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Wikipedia related words
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New coronavirus(Shingata coronavirus,English: Novel coronavirus, nCoV) IsCoronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyBelongs toウ イ ル スOf these, it is a tentative name given to those that are medically and publicly important..
In particularHuman coronavirusIt is often used in.
The following viruses were called new coronaviruses before their official names were given.
|Formal name||Other names||Susceptible host[† 1]||First discovery location (discovery year)||Infection|
|SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[† 2]||2019-Ncov|
SARS virus 2
Human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19)
|Bat,Scale armor||Chugoku-Wuhan(2019)||New Coronavirus Infection (2019) (COVID-19)[† 3]|
|MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)[† 4]||Middle east virus|
Camel flu virus
|camel,Bat||サウジアラビア-Jeddah(2012)||Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)|
|Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)||New Haven Virus||A mouse||Hong Kong (2005)||Mild respiratory tract infection, rarely severe pneumonia|
|SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1)[† 2]||SARS virus||Chinese cabbage,Bat||Chugoku-Foshan(2002)||Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)|
All of the above four viruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus (betacoronavirus) Belongs to.
Known for the "new" of the new coronavirusViral family classificationBelongs toIt means a new pathogen.That is, the new coronavirusCoronavirus familyIt means a new pathogen belonging to (or its subclass).There is no intention to call it a completely unknown new pathogen. The use of the word "new XX" was introduced in 2015WHOIt complies with the new infectious disease naming scheme decided by.  
- 2002 SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) -From November 2002 to July 11Severe acute respiratory syndrome The virus that causes (SARS).
- 2005 Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)
- 2012 MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) -In July 2012Erasmus University Medical CenterIt was originally called HCoV-EMC (Human coronavirus- Erasmus Medical Center) because the coronavirus was isolated in.. Originally called "new coronavirus"But in May 2013International Virus Classification Committee PathogenNamed "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)"Received WHO decisionMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare named the virus MERS (Mars) coronavirus and named the infectious disease.Middle East respiratory syndrome Decided to be (MERS).
- SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)- 2019 New Coronavirus.. The first infected person appeared in November 2019, and the new model was launched in January 11.CoronavirusWas confirmed.
- ^ a b Murray and Nadel (2010). Chapter 31.
- ^ a b Cunha (2010). Pp. 6–18.
- ^ a b Melmed (2011). P. 636
- ^ a b c "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
- ^ "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
- ^ “Coronavirus disease named Covid-19”. BBC News .
- ^ According to ICD-10 the disease is referred to as "2019-new coronavirus acute respiratory disease [temporary name]". It is not listed in ICD-11.
- ^ a b Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia and Wuhan respiratory syndrome
- ^ Human coronavirus NL63 Some strains of (HCoV-NL63)New Haven Coronavirus Be careful not to confuse it because it is called (HCoV-NH).
- ^ a b Ghosh R, Das S. A Brief Review of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) Outbreak. Global Journal for Research Analysis. 2020; 9 (2).
- ^ a b World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases. World Health Organization. May 2015.
- ^ a b Budhwani, Henna; Sun, Ruoyan (2020). “Creating COVID-19 Stigma by Referencing the Novel Coronavirus as the“ Chinese virus ”on Twitter: Quantitative Analysis of Social Media Data” (English). Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 (5): e19301. two:10.2196/19301.
- ^ Host jump capability may not persist
- ^ a b Tetsuya Mizutani, ``New species of coronavirus"Virus" Vol. 63, No. 1, p.1-6, 2013, Japanese Society of Virology, two:10.2222 / jsv.63.1.
- ^ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group Journal of Virology, Published ahead of print 15 May 2013, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.01244-13
- ^ Naming of the Novel Coronavirus WHO, 28 May 2013
Population decline society
Population decline society(Jinkougenshoshakai, population decline) is社会More deaths than births inpopulationIs the time of decrease.JapanIn2000 eraSecond half or2010 eraAfter that, it is said that it has entered that phase.
Areas that have entered a declining population
|アルバニア||2014||0.456||Birth rate decline, immigrant transfer|
|ベ ラ ル ー シ||2014||0.362||Birth rate declined, immigrants have been overloaded since 2014|
|Bosnia and Hellegovina||2013||0.003||Birth rate decline, immigration, Bosnian war|
|ブルガリア||2014||0.796||Birth rate decline, high mortality rate, high abortion rate, excess immigration|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||2013||3.136||Immigration (especially in the 20s and 34s)|
|クロアチア||2014||0.092||Birth rate decline, immigrant migration, war|
|Czech Republic||2015||0.134||Birth rate decline|
|キ ュ ー バ||2012||0.115||Immigrant migration, decreased birth rate|
|エストニア||2014||0.65||Birth rate decline|
|ドイツ||2014||0.2||Birth rate decreased, population increased due to immigration from 2012|
|ギリシャ||2014||0.16||Birth rate decline, economic crisis|
|ハンガリー||2014||0.184||Birth rate decline|
|イタリア||2014||0.09||Birth rate decline|
|Japan||2015||126,880,000||0.077||Lower fertility rate, low immigration, long-term economic downturn|
|ラトビア||2014||0.598||Birth rate decline, immigrant transfer|
|リトアニア||2014||0.278||Birth rate decline, immigrant transfer|
|北 マ リ ア ナ 諸島||2012||2.449||Immigrant|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||2013||1.014||Birth rate decline|
|ポーランド||2014||0.075||Birth rate decline, immigrant transfer|
|ポルトガル||2014||0.07||Birth rate decline, economic crisis, immigrant migration|
|プ エ ル ト リ コ||2013||3.136||Birth rate decline, economic crisis|
|ルーマニア||2014||0.26||Low fertility rate, high mortality rate, high abortion rate, immigrant migration|
|ロシア||2014||0.48||High mortality rate, low birth rate, high abortion rate, low immigration.Increasing trend from 2014|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||2014||0.464||Low fertility rate, high mortality rate, high abortion rate, immigrant migration|
|ウクライナ||2014||43,001,000||0.625||Birth rate decline, high mortality rate, similar to Russia|
Causal relationship with the economy
There is an opinion that economic growth will decrease as the population decreases.
Japan's labor force has been declining since 1999, but there is no fact that its growth rate has dropped significantly... Russia's population has been declining for more than 1992 years since peaking in 10, but it continues to grow at a higher rate than Japan... In Russia, the population of more than 1995 people has been declining almost every year since 80, but until 1999-2008GDPContinues to grow at an average of 6.75%.
OECDAccording to the statistics, the rate of population growth and the rate of productivity growth are clearly inversely proportional. In other words, if the population decreases, labor productivity will increase.. Per capita GDP tends to increase in smaller populations.. If the amount of capital is constant, the smaller the number of people, the larger the capital used by one person, and the higher the production per person... Declining population means fewer producers while fewer consumers. If it decreases at the same rate, there will be no change in per capita affluence. The economic power of the whole country becomes smaller.
Declining population will reduce domestic consumption and reduce the labor force.. A declining population is a society in which the working-age population is declining, but for this reason more people need to work.
If the environment where women and the elderly can work is prepared, it can be dealt with, so the labor problem will not become serious unless an extreme population decline occurs... The issue of population decline is only after women and the elderly have fully achieved social participation..
Regarding the impact of the declining birthrate and aging population, the higher the age, the higher the ratio of income to consumption, which leads to a decrease in the household savings rate. While reducing education spending (increasing elderly population) will increase demand for entertainment, potentially creating medical and nursing-related businesses.
The housing environment will improve due to the declining population. In addition, a comfortable environment can be realized if the number of green spaces and parks increases... Housing conditions will improve and commuting congestion and traffic congestion will be alleviated.
The reason that this word has become widely used in Japan is 2005(17)12To the preliminary population, which is the first aggregated result of the “17 Census”Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics BureauIt was from the time it was announced. Among them, the Bureau of Statistics said, "It seems that Japan's population is entering a declining phase, with a decrease of 1 compared to the estimated population a year ago," and attracted social attention... As of 2009 (Heisei 21), the Bureau of Statistics estimated that it was 2008 (Heisei 20) when it actually entered the phase of population decline..
Before and after the first announcement of "population decline" by the Statistics Bureau, it was predicted that "Japan will surely become a society with a declining population in the future." Report is submitted by government office or academic conference.
AutomobileThe domestic market is shrinking due to a decrease in the number of vehicles owned. The number of new cars sold in Japan (registered cars + light cars) is 1990It peaked at 2 million units in (778) and reached a peak. 2014(26) decreased to 556 million units, and it is a general view that there are no factors to increase further in the future.. this isEco carThe spread ofLow birthrate and aging populationProblems, of the population (especiallyTokyo extreme concentration) Is a phenomenon in which elements such as are associated in a complex manner.
Accompanying the abovegasolineDue to the long-term decline in domestic demand for fuel, 2019ToIdemitsu KosanとShowa Shell Sekiyu OfManagement integrationIs done, etc.Oil wholesaleIt was argued as one of the reasons that spurred the reorganization of.
- ^ 2007 World Population Data Sheet
- ^ http://www.nsi.bg/census2011/pagebg2.php?p2=36&sp2=37&SSPP2=4 2011 National Demographic Census, Age Structure
- ^ http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Adolescents_-_Cook_Islands_statement.pdf
- ^ Croatian Bureau of Statistics Notes on methodology (Census 2011), accessed 7 July 2013
- ^ Cuban Population still on the Decrease
- ^ Rosenberg, Matt Population Decline in Russia
- ^ a b c UFJ Research Institute, Research Department, "The Japanese Economy in 50 Words", Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2005, p. 17.
- ^ Takaaki Mitsuhashi: Read the back of economic news! TAC Publishing, 2009, 68 pages.
- ^ a b Morinaga Takuro, "The 50 Great Questions of the Japanese Economy" Kodansha <Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho>, 2002, 210 pages.
- ^ Yasuyuki Iida “Introduction to the simplest economy in the world. From everyday questions to deflation” Enterbrain, 2010, 106 pages.
- ^ Yasuyuki Iida "Introduction to the simplest economy in the world Understand the economy with profits and losses! From everyday questions to deflation” Enterbrain, 2010, pp. 106-107.
- ^ Harada Yasushi, Compact Japanese Economics (Compact Economics Library), Shinseisha, 2009, p. 184.
- ^ a b Office Text, Center for Policy Economic Research, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. "Handbook of Understanding the Economy," Kanki Publishing, 2009, 224 pages.
- ^ Harada Yasushi, Compact Japanese Economics (Compact Economics Library), Shinseisha, 2009, p. 208.
- ^ Morinaga Takuro, "The 50 Great Questions of the Japanese Economy" Kodansha <Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho>, 2002, 211 pages.
- ^ Yasuyuki Iida “Introduction to the simplest economy in the world. From everyday questions to deflation” Enterbrain, 2010, p.242.
- ^ Satoshi Matsubara 『Japanese Economy (Illustrated trivia series)” Natsume, 2000, p. 176.
- ^ Daiwa Institute of Research “Latest edition: An introduction to the structure of the economy: seeing, reading, and understanding” Japan Business Publisher, 4th edition, 2002, pages 77, 86.
- ^ Aging is likely to increase inflationary pressure-I disagree with the BOJ's viewBloomberg August 2015, 2
- ^ Harada Yasushi, Compact Japanese Economics (Compact Economics Library), Shinseisha, 2009, p. 210.
- ^ a b c Statistics Bureau Home Page/Statistics Today No. 9 When is the "first year" of a declining population?
- ^ Environment in the era of depopulation 18 versionEnvironmental White Paper(Ministry of the Environment, 2006)
- ^ Rich "society" in the era of population decline -Report of the 19th Science Council of Japan Artificial/Food/Energy Special Committee (September 2005, 17)
- ^ Can immigrants maintain Japan's population of 1 million? Government debate in full swingThe Huffington Post September 2014, 2
- ^ http://kabutan.jp/news/marketnews/?b=n201502230265
- Toru Morotomi "City in the age of depopulation-to mature town development" Chuokoron-Shinsha <Chukoron-Shinsho>, 2018.
- Yamazaki Shiro "Depopulation and Social Security-Overcoming Isolation and Shrinkage" Chuokoron-Shinsha <Chukoron-Shinsho>, 2017.
- Hiroshi Yoshikawa "Population and Japanese Economy Longevity, Innovation, Economic Growth" Chuokoron-Shinsha <Chukoron-Shinsho>, 2016.
- "Land problems in the era of depopulation-" Owner unknown "and inheritance, vacant houses, whereabouts of the system" Chuokoron-Shinsha <Chukoron-Shinsho>, 2017.
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