that invaded Japan occupied the entire South Sakhalin by August 8. On the 25th, a part of the Sakhalin occupation armyOdomariDeparted from the port and landed on Etorofu Island on the 28th, and by September 9 occupied the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Island. The Habomai archipelago was occupied from September 1-9.

On September 1945, 9, Japan signed a surrender document and entered the Allied occupation. Kuril Islands and Nankabata were designated as occupied regions of the Soviet Union. 21/29,GHQ Directive No.677As a result, Japan's administrative authority over the areas such as the South Karafuto, the Kuril Islands, Habomai, Shikotan, etc. was temporarily suspended, and annexing measures were taken on February 2 of the same year (an order dated February 2, 1945, Soviet Supreme Conference). Declaration of nationalization dating back to the region of southern Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands on September 9, 20. This is a unilateral administrative act (unilateral declaration) that is based on the Yalta Agreement but not by the treaty, and the problem of final attribution in the area arises. Announced the existence of a secret agreement with Yalta with the United States on February 1946, 2.

The draft text on the Kuril Islands has twists and turns[*6]In April 1951San Francisco Peace TreatyWas signed and entered into force in 1952, and although Japan regained its independence, it was decided to waive its sovereignty over the South Sakhalin and Kuril Islands in accordance with the treaty.Since the end of 1946, prior to the conclusion of the treaty, Japan has submitted 36 books to the United States, explaining Japan's position.Two of these books are known to be related to the Kuril Islands.For this reason, the scope of the Kuril Islands was not defined as disadvantageous to Japan, but at the same time, it was not defined as favorable to Japan.

1952年3/20Toアメリカ合衆国Senate"The South Karafuta and its neighboring islands, Kuril Islands, Shikotan Island, Habomai Islands and other territories, rights and interests are distorted by the San Francisco Peace Treaty for the benefit of the Soviet Union, and these rights, authorities and interests are The treaty does not include the transfer of the US to the Soviet Union." The purpose of this US Senate resolution is explicitly included in Article 25 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. This resolution of the US Senate[*7]When ratifying the San Francisco TreatyInterpretation declarationIt is effective.However, since the authority of diplomatic negotiations itself lies with Cheong Wa Dae and not with Parliament, it does not directly bind another diplomatic negotiation conducted by Cheong Wa Dae after ratifying this treaty.It is not directly binding on other participating or ratifying countries (other ratifying countries are directly bound by the San Francisco Peace Treaty).

The Soviet Union refused to sign the San Francisco Peace Treaty, so diplomatic relations will be restored1956å¹´ OfJapan-Soviet Joint DeclarationWas carried over to.At this time, there was a momentum between Japan and the Soviet Union to agree on a "transfer" of the Habomai Islands and Shikotan Island, but the negotiations failed because the Japanese side insisted on the collective return of the four islands including Etorofu Island and Kunashiri Island.As a result, negotiations are still underway to conclude a peace treaty with Russia, but no concrete results have been obtained regarding the territorial dispute.

In 1997, the Japanese government opened the Khabarovsk Consulate-General of Sakhalin in Japan, and in 2001SakhalinYuzhno-SakhalinskEstablished the Consulate General in[40][41].. At the time of the establishment of the Consulate General, exchange letters and round-trip letters have been exchanged with the Russian government, and the consent of Russia has been obtained.Agree (Agrement)However, the Japanese government is in the position that the final attribution of Nanabatta is undecided.[42]If, in the future, it is decided that the ownership of Nanabatta will be determined by some kind of international solution, necessary measures will be taken according to the content.[43].Suzuki MuneoHas confirmed that it is difficult to interpret the government about South Karafuto, and confirms that the Northern Territories belong to Japan.[44].Shoichi KondoPointed out the danger of interpreting the issue of belonging to South Sakhalin with the establishment of the Consulate General as an established fact. As well as not gettingJapan Peace TreatyThe Soviet Union, which is not a party to the United States, refers to the theory that the Soviet Union cannot claim sovereignty over the South Sakhalin and Kuril Islands under this treaty.[45].

Cairo declaration

Original Japanese translation (excerpt)

The three major alliance nations, the invasion of Japan, will be punished, and the punishment of the nation will be punished. This will be the next alliance. Yes Surmononi Non-s

Right Allies Country Purpose C Japan Yori XNUMX XNUMX World's first since the start of Japan's capture of the power of Japan Oi Phu Island No Ryoki Japan Country Citizen Yori Stealing Citaru All No Areas Returned to Republic of China Surukotoni
Modern writing

The three major allies (US, UK, and China) are at war to stop Japan's aggression and punish Japan.The ally on the right does not demand any benefit for its own sake.Also, there is no idea of ​​territorial expansion.

The purpose of the right ally is from Japan1914å¹´ OfWorld War IThe deprivation of all the islands in the Pacific Ocean that were captured or occupied by Japan, and Manchuria, Taiwan andPenghu IslandsJapan likeclearAll areas stolen from the publicRepublic of ChinaIt is to return to.

1943年, The United States, Britain, and China held a summit meeting in Cairo during the Pacific War.The Cairo Declaration at this time stopped Japan's aggression, punished Japan, regained the territory on the Pacific Ocean that Japan had seized after World War I in 1914, and returned Manchuria and Taiwan to China. The purpose is.In addition, the United States, Britain, and China have no idea of ​​territorial expansion.The Cairo Declaration is a declaration of the United States, Britain, and China, and the Soviet-related South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands are not directly targeted for the recapture of the declaration.

Meanwhile, in 1945, when the Soviet Union later joined.Potsdam DeclarationThen, regarding the scope of Japan's sovereignty, there is a statement that "the provisions of the Cairo Declaration should be fulfilled", which indirectly influences the Soviet Union on the Cairo Declaration.

Potsdam Declaration

Original Japanese translation (excerpt)

Potsdam Declaration Eight

"Cairo" declarationNojo clause c implementation Seralbek or JapanHokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku Nigo no Suru Morokojima D Local Seralvesi
Modern writing
The provisions of the "Cairo" declaration must be fulfilled, and the sovereignty of Japan is Honshu,HokkaidoMust be limited to Kyushu, Kyushu, and Shikoku and the small islands that we decide

The Potsdam Declaration states that the Cairo Declaration must be fulfilled. The Cairo Declaration does not refer to the South Sakhalin and Kuril Islands, and the Potsdam Declaration does not refer to the Kuril Islands and the South Sakhalin. However, it cannot be interpreted that the Karafuto larger than Shikoku is included in the small islands. The Declaration does not mention the transfer of Kurile and Nanabatta to the Soviet Union.

Soviet war against Japan

  • August 8 Soviet Union declares war on Japan.
  • August 8 Notified the Allies of acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration.
  • August 8 Soviet Union breaks neutral treaty[46][Source invalid]Invaded South Sakhalin.
  • August 8 Decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration. Announcement of unconditional acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration to the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China through Minister Kase in Switzerland and Minister Okamoto in Sweden.
  • August 8 To the Japanese peopleTamane Broadcast.
  • August 8-August 18 Soviet Union invades Kuril Islands from Kamchatka Peninsula (Battle of Shimori Island). Since then, it has occupied the northern Kurile island north of Tokusashijima.
  • August 8 Occupied South Sakhalin.
  • August 8-September 28 Occupied Etorofu, Kunashir, and Shikotan Island.
  • September 9, Japan signs surrender documents to the Allies(General order No. XNUMX was issued. This order obliged the Japanese troops on the South Karafuto and Kuril Islands to surrender to the Supreme Commander of the Red Army Far East Front).
  • September 9-3 The Red Army occupies the Habomai Islands.

The Soviet occupation of South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands was carried out in accordance with the Allied Forces "General Order No. XNUMX (Land, Navy)".Stalin said that Truman's draft "General Order No. XNUMX" did not state that Japanese troops in the Kuril Islands would surrender to the Soviet Union.Yalta AgreementRequested Truman to surrender to the Red Army.Truman accepted Stalin's request.However, at the same time, Stalin's request for occupation of northeastern Hokkaido was rejected because it was not in the Yalta Agreement.On the other hand, the US side requested the Soviet Union to set up a US military base on an island in the central Kuril Islands, but Stalin refused.

Next January, 1946SCAPINWith No. 677, the Japanese governmentRyukyu-Kuril-Habomai Islands-Shikotan Island-NanabattaThe exercise of administrative authority in such areas was officially suspended.Immediately after that, the Soviet Union made the occupied territory its own country (strictly speaking).Russia-Soviet Union Socialist Republic) Is incorporated into the territory.Russia still effectively controls the Soviet-occupied islands that have not signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty.

San Francisco Peace Treaty (Peace Treaty with Japan)

Chapter XNUMX Areas Article XNUMX (c) (Japanese translation)

Japan is the Kuril Islands and Japan is on September XNUMX, XNUMX.Portsmouth TreatyWaives all rights, title and claims to part of the Karafuto who acquired sovereignty as a result of, and to the islands in its vicinity.

Japan abandons the Kuril Islands without signing the Soviet Union under this treaty.The treaty does not define the extent of the Kuril Islands, butDullesStates that the islands of Habomai are not included in the Kuril Islands, and that the final disposition of the former Japanese territory without agreement within the Union can be referred to the International Court of Justice under Article 22.[47].. Japanese plenipotentiary(I.e.States that Japan cannot claim the Soviet plenipotentiary claim that Japan has seized the South Karafuto and the Kuril Islands by invasion, and as a basis for blaming the Soviet Union for the detention of the Northern TerritoriesJapan-Russia Treaty of Peace,Kurita Karafuto Exchange TreatyHe pointed out the peaceful demarcation of borders in Japan, accused Soviet detention of the South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, and said that Habomai and Shikotan "form part of Japan's mainland Hokkaido." As for Kokugo and Etorofu, he explained that "Imperial Russia did not object to being a Japanese territory".[48].

In Japan, at the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives on March 1950, 3, before the conclusion of the San Francisco Peace Treaty.Shimazu HisadaiSecretary of State for Political Affairs[15], At the House of Representatives Special Committee on October 1951, 10, immediately after the conclusion of the treatyKumao NishimuraTreaty Director[17], To the Upper House Special Committee on November 11th of the same yearTakayuki KusabaUnder Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs[16], Respectively, "Minami Kuril is included in Kuril" (However, Nishimura and Kusaba answered that Habomai and Shikotan are not Kuril Islands). At the time when this reply was made, it was a top priority issue to conclude a treaty and restore sovereignty, and under the occupation, the government was actually limited in freedom of reply.[49].. This explanation was issued domestically in February 1956.Morishita KunioOfficially revoked by Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs[18].

After that, Japan stated that "the northern territories are territories peculiar to Japan, so they are not included in the Kuril Islands abandoned by Japan", and "Minami Chishima" has been used to refer to Kunashiri and Etorofu since around 1956. The term "northern territory" began to be used instead.In 1964, the Japanese government decided to use the term "Northern Territories", which collectively refers to the four islands as a return request area, instead of the old name "Minami Chishima" for Kunashiri and Etorofu.[50][51].

In this treaty, the attribution of the former territory abandoned by Japan is intentionally excluded, and the Soviet UnionGromuikoBlames the peace treaty proposal, which consists of the UK and US proposals[52].. This is Kadoiki by the East and West camps that had already begun on the Korean Peninsula (Korean WarOrContainment policy) Was the focus of the Northern Occupied Territories and Taiwan, Okinawa, Ogasawara, etc., so the Soviet Union was in the form of the United States' trust in the Southwest Islands, Taiwan, and Ogasawara Islands.Effective dominationIs also accused of[53].

In addition to Article XNUMX (c), there are Articles XNUMX and XNUMX as articles concerning the Northern Territories issue.

Currently, Japan has ratified this treaty, saying that Russia (former Soviet Union) has denied sovereignty over South Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Shikotan Islands, and the Habomai Islands by applying the following provisions in the San Francisco Peace Treaty. It is the position of 46 countries.

Chapter VII Final Clause Article XNUMX

For the purposes of this Convention, an Allied Power is one that was part of the territory of a country that was in war with Japan or previously listed in Article XNUMX. Provided, however, that each country has signed and ratified this Convention. Reserving the provisions of Article XNUMX, this Convention does not confer any right, title or interest to any country other than the one of the Allied Powers defined herein. Further, no right, title or interest of Japan shall be deemed impaired or harmed by any provision of this Convention for a country which is not one of the Allied Powers as defined above. .

In other words, Russia (former Soviet Union) has not signed or ratified the San Francisco Peace Treaty and is therefore not an Allied Power under this treaty, and that treaty is not entitled to any right, title or interest to such a State. That is, it does not admit that Russia possesses the Kuril Islands and South Sakhalin that Japan abandoned.[54].

In addition, there are penalties for Japan's violation of this treaty.

Article XNUMX (Original Japanese translation)

Japan is a country that has signed or joined the Allied Powers Declaration of January XNUMX, XNUMX, and is in a state of war against Japan, or a country previously listed in Article XNUMX. Be prepared to conclude a bilateral peace treaty on the same or substantially the same terms as provided for in this Convention with a country that was part of the territory of Be a kimono. However, this obligation of Japan expires three years after the first entry into force of this Convention. When Japan conducts peace treatment or war claim processing with any country that gives greater benefits to that country than those provided for in this Convention, the same benefits shall be vested in this Treaty. It must extend to the countries concerned.

The United States showed difficulty in returning Okinawa based on the above-mentioned text when Japan tried to compromise with the Soviet Union on the "transfer" of the two islands of Shikotan and Habomai.[55].

Japan-Soviet peace treaty negotiations and Japan-Soviet joint declaration

Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration (Showa 9st Convention No. XNUMX) XNUMX

Japan and the Soviet Union agree to continue negotiations on the conclusion of a peace treaty after normal diplomatic relations have been restored between the two countries. The Soviet Union of the Socialist Republics agrees to deliver the Habomai Islands and Shikotan Island to Japan in response to Japan's request and in consideration of Japan's interests. However, these islands shall be delivered in reality after the peace treaty between Japan and the Soviet Union of the Socialist Republics is concluded.

1955å¹´January,Shunichi MatsumotoNegotiations on the Japan-Soviet Peace Treaty have begun in London.Initially, the Soviet Union insisted not to hand over an island, but on August 8, it softened its attitude and agreed to make Habomai and Shikotan Japanese territory.Matsumoto was relieved that the peace treaty negotiations would be concluded with the Soviet Union's compromise, but the negotiations were stalled because the Japanese government indicated that all four northern islands, including Kunashiri and Chokoku, were Japanese territories. ..

1956 year 7 month,Shigemitsu AoiNegotiations on the Japan-Soviet Peace Treaty have resumed in Moscow, with the Foreign Minister in full power and Matsumoto in full power.Initially, Shigemitsu insisted on the return of the four islands, but when he saw that the Soviet Union had a strong attitude, he decided to conclude the negotiations on the return of Habomai and Shikotan on August 8, and consulted with his home country.But at that timeMaintenanceWas launched inLDPDue to some factions within the party, Shigemitsu's proposal was rejected, and negotiations on the Japan-Soviet Peace Treaty were stalled.In addition, Foreign Minister Shigemitsu went to London on August 8th in the United States.DullesDulles at a meeting with the Secretary of StateEtorofu Island,Kunashiri IslandIs strongly required to insist on the Soviet Union's sovereignty. In this, Dulles said, "If Japan attributed Etorofu to the Soviet Union,OkinawaIs the US territory."[56].. The grounds for Dulles' Okinawa ownership in the United States are based on Article 26 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, "The right of Japan to peace treaty or claim for war with any one of the countries to provide them with greater profits than provided in this treaty. When processed, the same benefit shall extend to the parties to this Convention.” The record of this meeting is kept in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Suzuki MuneoAsked the government in February 2006 whether the content of Matsumoto's book was true, but the government declined to give a clear answer, saying it could interfere with future negotiations.[57].

The peace treaty negotiations were completely stalled due to the speculation of anti-Hatoyama forces inside the LDP and the interference of the United States during the Cold War.

In 1956, the policy goal was to normalize Japan-Soviet relations.Ichiro HatoyamaThe prime minister decided to visit the Soviet Union himself to break through the situation.The end of the war situation by shelving the territorial dispute, so-calledSiberian detentionIt was decided to follow the diplomatic restoration method (Adenauer method) that solves the problem of non-returnees, and in this case, it was important to make a promise from the Soviet Union to continue negotiations on territorial issues even after the restoration of diplomatic relations.Prior to the visit to Soviet Union, Shunichi Matsumoto visited Soviet Union and exchanged a letter with First Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Gromyko on September 1956, 9, agreeing to continue "negotiations to conclude a peace treaty including territorial disputes."

Prime Minister Hatoyama visited the Soviet Union on October 10th.BulganinMeeting with the Prime Ministers.Substantial negotiationsIchiro KonoWith the Minister of AgricultureKhrushchevIt was held with the party's first secretary.The Japanese side insisted that the "transfer" of Habomai and Shikotan and the continuation talks of Kunashir and Etorofu be included in the joint declaration, but Furushichov may write Habomai and Shikotan, but in that case the territorial dispute will be dealt with in the peace treaty negotiations. He insisted that the territorial dispute would be solved by Habomai and Shikotan. At the meeting on the afternoon of the 18th, Khrushchev stated that he would like to delete the phrase "including territorial disputes", which means the continuation of negotiations to conclude a peace treaty, in response to the draft presented by Kono, and Kono adopted the draft from the Soviet side as it is. Kono resigned as consulting with the Prime Minister, revisiting Khrushchev on the same day and informing him of the acceptance of the lexical deletion.However, the Japanese side intends to give an explanation by publishing the "Matsumoto-Gromyko Letter", which was published with the consent of the Soviet Union.[58].

Negotiation process for territorial issues

1956å¹´ OfJapan-Soviet Joint DeclarationThen, we will conclude an agreement to hand over Habomai and Shikotan to Japan after concluding a peace treaty.With the approval of the Soviet Union by the conclusion of the Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration, JapanUnited NationsHowever, there will be an immediate difference in perception between Japan and the Soviet Union regarding the treatment of territorial issues in negotiations for peace treaties. 1960,US-Japan Security TreatyThe Soviet Union terminated negotiations to resolve the territorial dispute, and stated that the territorial dispute was only a fabrication by the Japanese side, and there was no territorial dispute from the beginning (the Japanese government and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that the Soviet Union had solved the territorial dispute. I'm catching it). Japan also took a position with the Soviet Union to do nothing unless the Northern Territories issue was resolved.

January 1973Kakuei TanakaWith the Prime MinisterBrezhnevCommunist Party General SecretaryAfter the meeting with the Soviet-Japanese Joint Statement, "We will resolve the unsolved problems from the time of World War II and conclude a peace treaty."Based on this joint statement, the Japanese government recognizes that at the summit meeting, it received the statement that "the territorial dispute is unresolved" from Brezinev, but the joint document between Japan and the Soviet Union states that "the territorial dispute exists. "There is" was not specified.

1991å¹´In 4 monthGorbachevPresidentCame to Japan and officially acknowledged the existence of the territorial dispute.Collapse of the Soviet UnionLater, at the Japan-Russia Foreign Ministers' Meeting held in Tokyo in March 1992, the Russian side negotiated the delivery of Habomai and Shikotan on the Northern Territories issue and the status of Kunashir and Etorofu at the same time, and then signed a peace treaty. Although they made a secret proposal including the conclusion, the Japanese side did not agree that there was no guarantee of the return of the four islands. In October 3, a Japan-Russia summit meeting was held, and the two leaders negotiated to conclude a peace treaty early by resolving the issue of belonging to the four northern islands based on the documents prepared between the two countries and the principles of law and justice. The Tokyo Declaration was announced, which stipulated in a Japan-Russia joint document that it would continue.1997å¹´11 of the monthKrasnoyarsk agreementThen, the leaders of Japan and Russia agreed to make every effort to conclude a peace treaty by 2000 based on the Tokyo Declaration.

At the Japan-Russia summit meeting in April 1998, the Japanese side agreed on a peace treaty to draw a border between Etorofu Island and Urup Island, and until the intergovernmental agreement, the administration on the four islands of Russia was legal. Informally proposed "a proposal to admit" (Kawana's proposal). In November 4, at the Japan-Russia summit meeting, the Russian side informally proposed "a proposal to postpone the establishment of the border line and conclude a peace and friendship cooperation treaty first, and then conclude a separate treaty on the border line" (Moscow). Suggestion). In March 1998, at the Japan-Russia summit meeting, it was confirmed that the Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration was the basic legal document for peace treaty negotiations, and based on the 11 Tokyo Declaration, the issue of belonging to the four northern islands was resolved. The two leaders agreed on a document stating that negotiations would be facilitated (Irkutsk statement).

The Japanese side has a major premise of returning the four islands, but the Russian side has no intention of making a compromise beyond the delivery of Habomai and Shikotan, and further negotiations have not progressed.

2005年11/21I visited Japan before dawnPutinWith the presidentJunichiro KoizumiThere was a Japan-Russia summit meeting between the then prime ministers. Some people hoped that this would solve the territorial issue, but only announced that they would confirm their continued efforts to negotiate and solve the territorial issue, and no concrete progress was made. Also, on the Russian side,Crude oil priceGrowth due to the soaring price of the Soviet Union is making it unnecessary to use cards for economic support and investment promotion as it did immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union.ラトビア,エストニアIt also complicates the resolution of the Northern Territories issue by intertwining with the border problem with both countries whose borders were changed during the Soviet Union.

2009å¹´2/18Russian in SakhalinMedvedevPresident and JapanTaro AsoThe Prime Ministers have met to give additional directions to accelerate the work on territorial issues under a "new, original and unconventional approach" to lead to the final resolution of the issue of attribution in our generation. Matched by issuing[59].

2020å¹´In December, Putin signed a bill to amend the Penal Code to punish acts such as calling for territorial ceding, which came into effect on the 12th.Maximum sentence is 8 years imprisonment[60].

Japan-Russia Framework for Northern Territories

After the war, the Soviet Union, which effectively controlled the Northern Territories, began cracking down on Japanese fishing vessels operating in the surrounding waters due to the invasion of territorial waters.

The Japanese government has entered into an agreement between Japan and Russia (Japan-Soviet Union) to avoid the above-mentioned troubles and enable Japanese fishing boats to operate in the waters of the northern four islands.

The Japan-Soviet Shellfish Island Kelp Collection Agreement, which came into effect in 1963 (Japan-Russia Shellfish Island Kelp Collection Agreement), is a private agreement that enables Japanese fishermen to fish kelp near Shell Island in the Habomai Archipelago. In the agreement, a private organization called Hokkaido Fisheries Association and the relevant authorities of the Soviet Union (Russia) discuss each year to decide the amount of kelp that can be harvested, and pay the collection right fee to the Soviet Union (Russia) for fishing. ..

200 yennautical mileWith the establishment of fisheries waters, negotiations were conducted for fisheries within 200 nautical miles of each partner country, and the Japan-Soviet Provisional Fisheries Agreement and the Soviet-Japanese Fisheries Provisional Agreement were signed in December 1978 and entered into force. It was

The Japan-Soviet Offshore Fisheries Agreement (agreement between the Government of Japan and the Federal Government of the Soviet Socialist Republic on the mutual relationship between the two countries' offshore fisheries), which came into effect in 1985, is a provisional agreement on the Japan-Soviet Fisheries. And the Soviet-Japanese Fisheries Provisional Agreement have been unified, and the two governments will allow fishing by fishing vessels of the other country in their own 3 nautical miles water area, as well as operating conditions such as catch quota for fishing vessels of the other country. It stipulates the method of decision, issuance of permits, crackdown on fishing boats, establishment of a fishery committee, etc.The validity period is 1 years, after which it will be automatically extended by XNUMX year unless one of them gives a notice of termination.The Japanese side pays the cooperation fee to the Soviet Union (Russia) side under the name of resource management of water areas.

These agreements remain valid with the Russian Federation, which has taken over the Soviet Union as a state since December 1991.

In 1998, "Some matters of cooperation in the field of operation on marine biological resources between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Russian Federation" that established the framework for safe operation of Japanese fishing vessels in the 12 nautical miles (territorial waters) of the four northern islands. Agreement on Operation of Japanese Fishing Vessels in the Waters Around the Northern Territories (Agreement on Operation Framework for Japanese Fishing Vessels) has come into effect.It is an agreement to allow Japanese fishermen to fish in the 12 nautical mile waters (territorial waters) around the four northern islands, and discussions are held every year to discuss operating conditions.There is no provision for crackdown on illegal operations in this agreement.The validity period is 3 years, after which it will be automatically extended by 1 year unless one of them gives a notice of termination.The Japanese side pays the cooperation fee to the Russian side in the name of resource management of water areas.

In June 2015, a bill was passed in Russia that banned salmon and trout driftnet fishing in exclusive economic zones in Russia, which came into force in 6. It is expected that Japanese fishing vessels that depend on drift net fishing in the fishery will be greatly affected.[61].

Since 1964, former islanders and their relatives have been worshiping the ancestral tombs in the northern territories intermittently from a humanitarian perspective. Initially I was able to travel with a simple certificate, but from the Soviet sidepassportSuspended in 1976 due to a strong demand to carry. 10 years later, in 1986, the oral writing was exchanged, and the grave visit with a simple certificate was realized again.[62].. In addition, for Japanese Northern Territories officials and Russian Northern Territories residentsVisa-free travelWas proposed at the Japan-Soviet Summit Meeting in 1991 and has been implemented since April 1992.[63].

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, the "Agreement on Establishment of Support Committee" was signed and entered into force in 12 between the former Soviet Union countries including Russia and Japan. The Assistance Committee was established as a mechanism to promote the transition to the market economy of the former Soviet Union countries, and in the four northern islands that Russia effectively controls, to promote the transition to the market economy, there are clinics, power stations and emergency stations on the four northern islands. Spending on shelter and accommodation[64].. In 2002Suzuki Muneo caseDue to the discovery, the opacity of the support committee became a problem and was abolished.

In addition, the Japanese government provides medical equipment and medicines to district hospitals on the northern four islands, accepts training for doctors and nurses on the northern four islands, and accepts patients on the northern four islands in Hokkaido.[*8]In the form of medical assistance to the northern four islands[65].

Current status of the Northern Territories

Northern Territories under the administrative division of Japan

On the four islands of the Northern TerritoriesShikotan Village-Tomari village-Torubetsu Village-Tobetsu Village-Sanamura-Tottori Village-Habomai7 villages existed as local governments.1959å¹´HabomaiNemuroMerged withHabomaiThe former region now belongs to Nemuro City.

As of April 1983, 4, according to Article 1 of the "Law Concerning Special Measures for Promoting Solutions to Northern Territories Problems" (August 57), any Japanese citizenPermanent domicileIt is possible to put. This is because the above 6 villages are originally HokkaidoNemuro branch officeThis is because the higher local government organizations are still functioning after each village municipality loses its effective existence. Currently this procedureNemuroThe government office is doing it. In addition,KarafutoAs for Kita Kuril Island,Karafuto AgencySuch measures have not been taken because the Japanese government and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have officially confirmed that the attribution is undecided in addition to the disappearance of the Kita-Kishima-related offices.[*9].. Until March 1982, 3, it was not possible to set up permanent residence in six villages except Habomai village.[66].

List of administrative divisions on the Japanese side

Surrounding waters

Japan Coast GuardIn the "conceptual map of Japan's territorial waters" disclosed byWatersIncluded in[67].

Japan Small Ship Inspection OrganizationProvided byNavigation areaIn the water area map of 12 nautical miles, XNUMX nautical miles lines are shown around the four islands of the Northern Territories so that small boats do not require ship inspection.[68]Second grade for lakes such as Tofu LakeSmall ship pilotIf you obtain the[69].

Northern Territories under the Administrative Division of Russia

At present, the four northern islands in the state where Russian administration is being exercisedSakhalinBelong to. After the country, the total population of Etorofu and Shikotan Island is about 1, which is almost the same size as the Japanese who lived during the Soviet invasion. On the Habomai archipelagoRussian border guardOnly garrisoned[70].

Russia is on Etorofu Island in 2014Iturup AirportTo establish a special economic zone on Shikotan Island in 2017[71]Etc. are strengthening effective control.

Due to the delay in development in Sakhalin,crab,UniSuch asseafoodStartedSea otter,Snowy owlIn the surrounding areas, such as the main island of Hokkaido, it has become a kind of "sanctuary" for extinct or high-risk creatures. The Russian government has designated the whole area of ​​the Kuril island including the Northern Territories asForbidden area・Regulatory measures more than Japanese environmental protection administration are taken such as setting. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, poaching continued and some marine products were smuggled into Japan.

Currently someEnvironmental protection groupBetween the islands of Kuril including the Northern Territoriesworld HeritageThere is an assertion that registration is required, and the Japanese environmental protection administration is too sweet for fisheries-related organizations and developers.EcosystemSome people are afraid of returning it because of the fear that it will be destroyed. On the other hand, in Japan, on the other side of the northern territory, it has been registered as a World Heritage site in a clear distinction from the territorial issue.ShiretokoAt the same time, there is a voice that both Japan and Russia should jointly create one World Heritage Area. However, if the northern territories registered as a World Heritage site are returned, the former islanders will havelandOwnership,Fishing rightsTo be opaque about what to doSpecial lawEnactment may be required.

Northern four islands exchange businessExcept for thevisaYou must get and visit. After getting a Russian visa,Wakkanai PortorNew Chitose AirportOrHakodate AirportTo Sakhalin, get the entrance permit to the northern four islands at Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, and access by air or sea.

This method is an act subject to the administrative powers of Russia, and the Japanese government has requested self-restraint since 1989 (Heisei XNUMX), recognizing the possession of Russia's northern four islands. However, since there is no legal enforcement force for self-restraint requests, many Japanese businessmen and engineers acquired Russian visas and traveled to the northern four islands for business and technical support and development with Russian companies on the northern four islands. doing. The Japanese government does not take any special measures or punishment for travelers to the northern four islands in this way.[72].

Significance of Russian Northern Territories

The reasons why the Russian side deny the territorial issue by making the northern territory its own territory are as follows.

The Japanese government and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs do not know much about the existence of the Northern Territories issue itself at the level of the general public in the Russian Federation. Insist that it has However, in fact, at the schools in Russia,Second World Warの結果承認された正当な物であり、北方四島は戦勝国であるソ連が獲得した正当なロシア固有の領土であると教えている。このため、ロシア国内にて、北方領土問題は日本政府の一方的な主張に過ぎず、正当性の無い物である、という認識が一般化している。

またSea of ​​OkhotskToSubmarine fired ballistic missileOnboard submarine (SSBN) Has been deployed andNuclear deterrenceStrategically important for maintaining strength[73].. Depending on the geopolitical or military view,Soya Strait(Strait of La Perouse),Nemuro StraitIncluding the (Kunasilsky Strait), Russia had all the gateways to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk under surveillance during the former Soviet era, and virtually from there.U.S. ForcesHas succeeded in shutting down the islands, but once Kunashiri and Etorofu Island are returned,Kunashi WaterworksLost control of the (Ekaterina Strait) and moved to the Sea of ​​OkhotskUS NavyYou will be able to move in and out freely.Kunashi WaterworksIt is,Russian NavyIs also a crucial route to a safe Pacific Ocean entry in the winter, which is not under the influence of the United States (Japan's ally).SecurityIt will be a big loss on. Egorov of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, in a report by the Federal Supreme Directorate, reports that the waters of the South Kuril Islands are important for free navigation to the Pacific Ocean as a freezing strait.[74][*10].

The Northern Territories are expected to produce nearly half of the world's annual output of oil and natural gas, estimated to be about 3 million tons of oil equivalent.rheniumAbundant untouched underground resources are sleeping[75], Abundant in marine resources, one of the world's three largest fishing grounds[76].. According to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Russia, the resource value around these northern territories is estimated to be 2 trillion dollars.[76], Problems with these resources also make returning Northern Territories to Japan difficult[77].

Against the San Francisco Peace Treaty, Russia's claims are quite different from those of Japan. From the Soviet side at the time, the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Republic of China were allies during the war, and Japan, Germany, and ItalyAxis powersWas against. After the surrender of the Axis powers Italy and Germany, the Soviet Union participated in Japan at the request of the Allies.Yalta talksSo, the ceding of Kuril and Nansa Kara has been agreed by the three parties of the US, Britain and the Soviet Union.Potsdam DeclarationJapan accepted it unconditionally and signed the surrender document on September 1945, 9. It is Russia's position that the war between Japan and the Soviet Union was still continuing until September 2 when Japan signs the surrender document, and that the occupation before the signing of the surrender document is legal.[*11].. Although Russia has not concluded a peace treaty between Russia and Japan, Russia has already incorporated the occupied territory into its own country. Furthermore, the San Francisco TreatyKuril Islandsを放棄しており、クリル列島には、択捉島・国後島が含まれているのはもちろんのこと、色丹島・歯舞群島のいわゆる小クリル列島もまた含まれるとしている。その上で、第二次大戦の処理方針としてAtlantic Charter,Cairo declarationAndPotsdam Declarationで領土不拡大の原則が定められているが、第二次世界大戦当時日本が連合国でないことから日本にこれらの原則は適用されないとし、かつ敗戦国であることから日本の北方四島の領有は根拠がないばかりか不法行為で、日本の敗戦と同時に北方四島は放棄されている、としている。これらを踏まえて、日露間の領土問題は全くの捏造で事実無根であるとしている。

Russia has long agreed to accept the "transfer" of the northern two islands by concluding the Russo-Japanese Peace Treaty. However, in order to conclude the Japan-Russia Peace Treaty, the first condition is the destruction of the Japan-US Security Treaty and the withdrawal of all foreign troops, including the US military, from Japan. Later, he plans to do it step by step. This is not an unspoken understanding, but was often a public statement during the Soviet era. And because it is in conflict with the Japan-US security issue, the United States is demanding a return, saying that there is a territorial issue between Japan and Russia. In recent years, there have been some concerns in Russia that "if South Kryl is transferred to Japan, a US military base will be established." For this reason, Russia is requesting the US military not to install a US military base on the four northern islands after the return, and the US military has made it clear that it will not.

The former Japanese side had the prospect that "Russia is in economic distress. Therefore, the Russian side will not be able to endure the economic distress and will concede to the Japanese side and hand over the Northern Territories."Suzuki MuneoThe basic strategy of Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs after the fall is the "Northwind policy," which seeks to elicit public opinion on the return of the Northern Islands by cutting off aid to the Northern Islands, but whether the problem is financially poor. It's not a matter of level. fact,PutinRussia, which has achieved tremendous economic development since assuming the position of president, has formulated the “Kuril Development Plan” with the target year of 2015, and has announced a policy of large-scale infrastructure development on the country, Etorofu and Shikotan Island. It was As a result, Shikotan Island and Habomai Islands, which are two islands, were once uninhabited islands, but in recent years the existence of migrants and settlers has been confirmed, and the theory of Russia's claim of "transfer" is also the theory. It became a difficult situation.

In recent years, the Russian government has been shifting to the so-called theory of non-existence of territorial issues, which means that there is no territorial issue of "northern territory". The Foreign Minister has given an opinion that questions the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration.2018å¹´, The opinion that "South Kryl (northern territory) is the territory of Russia" has become predominant in Russian domestic opinion. For this reason, "it should be understood that there is no need for Japan to negotiate over South Kuril's attribution." "Because it has already been resolved, you should not accept the return of the four islands, let alone the transfer of the two islands." Opinions that completely deny it have become dominant in Russia, and protests by Russian residents on both Etorofu and Kunashiri islands are frequent. Although recognition of Japan is increasing in Russian society, all of them are limited to cultural and economic ones, and their recognition is not so deep. In addition, as "cultural exchange and solution of territorial issues are different issues", it is widely recognized that Japan has a great misunderstanding about territorial issues and the Russian government.SakhalinThen, of course, there is a deep interest in Japan, but the intention is to deepen exchanges on the premise of approving the current borders.

Significance of Japanese Northern Territories

「北方四島は外国の領土になったことがない日本固有の領土であり、ソ連の対日参戦により占領され不法占拠が続けられている状態であり、この問題が存在するため戦後60年以上を経たにもかかわらず日露間で平和条約が締結されていない」、とするのが日本政府の見解である[78].. The Cabinet Office states that "the realization of the return of the four northern islands, which is a unique territory, as soon as possible is a serious issue related to national sovereignty."[79].. Nemuro and Kushiro fishermen have been killed and injured by shooting due to sea area security actions based on one-sided claims of Soviet Russia[80].

Russian stance on the Northern Territories issue

The following is a list of responses to Russia's Northern Territories issue since 2000.

  • October 2006, 8- 31st Shinshin Maru Incident.
  • February 2010, 2-Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs expresses discomfort at the "Northern Territories Return Competition".
  • July 2010-Large-scale military exercises on the Russian island of Etorofu.
  • July 2010-The passage of the Russian War Victory Day bill in the Russian Parliament.
  • November 2010, 11-Russian PresidentDmitry MedvedevHowever, he visited Kunashiri Island for the first time as the head of state.
  • May 2011-Deputy Prime Minister Sergey IvanovVisited Etorofu Island.
  • May 2011-Visit to Kunashir Island, three members of the Korean Parliament.
  • September 2011, 9-Security Council SecretaryNikolai Pattle ChefVisited the islands of Kunashiri and Habomai archipelago.
  • January 2012, 1-Foreign MinisterSergey Lavlov"I demand Japan to recognize the reality that the Northern Territories became Russian territory based on legal grounds as a result of World War II," he said in a tough manner. Made a similar statement on May 2016, 5[81].
  • November 2016, 11-New model ahead of Japan-Russia summitAnti-ship missileDeploy[82][83].
  • October 2016, 12- Shinzo AbeWith the Prime MinisterVladimir PutinThe presidentNagato CityAnd agreed to start talks for joint economic activities in the Northern Territories[84].
  • February 2017, 2-RussianMedvedev Prime MinisterAccording to a government decree signed on February 2017, 2,Habomai Islands OfAutumn YurujimaNear andShikotan Island近くの5つの島には、第2次大戦の日本の降伏文書にソ連代表として署名したデレビヤンコ将軍、旧日本軍との戦いで知られるソ連のグネチコ将軍、ロシアサハリン州元知事ファルフトジノフ、ソ連の外交官Gromuiko、ソ連艦隊の女性船長シェチニナの名前がつけられた[85][86][87].
  • February 2017, 2-22 new people within the yearDivisionTheKuril IslandsAnnounced plans to deploy[88].
  • 2018å¹´9月10日-両首脳は,北方四島における共同経済活動について,5件のプロジェクト候補の実施に向けた「ロードマップ」を承認した: ア)海産物の共同増養殖:ウニを含め複数の魚種を対象とし,ウニ以外の魚種についても議論を継続; イ)温室野菜栽培:いちごの品種及び実施場所を特定; ウ)島の特性に応じたツアーの開発:パッケージツアーを策定; エ)風力発電の導入:風況調査の場所を確定; オ)ゴミの減容対策:ゴミ減容のパイロット・プロジェクトの実施場所を確定。安倍から、こうした協力を積み重ねていくこととともに更なる改善を働きかけ、プーチンと、手続の簡素化を続けることで一致した。
  • On December 2020, 12, the revised Penal Code, which targets criminal penalties for acts calling for territorial ceding, came into effect.[60].

Construction of Russian airport on Etorofu Island

In 2014, as a private airport in the central part of Etorofu IslandYasny AirportOpened the port. The total length of the runway is about 2,300 meters,Yuzhno-SakhalinskRegular flights are operated between and. On the other hand, the Air Force uses the airport constructed by the former Japanese army.

On January 2018, 1, Prime Minister Medvedev signed an ordinance authorizing the Russian Air Force to use the Yasny Airport as a base for military-civilian sharing.[89].

Deployment of Russian missiles and divisions on Kunashir Island and Etorofu Island

2016年11/22,Russian NavyPacific FleetThe paper "Voebaya Verkhta" was published on Etorofu Island.3K96 redootSubstitute forAnti-ship missileP-800地上発射型「バスチオン」を配備したこと、および従来対艦ミサイル配備のなかった国後島にKh-35Surface-to-ship missileRevealed the transfer of the mold 3K60 bal[90][91].

On January 2017, 2,Sergey ShoigDefense MinisterByKuril IslandsWithin the same yearDivisionWas revealed to be newly deployed, and concerns were raised by the Japanese government.[92].

Development of high-speed internet network by Chinese companies on Etorofu Island, Kunashiri Island, and Shikotan Island

2019å¹´2/26Russia's state-owned telecommunications company announced the opening of a high-speed internet network connecting Sakhalin with Etorofu Island, Kunashiri Island, and Shikotan Island[93].. Submarine fiber optic cableChugoku OfHuaweiHas been laid[94][95]When the construction started in June 2018, the Japanese government protested against thisYoshii Kan"I protested to Russia and China through diplomatic routes, I protested to China because Chinese companies were involved in the construction," said the Chief Cabinet Secretary.[96].

solution

When it is difficult for the parties to agree on the issue of territorial attribution,UN agencyIsInternational Court of Justiceを利用することができる。しかし国際司法裁判所の制度によれば、付託するためには紛争当事国両国の同意が必要であり、仮に日本が提訴した場合、ロシアが国際司法裁判所への付託に同意しない限り審議は開始されない。過去の北方領土問題関連の国際司法裁判所をめぐる外相間交渉については上記「北方領土関係史」の1972年の箇所を参照のこと。個別交渉の場合、ソビエト・ロシアはサンフランシスコ講和条約に参加していないため、北方領土問題解決には、ロシアの同意が不可欠となっている。これに対して下記各項目のような提案や交渉が行われてきた。

Yoshima return theory

The solution officially claimed by the Japanese government. "San Francisco Peace TreatyThe government's view is that neither of the Kuril Islands (Kunashiri Etorofu) is included in the Kuril Islands.[97].Japan-Russia Treaty of PeaceからKarafuto-Kishima Exchange TreatyThe four northern islands have never become foreign territories until the military occupation by the Soviet Union, and they are border lines concluded by peaceful diplomatic negotiations between Japan and Russia.

Cairo declaration[*12]For the purpose of this, declaring "annexation" of these four islands rather than "occupying" is a gross dishonesty of faith, and the territory that should be abandoned is clearly stated in the Potsdam Declaration.Cairo declarationAs a result, even if it is based on the Kuril Islands, which is the territory before the beginning of the XNUMX World War I, or at least the San Francisco Peace Treaty without the Soviet signature, It cannot be acknowledged that the Soviet Union declared the annexation of the northern four islands, which is a territory unique to Japan, which has never been a foreign territory.

連合国は、第二次大戦の処理方針として大西洋憲章やカイロ宣言で領土不拡大の原則を宣言しており、ポツダム宣言にもこの原則は引き継がれている。この原則に照らすならば、ロシアの北方四島領有は領土不拡大の原則に反した不法行為であり、北方四島は戦勝国であるソ連が獲得した正当なロシア固有の領土であるという主張は成り立たない。したがって、ロシアには日本固有の領土である北方領土の放棄を求める権限はなく、またそのような法的効果を持つ国際的取決めも存在しない。

Japan flexibly responds to the actual timing and mode of return, provided that Japan's sovereignty over the four northern islands is confirmed. “For the Russian residents currently living in the Northern Territories, , Profits and hopes will be fully respected even after the return of the Northern Territories."[98].

Nijima transfer theory

Japan-Soviet Joint DeclarationAfter signing the peace treaty as declared based onHabomai Islands-Shikotan Island"There is only legal basis" to end the territorial issue by "delivering"[99]解決策だとする。ロシア側は、「この解決策は「返還」にはあたらず、「善意に基づく譲渡」に該当する」との立場を取っている。

ロシア側の根拠は、「日本は既にサンフランシスコ講和条約によって、北方四島を含む千島列島の領有権を放棄しているため、旧ソビエトの領有宣言により、北方領土の領土権はすでにロシアにある」というものである。サンフランシスコ講和条約の第2条(c) で日本はKuril IslandsHave abandoned. The Russian side says that the definition of Kuril Islands includes the four northern islands. Japan signed as the basisKarafuto-Kishima Exchange TreatyThe original French text is shown. Based on this recognition, "after the conclusion of the Peace Treaty, it is necessary to conclude the peace treaty between the two countries and for the national interest of clearly establishing the territorial right to the Kuril Islands of Russia under international law.Habomai-ShikotanIt is the Russian side's position that "the two islands may be handed over to the Japanese side." Also, "This position has been confirmed by the two countries in the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration, and should be liberated from now on. Not only is it impossible, but Japan is dishonest in seeking the "return" of the four islands," the Russian side insists.

Of the plenipotentiary committee of that timeShunichi MatsumotoIn his memoir "Rainbow over Moscow" and research by Kimie Hara[100]]、Japan-Soviet Joint DeclarationWas conscious of this solution. However, regarding the situation of the Diet regarding territory, the GHQ's discussion of the Diet under the occupation already included the fact that theDemocratic PartyCentered on members of parliamentJapanese Socialist Party,Japan Communist PartyOpposition lawmakers such as[*13]Advocate the rightYoshida CabinetSince the administration (Liberal party) Is a composition to denounce[*14]The demand for the return of the four islands became Japan's national policy, as the momentum for asserting the return of the four islands by left- and right-wing lawmakers and activists regardless of Asano (the ruling party) increased.

Also, the U.S. Secretary of State Dulles will give advice regarding the post-Kokuritsu election in a meeting with Foreign Minister Shigemitsu in London, and if he abandons the return of the remaining two islands, it will annex the Okinawa as a US territory. Message to the Japanese side[101]Hatoyama's diplomacy with the transfer of the two islands settled down due to pressure from the inside and outside, and the Hatoyama Cabinet resigned as a flower road to join the United Nations approved in exchange for the Japan-Soviet joint declaration.

The former Soviet Union has not signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty, and it is denied by Article 25 that it will benefit from the treaty (Above). As a result, Japan has not yet signed a peace treaty with Russia. Furthermore, the San Francisco Peace Treaty and the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration do not specify to which countries the Japanese abandoned Kuril Islands and South Karafuto belong, and it remains unclear. In contrast, RussiaSakhalinHas been set up and claims the possession of the Kuril Islands and South Karafuto, but it is said that there is no legal basis under international law.

The Russian side said, "Japan's sovereignty itself has already disappeared, the conditions for concluding a peace treaty between the two countries have been confirmed in the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration, and Japan, which has abandoned this agreement, has the root of the problem." We now consider that the waiver of Japan's claim to return territory, which is described later, is a better solution. On the other hand, the Japanese side is in a position to "claim all "territorial rights" of the Northern Territories," and the negotiations between the two countries are in parallel.

Discussions and mentions targeting the four islands

The Russian side considers that Japan has already abandoned its sovereignty over the Northern Territories, and has only accepted the plan to "deliver" Russia's two islands in return after concluding a peace treaty. Therefore, these compromises are basically discussed in Japan on the assumption that Japan still holds sovereignty under international law. The following are the main ones.

  • Niijima precedent (gradual) return : Japan-Soviet Joint DeclarationBased onHabomai Islands-Shikotan IslandWill conclude a peace treaty by "transferring," but the Japanese side will then continue negotiations for the return of the remaining two islands. The Russian side considers that Japan's territorial rights are abolished by the San Francisco Treaty, and Nishima is not a return but a "transfer" in return for concluding a peace treaty.
  • Mishima return theory : Kunashiri IslandThe Japanese territory,Etorofu IslandTo make Russia a compromise
  • Joint Governance: Joint rule between Japan and Russia on both Etorofu and Kunashiri
  • Area halving theory: In addition to Habomai, Shikotan and Kunashiri, 3% of Etorofu is returned to Japan and 25% of ItorofuロシアTransfer to

Both Russia and Japan are allowed to "transfer" Habomai and Shikotan to Japan after concluding a peace treaty. However, the Russian side takes the position that the territorial issue has already been resolved under international law. The Japanese side insists that the rest of the territory will be returned even after the peace treaty is concluded, so the other side is how much concession can be drawn to Russia, or whether it can be drawn out. Will be a problem in. In other words, while the remaining issues related to the islands of Etorofu and Kunashiri are at issue, the recognition itself under international law itself is at issue.

Futoshi return theory
On the Japanese side, it mainly refers to the plan called "Futatsushima advance return theory" or "2+2 method". This is to return Habomai/Shikotan's two islands, which have been confirmed to be delivered to Japan by the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration, to the Japanese side for the time being, and for the remaining Etorofu/Kunashiri islands, the two countries will continue discussions. It is a plan.
As a supporter of the "Fukushima return theory"Suzuki MuneoOr diplomatKazuhiko TogoThere is.
On the other hand, unlike the theory of "transfer" of Niijima on the Russian side, it is a plan to try to draw off this problem mainly only by "transfer" of Habomai and Shikotan. Is.
Mishima return theory
Another name is "Fifty Fifty",ChugokuIs the method used by Russia to resolve the dispute. With this method,Territorial disputesIgnore all the past circumstances in, and divide the problem area into halves in the countries concerned. If this is formally applied to the Northern Territories, it will be in a state similar to the theory of Mishima return, in which Kunashiri Island is a Japanese territory and a borderline is drawn on Etorofu Island.Akihiro Iwashita(Political scientist) Praises this proposal, but this method was originally used for cases where it was difficult to determine a clear border line because the frontiers of the two countries that were just across the border clashed with each other, rather than the territory acquired by the war. However, it is difficult to apply it to the Northern Territories issue, and it is unclear whether or not it is more likely to be realized than the theory of the return of the four islands.
To the politicians who mentioned Mishima's theory of return,Yukio Hatoyama,Taro Kono,MoriThere are Hatoyama's "Mishima return theory"2007å¹´2In RussianMikhail Fratkovprime ministerWhen (then) visited Japan,Otowa GotenIt came out of the chat in. But Hatoyama2009å¹´2At the Japan-Russia summitTaro Asoprime ministerHas violently criticized the "area halving theory" as a "deviation from the national motto, the theory of four-island return," and changed its argument.
Joint Governance
Also known as "condominium", there are several examples in modern history.[102].. Typical examples of successEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAnd the failure example isKarafuto,New Hebrides(CurrentバヌアツThere is). As a concrete plan, for example, like the former Andorra, while allowing both Japan and Russia to go to both the islands of Etorofu and Kunashiri, it is widespread among residents.AutonomyIt is possible to make it a self-governing region. If the Russo-Japanese government directly exercises power over the island,Public authorityIt has been pointed out that the mixture of these may lead to confusion such as the Karafuto Habitat (1867-1875). For this reason, it is necessary to prevent such confusion by granting residents the autonomy and letting both governments entrust the administration. Also, on both islandsUnited Nations OfTrust territoryIt is also possible that both Japan and Russia become the governors. In this case, the division of power is a problem.
The merit of joint governance for the Japanese side is that shelving the difficult problems of Etorofu and post-Kunoku territory will enable Japanese fishermen to operate fisheries around both islands, as well as the Russian government. It is necessary to bear the administrative cost. The advantage for the Russian side is that from JapaninvestmentAnd help can be expected, and in the regionTradeCan be expected to expand. The theory of joint governanceYeltsin,Yukio Hatoyama,Primakov,RoshkovRussian Ambassador to Japan (then),Takeshi Tomita(Political scholars) et al. From a legal standpoint,Preamble to the Japanese ConstitutionItem 2[103],Russian Federation ConstitutionArticle 9 paragraph 2[104]Conforms to.
Area halving theory
"Habomai Islands,Shikotan Island,Kunashiri IslandAdd all of theTottoriHas an area equivalent toEtorofu IslandLess than half of that." Three islands such as Kunashiri in the western part of EtorofuFormer Tobetsu VillageIf you add, the area will be half. If realized, the border line between Japan and Russia would be drawn on Etorofu Island, and the “land border” since 1945 would be restored in Japan.
Taro AsoMinister of Foreign Affairs 2006å¹´12/13 OfHouse of RepresentativesForeign Affairs CommitteeAtSeiji Maehara-Democratic PartyIt was clarified in the question of the former representative. Aso of the previous year2005å¹´Saw the solution toChina-Russia border disputeAs a solution, the border problem between China and Russia isUssuri RiverIt is a controversy over the attribution of Zhongzhou across the country, the problem is that the Russian side, which has a sense of crisis about the population increase on the Chinese side, made a large concession, and the northern territorial issue is related to the former Soviet side.Japan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyIt is a statement that ignores the background of unilateral oversight, and in the exchange with Maehara, it has already been resolved with Ousley Island, which was the final issue in the China-Russia border problem.Damansky IslandI am confusing and answering.
AsoAbe CabinetImmediately after the inauguration, an interview with a news company stated that "the top of Japan and Russia should make a decision on a road that is neither two islands nor four islands."Ad balloonThere is a strong possibility. Immediately after that,Ministry of Foreign AffairsHas a deep relationship withFukuda YasuoyuanChief Cabinet SecretaryHas criticized Aso's proposal, which is not led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,official residenceSuggest that some are acceptable. Fukuda2006年7ToLDP presidential electionSince he left the company, he has made very few public statements.2007年8ToMinister of Foreign AffairsRe-pitchedNobutaka MachimuraCriticizes Aso's plan as "out of the question!" He emphasized that the principle of the territorial issue is to solve the problem of "return of four islands" as before. Aso2009年2ToKarafutoThe Japan-Russia summit meeting held in Japan has shown this idea far away. Furthermore, on April 4,Shotaro Taniuchi・As if the former Under Secretary of Foreign Affairs is supporting Aso.Mainichi NewspapersMentioned the plan in the interview. However, when the public sentiment increased, Taniuchi turned around and denied the statement. Next day, May 5House of Councilors・The reference is denied by the Budget Committee's reference hostages. On the other hand, Yu Sato, who has a theory of returning Nishima in advance, says that Taniuchi's area halving is about the territory after returning.US-Japan SecurityPaying attention to the fact that the non-applicable clause is included, the proposal shows a certain understanding.

The whole island return theory of the Kuril Islands

「北千島を含めた千島列島全体が日本固有の領土であり、日本に返還されるべき]と主張する勢力も存在する。Japan Communist Partyは、「千島・樺太交換条約は平和裏に締約されており、この樺太・千島交換条約を根拠に、得撫島以北を含めた全千島の返還を要求できる」という、千島列島全島返還の立場をとっている[105].

StalinThe former Soviet Union of the era carried out the annexation of the Baltic States, the securing of interests in northeastern China, and the annexation of the Kuril Islands during World War II. This violently reflected the Allied post-war principle of "no territorial expansion". Of these, the Kuril Islands are the only place where this lawlessness has not yet been corrected.Yalta AgreementIt is of utmost importance for us to hold negotiations with the flag of justice to correct Stalin's territorial expansionism from the front, without preserving the "Chishima delivery clause" or the "Chishima abandonment clause" of the San Francisco Treaty. I want to emphasize it.

(Kazuo Shiji, Chairman of the Japanese Communist Party, February 2005, 2)[106]

The root of the Russo-Japanese territorial problem lies in Stalin's hegemonic territorial expansion policy at the end of World War II. Stalin,Yalta talks(February 1945) demanded the "delivery" of the Kuril Islands as a condition of the Soviet Union's entry into Japan, and the United States and Britain also acknowledged it. Based on this secret arrangement, the Kuril Islands (Kunishima Islands) Later, it merged all the Kuril Islands from Etorofu to Shumushu. this is"Cairo declaration」(1943年11月)などに明記され、自らも認めた「領土不拡大」という戦後処理の大原則を蹂躙するものだった。しかもソ連は、千島列島には含まれない北海道の一部である歯舞群島と色丹島まで占領した。第2次世界大戦終結時に強行された、「領土不拡大」という大原則を破った戦後処理の不公正を正すことこそ、日ロ領土問題解決の根本にすえられなければならない。

(Kazuo Shiji, Chairman of the Japanese Communist Party, February 2010, 11)[107]

The attitude of the Japanese Communist Party regarding the Kuril Islands issue, including the Northern Territories, was inconsistent, and there were times when the entire Kuril Islands were made into Soviet territory and the return of the two islands of Habomai and Shikotan was insisted.[*15][108].

In the private sector, the Kurima and Habomai Islands Return Societies (currentNorthern Territory Return Movement Campaign Prefectural Council) Was seeking the return of the whole Kuril island and the Habomai archipelago,[109]After that, the claim changed to Kokugo and the return of only Etorofu, Shikotan and the Habomai Islands.

Japanese abandonment theory

The Japanese government abandoned Japan's claim to return the territory to the four islands, and approved Russia's rule and territory not only as a reality but also legally. It is a solution that goes on. This is in agreement with Russia's position that there is no territorial issue, and since negotiations have not progressed, the Japanese side has also issued a theory of total abandonment.[110].

On the other hand, this solution is related to the conclusion of the peace treaty after the normal diplomatic relations between Japan and the Soviet Union were restored after the Japan-Soviet joint declaration of 1956, "handing over the Habomai Islands and Shikotan Island to Japan after the conclusion of the peace treaty." It completely denies the article "continue negotiations." Regarding this, Japan used to take the opposite position, saying it "denies the existence of the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration itself", but in recent years, such an attitude has begun to disappear. Russia states that "the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration is issued by the Soviet Union and is completely invalid in the absence of the Soviet Union", and that it is best to abandon Japan's claim to return territory. Showing.

The theory of return from the Russian side

ロシアからも、四島返還論及び二島譲渡論が提案されたことがある。これは『主権無き領土返還』と呼ばれるもので、北方四島または歯舞・色丹二島を日本領と認定する代わりに、主権は引き続きロシアの主権下に置くものとする。これについて日本は、無意味にして実行不可能な提案は受け入れられないとして拒絶しており、ロシアも直ちに提案を撤回している。

ロシア人による返還に関しての提言

Very few Russians argue that the Northern Territories should be returned.[111].

Have mentioned when the Russian side returned the Northern Territories[112].

Nobel Prize for LiteratureIs a writerAlexandre SolgenitsynIn his book, "Russia in the Ruins," describes the vast dozens of states that belong to the Russians (Collapse of the Soviet UnionSometimes)ウクライナ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euCriticized the government of the Russian Federation for refusing to return the territory to Japan from "Ese patrioticism" while graciously "transferring to the island", and that these islands never belonged to Russia. Pointed out,Russo-Japanese War,Siberian troopsIn response to the expected Russian counterargument, such as retaliation for "insulting" from the Japanese side,Japan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyHe argued that unilaterally abolishing "there is no insult (to Japan) at all", and "Japan, which has a small land area, is requesting the return of territory. It is because it is a big problem that was applied." "If Russia could not find a friend in the west or the south in the 21st century, Japan-Russia good neighbor relations and friendship could be fully realized," he insisted on returning the Northern Territories to Japan.[113].

2010å¹´11/15Russia's Bedmosti Paper, as the first step in cooperating with Japan against the rising China,Habomai Islands-Shikotan IslandSaid that the delivery or joint governance of[114].. In addition,Collapse of the Soviet UnionLater Japan and Russia,Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration``Peace treatyReconfirmation of "handing over of the Habomai Islands and Shikotan Island to Japan after the conclusion", and the handling of Kunashiri and Etorofu Islands has become the focus of territorial issues.

Film directorAlexander SukulovWhen he received the Asahi Sun badge from the Japanese Consulate General in St. Petersburg in December 2011, he said, "The Northern Territories should be returned to Japan." "Russia has a lot to learn from Japan." We have to return the wonderful land that used to belong to them."[115][116].

Recommendations by parties other than the parties

2005年,European ParliamentMade a proposal that "Northern Territories should be returned to Japan."[117].2005年“EU andChugokuIn a resolution entitled "Taiwan Relations and Security in the Far East," the European Parliament "requires the countries concerned in the Far East to seek bilateral agreements to resolve unresolved territorial issues." Furthermore, in Japan South KoreaTakeshima issue between Japan and China and Taiwan (Republic of China)Among尖 閣 諸島Along with the problem, he is seeking "return to Japan of the northern territories that were occupied by the Soviet Union at the end of World War II and are now occupied by Russia."[118].In response to this resolution, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs commented that no intermediary of a third party was necessary to resolve the bilateral problem.[Source required]

Other

Served as the 4th Supreme Leader in the Soviet UnionNikita KhrushchevIn the memoirs he wrote in his later years, he agreed to the delivery of Habomai and Shikotan even after the conclusion of the peace treaty, but on an island used only by fishermen and military personnel, there was no defensive or economic value, In exchange for these, I think that the friendly relationship obtained from Japan is extremely large,"Soviet UnionSan Francisco Peace Treaty"It was a big mistake to sign the agreement." "I should have worked hard to improve my relationship with Japan even if I made concessions due to the Northern Territories issue," he regretted and said, "To conclude a peace treaty with Japan. The failure was due to Stalin's pride and Molotov's obstinacy.''[Needs verification].. This sentence was deleted from the memoir by Khrushchev's own political consideration,GorbachevUnder the administrationGlasnostFirst published in 1989 by[119].

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ The Red Army was instructed in the provision of ships and weapons and landing training with the cooperation of the United States.
  2. ^ There is no dogma as to whether the Japan-Soviet Neutrality Treaty was immediately revoked by the notification on April 1945, 4, or whether it was valid until the fifth year of the treaty's renewal date, April 5, 5. The Judgment of the International Military Tribunal in the Far East states, "It is now certain that the Neutrality Treaty was concluded in good faith and as a means of advancing Japan's invasive attempts against the Soviet Union. The actions of the Soviet Union are legal. For more informationJapan-Soviet Neutrality Treatyreference.
  3. ^ It should be noted that paragraph 6 of the Directive "must not be construed as indicating any Allied policy regarding the final decisions of the small islands mentioned in paragraph 8 of the Potsdam Declaration." a
  4. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs official viewQ & A on the Northern Territories issue(February 22, 2)
    "Before the war, about 1 Japanese lived in the northern four islands, all of whom were forced to be repatriated to mainland Japan by 7.'
  5. ^ In addition, the shell island is what is called in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.Low tideSince it is not an island, it does not have territorial waters or exclusive economic zones according to the Convention.
  6. ^
    • Draft March 1947-"Japan ceded here all sovereignty over the Kuril Islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Hokkaido to the Soviet Union."
    • Draft July 1947-"(Article 7) Japan's territorial scope shall be as of January 1894, 1, but the amendments stipulated in Articles 1 and 1875 shall be made (omitted). Includes all four major islands, including Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Hokkaido, the Islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Kunigo and Gojo in the Chishima Islands, and the Ryukyu Islands (omitted). " Article XNUMX) Japan here gives full sovereignty over all the Chishima Islands northeast of the Gojo Strait, consisting of all the islands including Urup and Shumsh, which were transferred from Russia to Japan under the XNUMX Treaty. Transfer to the Soviet Union. "
    • Draft August 1947-"Japan ceded here to the Soviet Union all sovereignty over the Kuril Islands, which consist of the islands northeast of the Friz Bay, including from Russia to Japan under the 8 Treaty. . "
    • Draft January 1948-"Japan ceded here all sovereignty over the Kuril Islands to the Soviet Union of the Socialist Republics." "(Note) the entire Kuril Islands or the southern tip of the Kuril Islands (Kokugo and Chokaku), Tohmai and It is still under consideration whether a clause for Japan's retention of the Soviet Union will be included in the nine drafts. Legally, Japan's position of holding the tooth dance and the color tan is stronger than the position of holding the southernmost part of the Kuril Islands. Conceivable"
    • Draft September and October 1949-"Japan's territorial scope includes the four major islands of Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Hokkaido, as well as the islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Sado, the Oki Islands, Chotoku, Kunigo, Habomai Islands, and Shitan. , Tsushima, the Goto Islands, the Ryukyu Islands north of 9 degrees north latitude, and the Izu Islands up to Lot's Wife. "" (Note to the October draft) Note 10, if the Soviet Union does not sign The treaty should not include a provision that Japan will transfer the territories described in Article 29, and the status of these territories will be determined later by the countries concerned, including the parties to the current treaty. It is the position of the United States that it should be provided. "
    • Draft November 1949-"(Note) Etorofu. The decision as to whether the United States should propose the retention of Kunashir and Ochishima (Toumai and Shikotan) in Japan has not yet been made. The idea at this time is that the United States should not raise this issue, but if it is raised by Japan, we may be sympathetic. The Soviet Union puts the Kuril Islands under a trust governing system. The question of whether the United States should propose to put it in should still be considered. "
    • Draft December 1949-"(Article 12) Japan's territory includes the four major islands of Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Hokkaido (omitted), the islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Tsushima, Takeshima, the Oki Islands, (Ru) and It consists of all adjacent small islands, including the Habomai Islands and Shikotan. "" (Article XNUMX) Japan hereby transfers all sovereignty over the Chishima Islands to the Federation of Soviet Socialist Republics. "
    • Draft March 1951-"Japan converted the Soviet Union of Socialist Republics to South Sakhalin and all its neighboring islands, by bilateral agreement or by a judicial decision in accordance with Article 3 of this Convention. Hand over the defined Kuril Islands. "
    • Draft May 1951-"Japan ceded the Kuril Islands and the southern Sakhalin and neighboring islands where Japan once exercised sovereignty to the Soviet Union of Socialist Republics."
    • Draft June 1951-"Japan has all rights, titles and rights to the Kuril Islands and some of Sakhalin, which Japan gained sovereignty as a result of the Treaty of Portsmouth on September 6, 1905, and the islands adjacent to it. I waive my claim. "
  7. ^ The ratification of the US treaty is exclusive to the Senate and the House does not participate. For more informationApproveSee.
  8. ^ According to Kenro Nagoshi, "The Mystery of the Northern Territories" (Kairisha), p. 145, a Japanese official said, "For patients in the northern four islands, it is limited to diseases that have been treated in about three weeks and do not recur. It is desirable to have children from a family that can be connected."
  9. ^ By 1945, the family register that had a permanent residence in KarafutoSecond World WarMost of them have been lost, but part of the family register of 6 villages (Enbuchi, Shiretoko, Tonai, Motodomari, Uchiji, Sane) is stored in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. A copy of the family register is issued. The family register for the former Karafuto's domicile is not strictly the family register specified in the Family Registration Law, but for convenience, it is treated according to the normal family register claim procedure.
  10. ^
    "In the report, M. Egorov issued the following strong warning in the report: If we make a concession to Japan's territorial demand, Russia will lose the non-freezing seas of the Straits of Friza and Ekaterina (Straits of Etorofu and Kunashiri, respectively). So it means Russia loses its free exit to the Pacific. There is no doubt that Japan will demand monetary consideration for traffic or place restrictions on traffic itself.'
  11. ^ However, the occupation of the Habomai archipelago is after September 9 and cannot be justified by this logic.
  12. ^ "Right allies Ha own country no purpose ni no mo ni gain wo mo desire surumononi non-s and territorial expansion no omomo wo mo surumononi non-su" After the start of the day, the country will take over the power of Japan and occupy the city's Pacific Ocean. It will strip away all the islands. It will be in the same state as Manchuria, Taiwan and Penghu Island. "Return of the Republic of China to Surukotoni"
  13. ^ At this time, a peace treaty had not been concluded and the armistice was in a state of truce, and rather than being able to participate in the United Nations as a voluntary independent state, GHQ, that is, the substantial occupation of the United States by the United States, could have become a permanent fact. ..
  14. ^ For detailsUnconditional surrenderRefer to
  15. ^
    • December 1949, 12 "Akahata" --- "The Yoshida Cabinet's movement to return the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin invites Soviet rebuttal."
    • December 1949, 12 "Akahata" --Sanzo Nosaka pointed out that "the problem of belonging to South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands" refers to Yoshida's plenipotentiary to Japan as "a reprint of militarism."
    • August 1956, 8 "Akahata" --- "There is no basis for Japan to raise the territorial dispute in the Japan-Soviet negotiations."
    • August 1956, 8 "Akahata"-"The Japanese government's claim that Habomai and Shikotan are not part of Hokkaido is clearly inconsistent."
    • August 1956, 8 "Speech by Kenji Miyamoto of the Japan-Soviet Diplomatic Recovery Promotion Speech hosted by the Japanese Communist Party" — "(In a statement by the Central Committee of the Japanese Communist Party on August 31) the Japanese government has abandoned the Kuril Islands. It is serious, and confirming this position, the government's claim that the Kuril Islands do not enter the South Kuril Islands is unfounded. "
    • 1959-Kenji Miyamoto agrees to return the two islands to Japan after visiting the Soviet Union.
    • March 1962, 3 "Akahata" --The Japanese Communist Party voted against the resolution to restore the Northern Territories at the House of Representatives main meeting, and the reason was "The territorial dispute is international such as the Yalta Agreement, the Cairo Declaration, and the Potsdam Declaration." It has been settled in the agreement, and the UN Charter has confirmed it. "" It imposes unrealizable illegal territorial demands on the Soviet Union, abolishes the Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration, fuels anti-Soviet retaliation, and concludes a peace treaty. What makes it impossible. "

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Location and Area of ​​Northern Territories | Northern Territory Problem Countermeasures Association
  2. ^ "Government's official opinion on the request for the return of the Northern Territories" February 31, 2, Foreign Affairs Committee, 11th House of Representatives[1]
  3. ^ “Speaking of Yoshida plenipotentiary at the San Francisco Peace Conference,” September 1951, 9
  4. ^ Isekuni Matsuzaka Ship drifting in the North Sea
  5. ^ Berezhof 1995, p. 63.
  6. ^ a b Berezhof 1995, p. 66
  7. ^ a b c Berezhof 1995, p. 290
  8. ^ Berezhof 1995, p. 291.
  9. ^ a b Berezhof 1995, p. 292
  10. ^ Berezhof 1995, p. 293.
  11. ^ Hasegawa Tsuyoshi 2006, p. 43.
  12. ^ Hasegawa Tsuyoshi 2006, pp. 54-55.
  13. ^ Takeshi Hasegawa"The Dark Fight Stalin, Truman and the Japanese Surrender" (above)Chuko Bunko, 2011, p64-65
  14. ^ a b Soviet Union shuts off public telephones when declaring war on Japan1/32/33/3Sankei ShimbunAugust 2015, 8, Noburu Okabe Editorial Committee
  15. ^ a b 007st Diet Foreign Affairs Committee No. 7"...I mean the Kuril islands of the Yalta Agreement, but I think that it includes the so-called Minami Kuril and Kita Kuril Islands. However, Habomai and Shikotan, which are close to Hokkaido, are not included in the islands. think.…"
  16. ^ a b Peace Treaty and US-Japan Security Treaty Special Committee No. 11“...Minami Kurildo has not been a problem since the time of Ansei Jo. In other words, the national sentiment is that the problems of Kokugo and Etorofu are different from those of Kuril. Perhaps, from an overall standpoint, it makes sense to make this interpretation under the interpretation of Yatsupari Chishima...."
  17. ^ a b 012th Parliamentary Peace Treaty and Japan-US Security Treaty Special Committee No. 4 "... I think that the range of the Kuril Islands in the Azusa includes both the North and the South Kurils. However, the fact that the Minami and the North Kurils have historically differed their positions is already All powers are as revealed in the speech at the San Francisco conference..."
  18. ^ a b February 1956, 2 Foreign Minister of Foreign Affairs Morishita's response to the 11th Diet session Foreign Affairs Committee“…The San Francisco Peace Treaty does not involve the Soviet Union, but it is the government's view that neither of the Kuril Islands is included in the right peace treaty.”
  19. ^ Main Documents and Timeline of Japanese Diplomacy Vol. 2 Kashima Peace Research Institute. Hara Shobo. Published on February 1984, 2. "[28] Okinawa/Ogasawara Administration Restoration Resolution and House of Representatives Resolution on Northern Territory Recovery March 5" p3
  20. ^ Proceedings of the House of Representatives, House of Councilors and committees "Gazette (Extra)". Ministry of Finance, Printing Bureau
  21. ^ 40th House of Representatives plenary session No.22 March 37, 03 "Resolution for the Northern Territory Recovery Unique to Japan"
  22. ^ Main Documents and Chronology of Japanese Diplomacy Vol. 2 Kashima Peace Research Institute. Hara Shobo. Published on February 1984, 2. [[28] Discourse of the Chairman of the Mao Zedong Communist Party on the Japan Socialist Party's visit to China in support of Japan's request to return the Northern Territories. July 8'' pp 7-10
  23. ^ "Summary and Revision of Japan-China Relations Collection (published in 1971)" Member materials. Japan-China diplomatic relations promotion council. 580. pXNUMX
  24. ^ Records and verification Normalization of Japan-China diplomatic negotiations and negotiations for a Japan-China Peace and Friendship Treaty. Akira Ishii-Zhu Jianye-Yoshihide Soeya・. Iwanami Shoten. Published on August 2003, 8. "Record Part 7 Japan-China Normalization Negotiations" "2 Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and Prime Minister Zhou Enlai" "Second Summit Meeting (September 57th)" p75 And trailing footnote pXNUMX
  25. ^ Main documents and chronology of Japanese diplomacy Vol. 2 Kashima Peace Research Institute. Hara Shobo. Published on February 1984, 2. "[28] Soviet Oral Statement on the Northern Territories and Answers to Japan November 18, 11" pp11 -17
  26. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Publications, 45. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Information and Culture Bureau. pp162-166
  27. ^ [2] (PDF)  About the International Court of Justice (International Legal Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  28. ^ President Russia's "strong leaders" show off in Japan... Visit the Northern Territories Yomiuri Shimbun November 2010, 11
    In July of this year, Russia signed the 7nd World War II surrender document on September 2nd, as part of the efforts of President Hu Jintao, as the "End of World War Day".
  29. ^ [Russian President's Northern Territories visit] Foreign Minister Rob opposes Japanese protest "President goes where he wants to go" Sankei Shimbun November 2010, 11
  30. ^ US officially announces Japan's support for the Northern Territories issue Nihon Keizai Shimbun. (November 2010, 11). Retrieved November 2, 2010.
  31. ^ Northern territory “sovereignty over Japan” U.S. government officially announces US government officials, Japan-US security not applicable Nihon Keizai Shimbun. (November 2010, 11). Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  32. ^ 2011/02/12 Sankei Shimbun
  33. ^ 2011.5.22 Sankei Shimbun
  34. ^ 2011.5.24 YONHAP NEWS
  35. ^ [3], January 2019, 5
  36. ^ "No plans to hand over northern territory = restraint before summit-Russian President: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot comJiji Press (March 2016, 6). 2019/6/22Browse. "Russian President Vladimir Putin has acknowledged that he has no plans to hand over the northern territories that Russia effectively controls to the Japanese side. State television released the contents of the interview aired on the XNUMXnd on the site. When asked by a questioner who visited the country, "The children were raising the Russian flag. Isn't it necessary to lower it?" Putin said, "There is no such plan." I responded. ”
  37. ^ [4], January 2020, 7
  38. ^ a b c "Russia deploys advanced S-300 missiles to disputed islands near Japan". Reuters (September 2020, 12). 2020/12/1Browse.
  39. ^ 84th House of Commerce and Industry Committee No. 17, May 53, 05 Ryohei Murata, Counselor for Foreign Affairs, Convention Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  40. ^ 132nd House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee No. 7 (March 7, 3), Special Committee No. 10 on Okinawa and Northern Provinces (May 6, 7), etc. regarding the establishment of a consulate in Sakhalin At the timeYouno KonoTo the Minister of Foreign AffairsSuzuki MuneoThere is a strong demand from lawmakers.
  41. ^ In the 136th House of Representatives Special Committee on Okinawa and Northern Problems No. 4 (June 8, 6), in response to Suzuki's strong request,Yukihiko IkedaMinister of Foreign Affairs: “We regard the Northern Territories as a unique territory of our country, so it is not possible to approve this regarding Russia's administrative jurisdiction over the region, but Sakhalin, who is pointed out by the Commissioner, now. Regarding this, human and financial exchanges have also increased significantly,” he said.
  42. ^ Budget Committee No. 171 of the 20th House of Representatives (February 21, 2)
  43. ^ Q & A on the Northern Territories issue (related questions)
  44. ^ 171st House Budget Committee No. 20 (February 21, 2)
  45. ^ 171st House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee No. 2 (March 21, 3)
  46. ^ 84th House of Commerce and Industry Committee No. 17, May 53, 05 Ryohei Murata, Counselor for Foreign Affairs, Convention Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  47. ^ "American Plenipotentiary Speech" September 1951, 9 John Foster Dulles P5[5] (PDF) (PDF-P.10) Junposha Digital Library
  48. ^ Speech of Japan Plenipotentiary (Shigeru Yoshida) September 1951, 9[6] (PDF) P.434 (Junposha Digital Library) PDF-P.41
  49. ^ History of the Northern Territories Issue [4th Edition] National Diet Library ISSUE BRIEF NUMBER 697 (February 2011, 2)
  50. ^ "Sea of ​​Borders" and Nationalism ── Japan-Soviet kelp harvesting agreement and Tatsunosuke Takanosuke Tomoaki Murakami
  51. ^ On the issue of border line demarcation in "Northern Territories" or South Kuril Toshihiko Ueno
  52. ^ "Speech of Soviet plenipotentiary" AA Gromyko P.426[7] (PDF) PDF-P.33 (Junposha Digital Library). The speech denounced that the Western countries had changed the direction of the Far East Commission's original policy of demilitarizing and demilitarizing Japan, making it a logistic base on the Korean Peninsula.
  53. ^ "Soviet Government's Memorandum of Understanding for the United States on the Treaty of Peace with Japan"[8] (PDF) (Shunposha Digital Library)
  54. ^ Kimie Hara 2012, p. 139.
  55. ^ Kimie Hara 2012, p. 147.
  56. ^ Shunichi Matsumoto-Sato Yu"Japanese-Soviet Diplomacy Recovery Secretary" Asahi Shimbun Publications, 2012, pages 125-126
  57. ^ Questionnaire on negotiations to restore diplomatic relations between Japan and the Soviet Union in XNUMX
  58. ^ "History of the Northern Territories Problem"Takashi Tsukamoto(National Diet Library ISSUE BRIEF Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau 2011.2.3)[9]PDF-P.7
  59. ^ MOFA: Japan-Russia Summit Meeting (in Sakhalin) (Summary) Ministry of Foreign Affairs dated February 2009, 2
  60. ^ a b Russia amends criminal law with a view to northern territories 10 years in prison for calling for cedingMainichi Newspaper March 2020, 12
  61. ^ Kenro Nagoshi "The Mystery of the Northern Territories" (Kairyusha) page 101
  62. ^ "Northern Territories Tomb". Cabinet Office. 2019/3/28Browse.
  63. ^ "Framework for traveling to the four northern islands". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2019/3/28Browse.
  64. ^ Concerning contributions to international organizations, etc., an opinion of improvement is displayed so that proper business operation at the expenditure destination can be ensured and efficient use of contributions, etc. can be achieved. --Board of Audit HP
  65. ^ Northern four island residents support project Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
  66. ^ Submitted by Mr. Sadataka Ozawa, member of the House of Representatives November 1981, 11 Government Answers
  67. ^ Conceptual image of Japanese waters - Japan Coast Guard
  68. ^ Map of water area within 12 nautical miles from the coast of Japan (small fishing boat)- Japan Small Ship Inspection Organization
  69. ^ Plain water and coastal area map - Japan Small Ship Inspection Organization
  70. ^ “[Question Narihodori] Northern Territories What is it like now?= 1 people live in Kokugo, Etorofu and Shikotan”. Mainichi NewspapersMorning edition. (May 2016, 12). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20161217/ddm/002/070/127000c 
  71. ^ Russia designates a special economic zone on Shikotan Island in the northern territory. Will it affect joint economic activities? -Sankei Shimbun, December 2017, 8
  72. ^ Northern territory visa visit, government sloppy response-MBS news (December 2010, 11)
  73. ^ "The reason why Russia never gives up its northern territory is that the invasion of the U.S. into the "fortress" will be firmly stopped."NewSphere May 2016, 5
  74. ^ Недорез Ю. И. Слушается дело о пося гательствах на суверенитет России и международное право Научно-экспертный совет при администрации Сахалинской области Retrieved February 2009, 6 [Broken link]
  75. ^ "Will territory return further with "Kunashira and Etorofu to rare metal"?". Shinchosha Co., Ltd.. 2013/3/27Browse.
  76. ^ a b "Largest Russian government delegation visits Kunashiri Island". Searchina. 2013/3/27Browse.
  77. ^ "Northern territories, resource problems, Japan's difficulty in responding". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2013/3/27Browse.
  78. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs[10]
  79. ^ Northern Headquarters, Cabinet Office[11]
  80. ^ Recent Trends and Diet Discussions on Okinawa and Northern Problems[12] (PDF) PDF-P.6
  81. ^ Russian Foreign Minister "We do not return the island to Japan" Northern Territories issueAsahi Shimbun Digital Read January 2016, 6
  82. ^ "Russia deploys state-of-the-art missiles on northern territories, impact on territorial negotiations"News Web Japan Version November 2016, 11
  83. ^ "Russia deploys new missiles in Northern Territories"Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2016/11/23
  84. ^ k = 2016121500554 & g = pol "Joint economic activity" with a special system "= Japan-Russia leaders meet in Yamaguchi-discussion to break through the Northern Territories"Newsletter 2016/12/16
  85. ^ "XNUMX uninhabited islands on the east coast of Shikotan Island are also named Russia"Hokkaido Shimbun 2017/02/14
  86. ^ "I'm worried about naming the uninhabited islands of the Northern Territories = The Japanese government communicates to Russia"Newsletter 2017/02/13
  87. ^ Пять Курильских островов получили именаTASS 2017/2/11
  88. ^ New Division Policy on Northern TerritoriesRyukyu Shimpo April 2017, 2
  89. ^ ``Russia shares military-civilian airport on northern Territory Etorofu Island'' NHK News, February 2018, 2
  90. ^ "Russia deploys state-of-the-art missiles on northern territories, impact on territorial negotiations"News Web Japan Version November 2016, 11
  91. ^ "Russia deploys new missiles in Northern Territories"Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2016/11/23
  92. ^ New Division Policy on Northern TerritoriesRyukyu Shimpo April 2017, 2
  93. ^ "Building a high-speed internet network on three islands in Russia and the Northern Territories". Reuters(July 2019, 2). https://jp.reuters.com/article/ru-internet-idJPKCN1QF309 2019/3/2Browse. 
  94. ^ “Optical fiber development in northern Russian territory, Huawei also cooperated in laying”. NHK(July 2019, 2). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20190227/k10011829351000.html 2019/2/28Browse. 
  95. ^ “Ro official visits Shikotan Island, an exceptional place”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2019, 2). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO4179183026022019PP8000/ 2019/2/28Browse. 
  96. ^ “Russian Japan protests by laying optical fiber on the northern four islands”. Chinese net(July 2018, 6). http://japanese.china.org.cn/jp/txt/2018-06/12/content_52063830.htm 2019/3/2Browse. 
  97. ^ "Government's official opinion on the request for the return of the Northern Territories" February 31, 2, Foreign Affairs Committee, 11th House of Representatives[13]
  98. ^ What is the Northern Territories Problem? Cabinet Office HP
  99. ^ "The 1956 (Japan-Soviet Union) Declaration is the only legal document" President Medvedev, July 2009[14]
  100. ^ Hara, Kimie (2001). “50 Years from San Francisco: Re-Examining the Peace Treaty and Japan's Territorial Problems”. Pacific Affairs 74 (3): 361. two:10.2307/3557753. 
  101. ^ "According to Matsumoto, an ashen-faced Shigemitsu returned from the meeting saying, "Dulles has said something completely terrible (mattaku hidoi). He said if Japan lets the Soviet Union keep Etorofu and Kunashiri the US will make Okinawa its own territory."[15]
  102. ^ World Enclave Territory Study Group “Joint Governing Territory”
  103. ^ The second sentence of the preamble "... the people of the whole world... the right to live in peace..."
  104. ^ Part 1 Chapter 1 Article 9 Paragraph 2 "Land and other natural resources can be privately owned, state-owned, municipally owned and other forms of property." Sanseido"New Commentary World Constitution Collection" published on November 2006, 11,Yushindo"World Constitution Book, Second Edition, published August 1998, 8)
  105. ^ Greetings from the chairman of the rank of Shih at the "Shinbun Red Flag" "National Convention for the Return of Northern Territories" on Tuesday, February 2005, 2
  106. ^ Greetings from Chairman Shii at the National Convention for the Return of Northern Territories[16]
  107. ^ Radical reexamination of successive LDP administration policies between Japan and Russia (November 2010, 11, Japanese Communist Party)[17]
  108. ^ Tatsuo Urano 2013, pp. 181-182.
  109. ^ Remarks by Toshio Kishida, Vice Chairman of the Association for the Return of Kuril and the Habomai Islands
  110. ^ Urano (2014), P.86
  111. ^ "The four northern islands are Japanese" A Russian person who has lived in Kunashir Island for 28 years expressed by himself (Hokkaido Shimbun, article on July 2009, 7)Archive for July 2009, 7 due to broken link
  112. ^ "Russia is in crisis and hands over northern territory" @ Russian leading economist points out
  113. ^ Source:Alexandre SolgenitsynTranslated by Sadayoshi Igashi, Atsushi Baniwa and Rie Ueno, "Russia in the Ruins", pp. 60-61, Koshisha ISBN 9784794210074
  114. ^ “Two islands return to Japan-Russia = opposition to China-Russian newspaper is an exceptional editorial”. Current Affairs dot com (Jiji Press)(July 2010, 11). http://www.jiji.com/jc/zc?k=201011/2010111500884 2010/11/20Browse. 
  115. ^ Сокуров предложил отдать Японии Курилы. // «Росбалт», 13 декабря 2011. Дата обращения 3 августа 2019.
  116. ^ "Present Northeast Asian Research Center for the Hokkaido University Slav-Eurasia Center "International Relations Aiming to Build a Regional Collaboration System" Vol. 4 March 30, 2018.Retrieved August 2019, 8.
  117. ^ Russia news: Japan furious with Putin's visit to disputed island | World | News | Express.co.uk By Kumail Jaffer PUBLISHED: 09:20, Fri, Aug 2, 2019 | UPDATED: 07:49, Mon, Aug 5, 2019 Viewed April 2020, 4
  118. ^ European Parliament (October 2005, 7). “Relations between the EU, China and Taiwan and security in the Far East". 2020/4/13Browse.
  119. ^ Nikita Khrushchev, "The Sealed Testimony" (Kusosha, 1991).

Related item

Japanese foreign policy

References

  • Warentin M. Berezhof; Translated by Yoko Kuriyama "I was Stalin's interpreter. : World War II Confidential Story, Dohosha Publishing, 1995.ISBN 4810422283. 
  • Tsuyoshi Hasegawa "Dark Fight: Stalin, Truman and Japan Surrender" Chuokoron-Shinsha, 2006.ISBN 4120037045. 
  • Urano Kio "Japan's Borders: Analysis, Materials and Literature" Miwa Books, 2013.ISBN 486251152X. 
  • Kimie Hara, "The Blind Spot of the San Francisco Peace Treaty << New Edition >>" Keisuisha, 2012.ISBN 4863272049. 
  • "Japan-Russia Relations Changing" edited by the Security Issues Study Group (Bunshun new book)
  • Haruki Wada"Northern Territories Problem-History and Future"Asahi Shimbun(Asahi selection book621), 1999,ISBN 4022597216
  • Kimura Pan"New edition: History of Japan-Russia border negotiations: Road to the return of the Northern Territories" Kadokawa Gakugei Publishing (Kadokawa Selection), 2005,ISBN 4047033863
  • Takeshi Hasegawa"Northern Territories Issues and Japan-Russia Relations"Chikuma Shobo, 2000,ISBN 4480861114
  • Akihiro Iwashita "Northern Territories Issue: Neither 4 nor 0 nor 2" Chuokoron-Shinsha <Chukoron-Shinsho, 1825>, 2005.ISBN 4121018257. (Chuko Shinsho1825)
  • Nobuo Shimotome"Northern Territories Q & A80" (Shogakkan Library), 1999,ISBN 4094040048
  • "Ainu Moshiri: Negotiation of "Return of the Northern Territories" from the viewpoint of Ainu people""Ochanomizu Shobo, 1992,ISBN 4275014863
  • "Northern Territories and Japan's Ideal State-Transforming Territorial Issues into a New Nation/World" "Proposal for Language, Culture, Education, and Policy on Japanese and Japanese, PDF version, 2011
  • Urano Kio"Japanese territorial issues on maps and timelines" Sanwa Book, 2014.ISBN 9784862511591.
  • Kireeva, Anna (2017). The Russian-Japanese Rapprochement. (http://ru.valdaiclub.com/a/reports/rossiysko-yaponskoe-sblizhenie-vozmozhnosti/)
  • Asahi Shimbun article (8 times in total) "Kakuei and "Yoshima"-Secretary of territorial negotiations-" June 2020
    • June 6th 10st: Kakuei Tanaka, Summit Meeting Close to "Yoshima" Soviet Union
    • 6nd June 11th: Brezhnev's heat valve, "Ignore everything" Kakuei's memo
    • June 6th 12rd: Kakuryoku "I want to put in four eyes" Kakuei ate down
    • June 6th 13th: Foreign Minister Ohira's hand to the Soviet Union rejecting "black cat in dark room ..."
    • June 6th 14th: "Is the four islands in?" Nod Brezhnev "Dah"

Literature information

  • "The joint compendium of materials on the History of the Territorial Issue" Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation 1992 version[18] (PDF) , 2001 edition[19] (PDF)
  • "History of the Northern Territories Problem"Takashi Tsukamoto(National Diet Library ISSUE BRIEF No.697 2011.2.3)[20]
  • U.S. Department of State Memorandum of Understanding between Japan and the Soviet Union (1956.9.7)[21]
  • Tokyo Declaration on Japan-Russia Relations (October 1993.10.13, XNUMX)[22]

外部 リンク

Sites of Japanese public institutions, etc.

Sites other than the above


 

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