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🏛 | "Adding XNUMX billion yen to the promotion fund" Governor visits Itsuki Village [Kumamoto]


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"Adding XNUMX billion yen to the promotion fund" Governor visits Itsuki Village [Kumamoto]

 
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"We will devote our political life to the regional development of the village," he said.
 

Governor Kabashima, who requested the government to build a "running dam" on the Kawabe River as a measure to control the Kuma River, said on the XNUMXrd that the dam has been in operation for over XNUMX years. → Continue reading

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Regional revitalization

Regional revitalizationWhat is (chiiki revitalization, regional development)?Region(Region)But,EconomyThese are activities that are carried out to (again) improve power and people's motivation, and to maintain or (again) increase the population.Regional activation,Regional promotion,Community developmentAlso called.

Overview

When expressing "community development", local residents and groups (Chamber of Commerce-Agricultural cooperative-Fishery cooperativeEtc.) tend to be emphasized. The same applies to "community development".In each case, in order to avoid the hardness of the word, except for "region" like "regional revitalization"HiraganaIt is relatively often written.The activities to form a comfortable area are sometimes called "town development", but they are often used with slightly different nuances from "regional revitalization" and "regional revitalization".

townEspecially in the case of (city)Town revitalization, "Town revitalization, "MachiokoshiAlso calledvillageIn the case of"Village revitalizationAlso called.

In English-speaking countries, it is generally expressed using terms such as "vitalization" and "revitalization".[Note 1]

History

in Japan1960 eraLaterHeavy chemical industryExcept for some areas that have succeeded in industrialization centered onRegionThen a population outflow occurred and needed a labor forceMetropolitan area(EspeciallyTokyo 23 Ward-Government-designated city-Prefectural office locationAnd nearby cities / counties)industry,populationIs concentrated and ruralCounty-Mountainous area- Remote islandAs a result, the following vicious cycle of depopulation has become serious.

  1. RuralemploymentThe absolute number of is small.Or it is decreasing.
  2. Rural youth and labor forceMetropolitan area,Prefectural office locationMove to etc.
  3. The decline of local industry in areas where youth and the working population have flowed outAgingAdvances
  4. Population outflow is accelerating, and rural areas are even moreDepopulationTo

Rural-Mountain village-fishing villageThen, due to the state of overpopulation after the war, the labor force population flowed out to urban areas.In the mountain villageFuel revolutionAlso calledfirewoodIt declined rapidly due to a sharp drop in demand and an influx of poor quality but cheap foreign timber.

But, 1973 OfOil crisisByHeavy chemical industryCentralHigh economic growthRoute and accompanyingCapital Area-Kinki area-Chukyo areaPopulation concentration in is forced to change.Japanese economyTransformed into stable growthThree major metropolitan areasThe influx of population into the area has subsided.Under these circumstancesTamanoi Yoshiro RegionalismAdvocated, followed bySekio Sugioka-Tadao KiyonariAlso published a book on regionalism.This regionalism is said to be the source of "regional revitalization" and "town development" that continue to this day.After that, regionalism became a group that preached regional economic promotion such as Tadao Kiyonari.Hisashi NakamuraThey were divided into groups that emphasized ecology.The former is mainlyProvincial cityAccepted in, the latterDeveloping countryConnected with the theory of exploring "another development" in[1].

Regionalism, which preaches the promotion of the regional economy, also affects administrative policies, and in national affairsThird National Comprehensive Development Plan( 1977start),prime minister-Masayoshi OhiraAdvocated byGarden city concept(Proposed in 1978), in rural areasGovernor of Oita Prefecture-Morihiko Hiramatsu(1979)One Village One Product MovementAnd so on. 1985IsNobuo Sasaki[Avoid ambiguity]Proposed the concept of "" and "", and said that regional revitalization could be realized by having each city and local government work hard on their policies.Around this time, the way the country directed local governments began to change, and the prime ministerNoboru TakeshitaRaised byOldness and creation businessIn (1988-1989), for the first time, each local government was given an unspecified grant.[1].

Current status

In many local citiesmotorizationProgress andShopping mallDue to the expansion of the city into the suburbs, the urban functions in the center have declined (Suburbanization,Donuts) And "Large-scale retail stores" and surrounding areasretail storeHas faced a management crisis.as a result,Shopping districtIs lonelyShutter streetThe lonely atmosphere is stuck in a vicious circle that keeps customers away.[2][3].

Even in areas that were once successful in industrialization, twiceOil crisis, RapidAppreciation of the yenAs a result, factories have been increasingly relocated outside Japan in order to reduce manufacturing costs.As a result, manufacturing know-how leaked to local foreign engineers and other Asian countries caught up, causing a hollowing out phenomenon in Japan, resulting in loss of employment and lower wages.

Due to this population decline, there was a shortage of leaders in industrial and regional activities.Furthermore, it is transmitted to the local areaTraditional crafts-traditional culture-Festival-song-danceThe shortage of leaders and successors of traditional cultural activities such as these has become prominent, and in some local cultures, even the literature is not satisfactorily preserved and inherited due to the shortage of successors.

Summary of problems and purpose of countermeasures
The following problems are occurring in combination.
  • The decline of industry.Decrease in employment
  • Outflow of population.Declining population
  • Disruption of local cultural traditions
Therefore, it is the regional revitalization that aims at any or more than one of the following things.
  • Creating and maintaining employment by rebuilding the industry
  • Stopping and recovering the outflow of youth population.Invitation of new residents.Inviting families with children
  • Securing and inheriting the bearers of local culture

main body

The main actors (planners, executors) of community building are as follows.

In addition, at the "Symposium on National Route 2011 and Route 7 Activation" held in Saiki City, Oita Prefecture on July 9, 326, "Tourism Charisma"Keiichiro Yamada[4]Is "Don't rely on the governmentIt is necessary for tourists to recognize the value of what is selected from the local lifestyle (living of local people), not the newly developed and sold "products". Is stating[5][6].

Method

The following various attempts have been made by local governments and various organizations / organizations, but there is no definitive measure that is effective everywhere.It is desirable to judge the characteristics and location of each region, the situation of population and industry, and plan and implement unique regional revitalization measures.The more you imitate other regions, the less unique the characteristics of each region, and the more similar ones, the less attractive they become.Therefore, it is necessary to identify the characteristics and true strengths of one's own region when compared with other regions.

Measures to maintain and increase the population

It is necessary to maintain or increase the population for regional development.For that purpose, it is necessary to attract people from other areas and prevent population outflow to other areas.The main measures to maintain and increase the population are as follows.[7](Some overlap with those in other sections)

  1. Promotion and support for emigration to the local government(For exampleU-turn-J-turn-I-turnPromotion of emigration in
  2. Municipal PR(For exampleインターネットInformation dissemination in, advertisement in I-turn U-turn promotion magazine,CM,characterEtc. usingIt is usually ineffective to do so-called "government work" simply formally, and how many people actually receive messages and information (reach number), like private companies, how many people It will not work unless you grasp the response (number of responses), the content of the viewer's mental reaction and the change in attitude, etc., and rigorously examine and judge the advertising effect and accumulate ingenuity. .. )
  3. Housing support(For exampleA vacant house-Public housingOffer,rentSubsidySuch)
  4. Securing employment(For example, attracting companies, creating new industries, etc.)
  5. marriagesupport(For example, meeting young people,matchmakerService etc.)
  6. Financial support for child-rearing households(For exampleLump-sum birth allowanceAddition etc.)
  7. Enrichment of child-rearing environment(For exampleNurseryMaintenance etc.)
  8. Enhancement of school facilities and educational environment
  9. infrastructureMaintenance(For exampleCommunity bus·road·SewerMaintenance)
  10. Compact cityPromotion of(Facilities, residences, etc. should be consolidated rather than dispersed)

However, it is more difficult for local governments with a rapidly declining population to select first-aid migration measures such as rent subsidies and to implement settlement promotion measures such as improving the child-rearing environment.Financial support is unknown as a temporary and sustainable settlement measure that is effective in attracting the younger generation.Excessive financial support may worsen the finances of local governments and rather accelerate the weakening of the region.In addition, if the call for migration becomes overheated and local governments compete for population, there is concern that small-scale local governments will become even more exhausted.Therefore, it is necessary to verify cost effectiveness from various aspects and take measures that suit the actual situation.[7].

Promotion of industry

  • localFishery:-Agriculture:Promotion of
  • (Agricultural area)cropsQuality improvement / standard formulation /Regional brandsAnd its public relations.Challenge new promising crop varieties and disseminate successful varieties to farmers in the region
  • Road StationLocal agricultural products and special products for people who set up and driveDirect saleAnd lead to income of producers and employment of local people
  • Attracting companies / factories (“Presentation of some merits (land securing, tax reduction, etc.) that occur when a company expands into a rural area” and “Employment ratio of local people, request / securing / contract of quota for local quota” "Replacement" is done as a set. Just having them come does not necessarily lead to the employment of local people.)
  • Tourism resourcesExcavation / creation / reexamination (Later)

Tourism

By tourismtourismWhen (etc.) becomes popular,Retail trade-Wholesale tradeThe economic effect will spread to such areas, and the economy in the region will become active.Therefore, tourism promotion leads to revitalization of the local economy.[8].

For local residents, "natural" and "nothing" (mountains, sea, water, rural scenery, terraced rice fields, snowfields, starry sky, natural environment in general, etc.)Tourism resourcesIt may become.For example, everyone has long known that the beautiful sea will be a first-class tourist resource, and there are many tourist destinations all over Japan that attract people by making the sea an appealing point. HokkaidoNisekoIs characterized by a large amount of high-quality snow, which was commonplace for locals, but for people in other regions, the snow is attractive.オーストラリアEven skiers in Japan have come all the way to Niseko on an airplane.In addition, most of the people in hot countries and countries where it does not snow at all say, "I have never experienced real snow in my life," "I want to put myself in a snowy world." "Snow." There are many people who have a desire to "want to touch" and "want to play in the snowy fields", and like Hokkaido, actively visit (for sightseeing) not only in Hokkaido but also in other snowy areas in Japan. The number of visitors is quite large (for example)Malaysia,フィリピン,Taiwan And so on, people willingly visit and drop money in the meantime).

In addition, former travelers were pleased to see famous historical buildings and characteristic scenery (as an unrelated person outside), but in recent years they have not been satisfied with the superficial visits and traveled. An increasing proportion of people prefer to travel to become a "part of their life" by interacting with people first, observing and actually experiencing the lifestyles of local people. ..Therefore"Agricultural experience course""Fishery experience courseThere is also a method of providing

Food that locals have casually eaten since childhood (local daily mealshome cooking-local cuisine), In a form that people in other regions would like to eat, and if it is well publicized and made known to many people, it may be on a commercial basis.

For the purpose of regional revitalizationClass B gourmetSuch asSpecialtyThere is also a method of creating an event.There are various methods and results[9].

If all goes well, it will be talked about in the media, but it may be buried by imitation by other areas, and the effect may be diminished in the long run (especially "local characters" are too crowded and become too crowded. The effect has decreased sharply. Even if it is made later, it has almost no effect.)Therefore, for medium- to long-term regional development, it is necessary to find out the "real strengths" and "true strengths" of the region, rather than relying on "something that is perfect".

In areas where animal damage is serious, natural animals infest forests and satoyama, so take advantage of it.Deer,boarSell ​​meat (so-calledJibieThere is a method of selling as (WakayamaSuch)[10]..Also, in areas where the wind blows through,Wind power generator(Large wind farm-Wind farm) Can be set up to provide a significant proportion of the electricity required for the area as an economic strength of the area, or to do so.For example, in HokkaidoWakkanaiからRumoi CityUp to aroundSea of ​​JapanHundreds of kilometers of road facing the side),Erimo Town(Cape Erimo), Chiba prefectureChoshiWind power generators are lined up in windy areas, such as on hills along the coast of Japan, to generate electricity that is useful to the region.In addition, the scenery of many wind power generators is impressive, and it becomes a kind of tourism resource, and tourists come to visit for it.

Box administration system

Box administrationThis means that local governments in Japan will build public facilities (= boxes) such as museums.

  • “Maintenance of centerpiece facilities”- Museum-博物馆・ Wasteful construction of sports parks, etc. (“Boxes” have a history of being crowded with similar things in each area, and have a relatively weak ability to attract people. Also, every year after construction (administrator) Labor costs, building repair costs, etc.)deficitIt is easy to become.Therefore, it is one of the factors of regional decline. )
  • Urban developmentRedevelopment(Between the construction contractor and the leading local lawmakers, assistants, mayors, etc.bribeIs a hotbed of exchanges)
  • Exchange with sister cities and areas of the same name
  • Development of information infrastructure (Information gapDecrease)
  • Development of transportation infrastructure
    • Railways that are in danger of being abolished due to reduced useTransit BusSubsidy for operating expenses and vehicle purchase expenses,Community busOperation, distribution of taxi use subsidies.
    • Distribution of bus maps (listing route maps, timetables, riding methods, and facilities that can be reached by bus).Riding class ・ Implementation of free operating days and distribution of trial tickets.A timetable organization that shortens the connecting time to the railway as much as possible.Providing a bus location system (driving position information).Students / elderly / disabled /Driver's licenseIssuance of a discounted commuter pass for returnees.Introduction of environmental commuter pass system.Usage promotion measures such as the sale of discount tickets that are bundled with tourist facility admission fees
    • Relocation and consolidation of public facilities to railway stations, waiting rooms, waiting roomsPark and rideMaintenance of parking lot

If you jump into a specific field or area by taking the promotion measures of central government ministries such as the former "new industrial city", "resort development", "new media", most of them will fail.In many successful cases, we are blessed with location, historical background, leaders who promoted it, cooperation of related organizations, organization, etc., and if we just imitate the successful cases without considering such factors, the regional color will come out. It ends in failure.

Other

SAR
2002ToAdministrative reformAllows some relaxation of traditional legislationSpecial area for structural reformSince it became possible to enact, various "special zones" are being created all over the country, and various activities within these special zones are expected to promote the region.
MoreSpecial area for structural reformchecking ...
Regional brandsChemical
Regional collective trademark(Regional brand) 2006April revisionTrademark lawAs the requirements have been relaxed, "regional revitalization" by regional brands is drawing attention.In these, the name that was conventionally used as a general name for local products is "商標By saying, there is also the exclusivity that the same name cannot be used for similar products manufactured in other regions, and there are expectations for the development of local industries by eliminating similar products.
Wikipedia town
Since 2012, local governments, residents and volunteers will actively promote famous places and facilities in the city.Wikipedia There is also a movement to promote the region by making articles and enriching the above.[11].

Example of regional promotion

Japan national scale

What was done in some local governments

Overseas example

Book city
From the following two successful cases, there were many cases of making a "book town" by second brewing.
art
  • Nantes ――Originally, it was crowded with the slave trade at the knees of the Duchy of Brittany, but it has been sluggish since the 20th century.It held events as an art town, and in 2004 won the first place in "Europe's most livable city".

Regional promotion theory

Pointed out by Kosuke Motani

Kosuke MotaniPointed out in "Nippon's Regional Power" (Nikkei Publishing, September 2007) as follows.

The following are words that are often said when talking about community building, and in some cases they were blessed with conditions and succeeded.However, if you just imitate a successful case on the surface without grasping the actual situation and revitalize the area by being caught up in stereotypes, the area may decline due to a mistake in the policy.Add an "x" (cross) to clearly indicate that the stereotype is wrong.

  • "If famous stores are concentrated in the prefectural capital and ordinance-designated cities, other cities, towns and villages will be stimulated and activated."
  • "If you attract tourists to the resort area, the area will be activated." ×
  • "Increase the number of hotels where tourists can stay." ×
  • "If roads, railroads, and airports are built and transportation is convenient, the area will be enriched." × (Straw effect).
  • "Pachinko parlors,ArcadeIf you create entertainment facilities such as, young people will gather. "× (On the other hand,SecurityMay worsen, people who hate it flee, and population outflow accelerates.There are many local governments that are negative about opening stores in consideration of security).
  • "If you attract a factory, people (workers) will gather and the shopping district will be activated." × (Lunch etc. can be done at the cafeteria in the factory or with a lunch box, and shopping at the local shopping district with a poor selection. I don't, so after all, almost no money goes to the local shopping district)
  • "If you increase the number of condominiums and apartments, the population will increase." × 
  • "regionalManufacturing industryIf is activated, employment will increase. × (In many cases, even if a region where the manufacturing industry is not strong originally tries to imitate other success stories and puts effort into the manufacturing industry, it does not go well. Also, Japanese manufacturing industry / export There is also the aspect that when the entire industry is sinking, there is not much effect in that field. In addition, areas where nature is attractive inadvertently attract manufacturing factories to destroy nature or cause pollution. If this happens, the attractiveness of tourism will decrease sharply, the employment of the original tourism industry will decrease, and the total number of employment may rather decrease. It is necessary to find out the true strengths of the region and calmly estimate the effect of each option (rather than the exaggerated effect estimation that is common in the government).

Skepticism about "successful examples of regional development"

It has been pointed out that some of the "successful examples of regional development" have not actually been successful.

Pointed out by Tetsunosuke Hisashige

Tetsunosuke Hisashige"Most of the success stories recommended by experts are actually unsuccessful." "The rare'real success'isForeign countryIt's an old story, and it's extremely difficult to imitate. "

Pointed out by Kei Hasegawa

He pointed out that some local governments, which were once regarded as successful examples, have been attracting attention nationwide and have been unable to withdraw later, and even though they have not actually been activated, they are promoting by investing public funds.

Pointed out by Torahiko Ichikawa

Based on these discussions, reconsidered regional revitalization from the perspective of population and employment (Later)[12].

Kinoshita Hitoshi's point

Town business entrepreneurHitoshi KinoshitaHowever, it takes the position that some of the "success cases" have virtually failed (relying on the financial support of local governments).In addition, it is said that a "chain of failures at the national level" will occur if multiple regions imitate the failure cases assuming that they are successful.[13].

Pointed out by Torahiko Ichikawa. (+ Analysis limited to Nanyo region)

SociologistTorahiko Ichikawa has questioned the existing report that he has succeeded in revitalizing the area, and Ehime Prefecture has a rapidly declining population.Nanyo districtWe examined the population transition and the rise and fall of industry in the local governments from 1960 to 2010.As a result, the population is declining even in the cities, towns and villages that are said to have succeeded in revitalizing the region, and conversely, the name cannot be raised as a "successful example of revitalizing the region".Ozu City-Minamiuwa-gunSaid that he had been successful in maintaining the population for a while.The reason why other local governments with a rapidly declining population, not Ozu City, were regarded as "successful examples of regional development"Kenichi MiyamotoCriticism andConsultantIt was speculated that the cause was that the cases in the areas where they could intervene (advice / guidance) were actively (intentionally and arbitrarily) taken up.[12].

In addition, Torahiko Ichikawa has something in common in the Nanyo region where the population has increased, such as attracting factories.Fishery:He said that he increased employment through promotion (I analyzed only the Nanyo region, but at once I made a leap in logic to the general theory of Japan) "New to regional development.industryIs indispensable. "[12].

Works dealing with community building

Novel
Comic
Anime
  • "Sakura Quest(Broadcast from April to September 2017) --Animated works with the theme of regional revitalization.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ As a general concept, it may be called "community vitalization", but eachBoard(Municipalities, Town, village) often use the name as "~ vitalization", "~ town vitalization", "~ village vitalization".In addition, it should be notedAmericaThen (Japan(There are some differences in the situation.) Partial devastation in urban areas tends to cause various problems, and "downtown vitalization" Downtown"Activation of (city center)" is often talked about.
  1. ^ a b Pit of community development theory: From the logic of regional independence to the logic of competition between local governments"Matsuyama University Ronshu" 2001 Vol. 13, No. 1, p.157-175, NOT 110004687356, Matsuyama University
  2. ^ A new tourist attraction that shines in a depopulated area Nihon Keizai Shimbun "The land subsidence does not stop in the central area of ​​a local city."
  3. ^ The city changes and the community decreases "Depopulation, declining birthrate and aging population, and urban donut phenomenon"
  4. ^ Interview with the top of the inbound industry Tourism charisma Keiichiro Yamada
  5. ^ "Symposium on National Route 0982/XNUMX Revitalization" XNUMX.tv Article(Retrieved September 2011, 12)
  6. ^ In addition, although it is a reference to a specific area, Yamada (at the same symposium)Higashikyushu ExpresswayIs opened,National Route 326-National Route 10Along the lineSaiki City-Bungo Ono City-NobeokaThere is a concern that tourists will only be sucked up if the local residents do nothing), "The area already has sufficient materials and value (Tourism resources), And it is important for the residents to recognize its value and subdivide and take in customers. "(Source:"Activation cooperation is the key-Higashikyushu Expressway opening symposium" Evening Daily Web Headline News)
  7. ^ a b "Regional Revitalization-The Chief's Judgment on Government Strategy ③』(Japan Research Institute, 2015)
  8. ^ Examination of spillover effect analysis method for tourism industry on regional economy and survey on regional story making(Japan Transportation Corporation, 2015)
  9. ^ Tokyo Hachioji City Necessity of town revitalization by "food" (Hachioji RamenIs being used)
  10. ^ [pref.wakayama.lg.jp/prefg/070400/zibiedetiikiokoshi.html] [1]
  11. ^ "System of local governments of each countryWikipedia, which celebrated its 15th anniversary, may play a leading role in regional development. 2016/10/8Browse.
  12. ^ a b c Torahiko Ichikawa, "Rethinking "Regional Revitalization": From the perspective of population and employment"Matsuyama University Ronshu" 2013 Vol. 25, No. 5, p.45-67, Matsuyama University
  13. ^ "System of local governments in each country Five points to identify fake government-made success stories”. Toyo Keizai Online (May 2015, 4). 2016/10/14Browse.
  14. ^ "Inside the bestseller"Nihon Keizai Shimbun2014/2/5Evening paper11 sides

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