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Less than,Local government lawOnly the title of the article is described.
In Japan, the name "governor" used to beNara period OfChita Government AffairsThere are examples such as. In this case, a Chinese (Chinese) style name was used, in which the name of the official position that the appointee should rule (to know) is sandwiched between "knowledge" and "thing".
As a name for modern local officialsRoyal reconstructionAfter 1868(Keio4 years) Leap issued in AprilPoliticsInGovernor-Prefectural affairsWas first provided. As a result, the oldShogunate-Flag bookTerritoryBoshin WarInSamuraiPrefectural governments were set up in order of requisition from the clan, and governors and prefectural governors were appointed. Also, 1869(Meiji2) FebruaryRedemptionAfter that, all over the countryClanRulePrinces(OldDaming)GovernorAppointed to. For any of the "chief governor", "chiken prefectural governor", and "chief domain governor", especially when the place of appointment is preceded, "Governor of Tokyo","Governor of Kanagawa Prefecture, "", Etc. (however, ""Musashichi Prefectural GovernmentThere are many names such as ").
1871(Meiji 4 Year) MayAbandoned DomainThen, in both prefectures, the local secretaryGovernorHowever, from November of the same year for the prefecture 1886Until (Meiji 19)Prefectural orderWas called. After 1886 (Meiji 19) againGovernor-Prefectural governorIt became the name of and continues to the present. on the other hand,HokkaidoLocal SecretarySecretary of the Hokkaido Agency(1886 (Meiji 19)- 1947(Showa22 years)),InlandTransferredKarafutoLocal SecretaryMr. Karafuto( 1907(Meiji 40) -1947 (Showa 22)),TokyoLocal SecretarySecretary of Tokyo( 1943(Showa 18) ―― 1947 (Showa 22)) was called.
In the early governor / prefectural ordinance,Hita PrefectureGovernorMasayoshi Matsukata,HyogoGovernorIto Hirobumi,KanagawaGovernor (decree)Mutsumitsu Mutsu(Hyogo prefectural governor also served) and laterelder statesmanIncluding people calledFeudal clanMany people of the system were appointed. afterwards,Political partyWas looking for a partnership withThe 2nd Hirobumi Ito CabinetLate to firstPolitical party cabinetIsThe 1st Okuma Shigenobu CabinetIn the case of (Kumaban Cabinet), political party members were appointed as governors. 1899(32th year of Meiji),2nd Yamagata Aritomo CabinetByCivilian appointment orderWas revised and the governorPolitical appointmentpostExcluded from political parties and excludedInternal affairsBureaucrats were appointed and became one of the ministry's career advancement courses.TaishoからShowaOver timeHigher civilian examinationSince 30 to 40 people were hired every year, there are 47 prefectural governor posts, so it was set as the highest post that any of them could reach..
However, the personnel affairs have not been completely completed within the ministry,The 1st Saionji Kinmochi Cabinet-The 2st Saionji Kinmochi CabinetIn the ageTakashi HaraInterior MinisterUnderConstitutional societySince the influence of (Seiyukai) became strongerTwo major partiesbyRegime changeWas seenTaishoFrom the second halfShowaIn the early political party cabinet period, the interior bureaucrats were also the Seiyukai and the other major party.Constitutional society-Constitutional political partyIt was divided into each line of (People's Party), which was reflected in it.
Prefecture systemThe governor below was in charge of the general administration of the country within the area of the prefecture under the jurisdiction of the local minister, and the minister of the interior was shangguan. However, the governor's jurisdiction is wide and extends to the jurisdiction of each ministry other than the Ministry of Interior, so in terms of operationPrime MinisterAnd each of the ministers of each ministry held the position of senior government agency for the governor. At the same time the governorMunicipalitiesIt is also the head of the prefecture and a voting body.Prefectural assemblyandPrefectural councilBased on the vote ofOrdinanceEtc. were executed. While the scope of voting rights of the prefectural assembly and the prefectural council was limited, the governor had a unilateral right to convene the prefectural assembly, and the governor's authority over the voting body was powerful. The term of office of the governor is generally short, including the time when the political appointment was made, and it is common for the governor to be replaced in about one and a half to two years. Repeated. The prefectural governorRoyal officerHowever (including the Governor of Tokyo), the Secretary of Tokyo has a higher status than that.ShinninkanWas said.
After World War II,Under occupationAs part of the "occupation policy" in 1946(Showa 21) Prefectural system and prefectural system in SeptemberTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentHas been revised ("prefectural system" has been renamed to "prefectural system"), so-called so-calledElectionThe local secretary (prefectural governor, Hokkaido agency secretary, Tokyo metropolitan secretary) was voted directly by the residents.electionToPublic election systemWas introduced. 1947(Showa 22)The Constitution of JapanThe first governor's election held in April of the same year before the enforcement was this revised prefectural system andTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentIs due to[Note 1].5/3, With the Constitution of JapanLocal government lawWhen the law is enforced, the local minister elected in April will be subject to the Local Autonomy Law.Prefectural governorMoved to.
Status and duties
The prefectural governor controls and represents the prefectural government (Article 147）Sole system OfEnforcement agencyAndLocal Civil Service ActNot applicableSpecial occupation OfLocal civil servant.
Under the Constitution of Japan, he is the "head of a local public body",Voting bodyIsLocal councilOf the inhabitants, as well as the members of the DietDirect electionWill be elected by. Therefore, the governor and parliament are on an equal footing.
Right to vote
Those who meet all of the following requirements have the right to be elected by the prefectural governor (Article 19(Item 2).
- Japanese people
- 30 years old or older
Regarding the eligibility for election of the prefectural governor,Local council OfMemberUnlike that of, having an address in the prefecture is not a requirement. This is to seek a wide range of talented human resources from people other than the residents of the ordinary local public bodies. (In addition,MayorSimilarly, it is not required to have an address in the relevant municipality)
Term is 4 years (Article 140). The term of office of the head of a local public body is calculated from the day of the election (Public Offices Election Law, Article 259, text). However, if the election due to the expiration of the term of office is held before the expiration date of the term of office of the head of the local public body, and if the predecessor head is in office until the expiration date of the term of office, the election will start from the day after the expiration date of the term of office of the predecessor. If the predecessor's head is missing after the deadline, the calculation will be made from the day following the missing date (Article 259 proviso of the Public Offices Election Act). When a person who has offered to retire from the position of head of a local public body is elected in the election of the head of a local public body notified by the petition for retirement, the term of office of that person shall be applicable. The provisions of Article 259 of the Public Offices Election Act shall be applied assuming that there was no election announced due to the petition for retirement and the petition for retirement (Article 259-2 of the Public Offices Election Act).
No concurrent positions
The prefectural governorMember of the House of RepresentativesOrMember of the House of CouncilorsCan not be combined with. In addition, it cannot serve as a member of the parliament of a local public body, a full-time employee, or a short-time employee (Article 141).
Therefore, when the governor runs for the parliamentary election, or conversely,Member of ParliamentIf he wants to run for governor, he must first resign and then run for office. If you run for a position without resigning, you will be deemed to have resigned with the notification of the candidacy.
The governorSecretary of StateAlthough there is no explicit prohibition on concurrently serving as,Cabinet"There is no explicit provision prohibiting concurrent posts. However, the Minister of State, who is in charge of national affairs as a member of the Cabinet, is required to devote himself to his duties.PrefecturesThe same applies to the governor who governs and represents this. In view of the seriousness of these responsibilities, it is unthinkable to appoint a person who is actually the prefectural governor as the Minister of State. ".
No side business
The prefectural governor
- Unlimited liability employees of corporations who mainly perform the same actions,A director,Executive officerOrAuditorOr those who should be equivalent to these, managers and liquidators
Can't beat (Article 142).
However, for corporations, those in which the ordinary local government invests more than half of the capital are excluded.
This is because some corporations that have a contracting relationship with a local public body are established mainly by the local public body, and the business that the local public body originally conducts is operated on behalf of the local public body. It is recognized in light of the fact that there is something that is being done.
In such a case, it is considered that the external credibility of the corporation can be enhanced by appointing the governor as a representative, etc. ・ The intention of the local public body can be more reflected in the corporation. ..
Strength of authority
The Local Autonomy Law is a semi-presidential system (Presidential system) Is adopted, and the relationship between the governor and the prefectural assembly is also under the presidential system.PresidentAlthough it is similar to the authority of the parliament, some parliamentary cabinet systems such as the vote of no confidence in the governor by the parliament (Article 178), the right to dissolve the parliament by the governor (paragraph 1 of the same article) and the right to propose bills (Article 149, item 1) Elements can also be seen.
The characteristic authorities are as follows.
- Authority to dissolve parliament
- If the parliament voted for the governor's distrust and if it can be deemed to have voted for distrust, he has the authority to dissolve the parliament within 10 days of receiving the notification..
- Veto against draft ordinance
- Has the authority to re-discuss the ordinances and budgets passed by Congress. However, if Congress re-passes with a majority of more than two-thirds, the vote will be finalized.
- Budget preparation and execution
- Has the authority to prepare a budget and submit it to Congress. Parliament has the right to increase and amend the budget, but it cannot make amendments that violate the chief's authority to submit budget proposals. In the case of the national budget, the Diet is free to make increases and decreases (however, there are no examples). In the past, I made full use of this authorityNational dam construction[Source required]Some governors have taken bold actions such as canceling large-scale expositions.
- Personnel rights
- Administrative committeeHas the authority to freely exercise the personnel rights of the staff of the governor's department, excluding staff. Some administrative committees have the right to appoint members and can exercise political influence.
- Imposition of local tax
- With a parliamentary voteMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsNew tax (with the consent ofLocal tax) Can be created. For exampleShintaro IshiharaGovernor of TokyoCreated byMieThis is the industrial waste tax of.
- Exclusive disposition authority
- Ordinances can be enacted at their own discretion, such as when it is recognized that there is not enough time to convene a parliament. However, you may have to seek approval at the next parliament.Details
- budgetPreparation and execution
- Proposal of bill
- Local taxCollection of levy, contribution, usage fee, admission fee, or fee collection,FineTo impose
- SettlementTo be accredited by the parliament of ordinary local public bodies
- Accounting supervision
- Acquisition / management / disposal of property
- Installation, management and abolition of public facilities (Article 149）
- Rule-making right (Article 15(Item 1)
- Command and supervision of staff as an auxiliary organization (Article 154）
- Command and supervision authority for public organizations, etc. within the area of the ordinary local public organization (Article 157）
- Establishment authority for branch offices / regional offices, public health centers / police stations and other administrative agencies, and other necessary internal organizations
- Comprehensive coordination rights regarding the organization
It should be noted that the execution of the affairs of ordinary local public bodies generally belongs to the authority of the chief (Article 149From No. 9), it is presumed that the authority of the chief is other than the affairs that clearly belong to the authority of other executive organs.
About institutional delegation work
Traditionally the governorCountry OfAdministrative agencyExecution of national affairs under the direction and supervision of the competent ministerAgency delegationThere was a system called 2000(Heisei12 years)4/1EnforcementLocal decentralization lawAbolished by, most of themSelf-governmentas well as the Legal outsourcingIt became.
An award given in the name of each prefectural governor. For the top prizewinners of cultural competitions held nationwide or on a prefectural scale, and for those who have made outstanding achievements in each prefectureGovernor AwardHas been presented. Also, for those who have made outstanding achievements in their studies or club activities while attending school at a specific high school graduation ceremony.Governor AwardMay be given.
The current tendency of the governor is that the majority are from central bureaucrats and prefectural government officials (even if the final history is executives related to foundations and incorporated associations, there are many cases where they were central bureaucrats before that). The next most common are members of the Diet, members of the prefectural assembly (city council), mayors of municipalities, and the private sector (employeeからtalentUp to).
From the central government office
The fact that there are many people from the central government office can be expected to attract large public works projects by emphasizing the "thick pipe with the central government office and locally elected politicians", so while local business circles and construction companies are welcome, some There are criticisms from the media that "it tends to be a coalition of politics, government, and business" and "it is easy to be controlled by the central government office and it is far from true local autonomy." However, not all of them are of this type, even if they are from central government offices.Iwate OfHiroya Masuda(Ministry of Construction) AndTottori OfYoshihiro Katayama(Ministry of Home Affairs) As a reformist, and later as a private ministerMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThere are not a few governors who take office.
Talent / cultural person
In recent yearsentertaineretc"Talent politicianHe has participated in many governor elections, and in many cases he becomes a prefectural governor. 1995(7)TokyoでAoshima Yukio,OsakaでYokoyama knockWas elected one after another, causing a kind of "talent governor" boom. After that, no experience in national affairsYasuo Tanaka(Nagano),Hideo Higashikunihara(Miyazaki),Tohashi Hashishita(Osaka),Yuji Kuroiwa(Kanagawa),Santanen(KagoshimaIt can be said that it is now firmly established that celebrities such as talents and cultural figures are elected governors. From Qingdao in TokyoShintaro IshiharaThroughNaoki InoseUntil then, a governor from a writer has been born for three consecutive generations.
Relationship with official recognition of national political parties
Governor Qingdao and Governor Yokoyama mentioned abovePolitical partyNot officially recognized or supported by the so-called "IndependenceBeing the governor,55 yearsIn recent years, it is rare for a national political party to be officially recognized because the ties between the national political party and the local parliamentary group are weakening due to the reorganization of the political world due to the collapse of the government. However, of the political partyParty memberBut in the electionIndependentThere are not a few people who were elected as. None of the incumbent governors have been officially recognized by the national political party and won the governor's election.Regional partyEven if you include "other political groups" such asYoshimura Hirofumi(Osaka Restoration SocietyOfficial) only[Note 2].. The most recent example of the election of a certified person by a national political party is 2007(19), Gunma PrefectureMasaaki Osawa(LDP(Official) and he 1996Re-elected in the Toyama prefectural governor's election (8)Yutaka NakaokiIt became the first public recognition in 11 years since then (Osawa changed to independent at the time of re-election in 2011 (Heisei 23)). However, there are many cases in which political parties support in the form of "recommendation" or "support" rather than official recognition during elections. Even so, in order to attract non-partisan groups, even if there is recommendation and support from a political party, it is relatively common to dilute the political party and fight for elections.
On the other hand, since around 2010, the governorGovernment-designated cityThere are examples of the mayor launching a local political party to incorporate prefectural councils that support their policies and to propose new candidates for parliamentary elections (representative example: Osaka Governor Toru Hashimoto and the prefectural assembly). Launched by lawmakersOsaka Restoration Society, Mayor of NagoyaTakashi KawamuraLaunchedTax reduction Japan). In such a tide,2011 Osaka Governor ElectionThen, officially recognized by the Osaka Restoration AssociationIchiro MatsuiDefeated the candidate supported by the national political party, and since then 2015と 2019In the election of the same party, the official candidates of the party will be repeatedly elected, and there are situations where the national political parties are at the mercy of the momentum of the local political parties.
47 out of 46 incumbent governorsUniversityOr you are enrolled in a higher educational institution (Ministry of educationNot jurisdictionNational Defense AcademyAnd universities outside Japan), among themTokyo UniversityThe majority are from the University of Tokyo (especially the governors of Western Japan are from the University of Tokyo). By faculty, the majority are from the Faculty of Law. Okinawa prefectureTamaki DennyIs the only incumbent with a final academic backgroundVocational schoolI'm a graduate.
In the prewar era of government elections, there were cases where he served as governor in multiple prefectures, and there were cases where a person who had experience as a governor of government elections was elected as a governor of another prefecture after the war. Under the public election system, there are cases where experienced prefectural governors ran for governor elections in other prefectures, but as of 2017, there were no cases of winning.[Note 3].
Another example of a post-war publicly elected governor who once left the governor and was appointed as another person, but was elected and reappointed in the subsequent governor election.Shigeo Kitano(Gunma Prefecture)Kazuharu KawamuraThere are two cases (Kochi Prefecture).
Most elected governor
- Nakanishi YoichiIshikawa Governor
- Ryzo OkudaGovernor of Nara
- In the incumbentMasanori Tanimoto7 elections by Governor Ishikawa (as of September 2020)
Longest incumbent governor
31 年 間
- Yoichi Nakanishi Governor of Ishikawa Prefecture
- In his current position, Masanori Tanimoto, Governor of Ishikawa Prefecture ( 19943/27 -, As of September 2020)
Shortest incumbent governor
* Does not include the incumbent governor.
- Kuro KanoGovernor of Chiba Prefecture (for 111 days, due to death)
- Tetsuji TateGovernor of Toyama Prefecture (resigned for 211 days (Banishment of public office) By)
- Tadashi OhtaGovernor of Tokushima Prefecture (for 338 days, due to a vote of no confidence in the election due to a vote of no confidence and loss of employment)
- Naoki InoseGovernor of Tokyo (for 372 days, due to resignation (other than expulsion of public office))
The oldest incumbent governor
- 88 years old:Kamon MutoGovernor of Gifu Prefecture
- In the incumbentHirose KatsadaGovernor of Oita ( 19426/25Born, 2019 years old as of April 4, 10)
Youngest inaugurated publicly elected governor
- 35 years and 5 months:Toshifumi TanakaHokkaidoGovernor (ElectionBorn August 1844, 8, at the time of inauguration, July 20, 1869, 7 years old, 28th generationGovernor of HyogoWas appointed toMutsumitsu Mutsu）
- In the incumbentSuzuki HidetakaMieGovernor ( 19748/15Born, 2011 years and 4 months when he took office on April 21, 36)
Governor with kinship
- father·Amano HisaGovernor of Yamanashi Prefecture, childAmano KenGovernor of Yamanashi Prefecture (2nd generation father and son, with a 24-year blank period)
- grandfather·Hiroo OharaGovernor of Hiroshima Prefecture, grandsonFujita YuzanGovernor of Hiroshima (Ohara's daughter is Fujita's mother, there is a 31-year blank period)
- grandfather·Taketsugu TakatsujiGovernor of Toyama Prefecture, grandsonTakahashi HarumiGovernor of Hokkaido,Hachiro NittaGovernor of Toyama Prefecture (Takatsuji's daughter has a gap of 47 years with Takahashi and Nitta's mother, Takahashi, and Nitta has a blank period of 64 years)
List of incumbent prefectural governors
- ^ In addition, the Ministry of Home Affairs has expressed the view that it is not desirable for the local secretary of the government election to run for the public election while still in office, so some of the local secretaries of the government election will resign once and face the first governor's election. There was a person. In addition, there were a number of people who resigned from the local minister and turned to national affairs. 1947(Showa 22) From March to April, the local ministers were replaced, and the "last local ministers (governor elected)" who had been in office for 3 to 4 days were born one after another.
- ^ However, the Osaka Restoration Association is a national political party.Japan Restoration PartyAlso serves as the general branch of Osaka Prefecture.
- ^ As an example,Tokyo Governor ElectionToSakamoto Masaru(Hyogo prefecture),Hosokawa Goki(Kumamoto Prefecture),Asano Shiro(Miyagi Prefecture),Hiroya Masuda(Iwate Prefecture),Matsuzawa Shigefumi(Kanagawa Prefecture),Hideo HigashikuniharaThere are cases in which experienced governors of other prefectures, such as (Miyazaki Prefecture), have run for office, but all have been rejected.
- ^ Takahisa Furukawa"Parliament and Administration in the Middle Showa War" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2005), P196
- ^ Question on whether or not the prefectural governor and the minister of state can serve concurrently
- ^ Satoshi Arai, a member of the House of Representatives, submitted an answer to the question regarding whether or not the prefectural governor and the minister of state can serve concurrently.
- ^ Yoichi Ohashi "Administrative Law Modern Administrative Process Theory [2nd Edition]" (Yuhikaku, 2004), P226
- ^ According to Article 177, Paragraph 1 and Article 2, Paragraph 177 of the Local Autonomy Law, the parliament has deleted or deleted "expenses necessary for emergency or restoration facilities due to an emergency disaster or expenses necessary for preventing infectious diseases". When a vote is made to reduce the amount, the governor must indicate the reason and submit it to the reconsideration, and if the parliament decides to delete or reduce the expense even after the reconsideration, the governor is local autonomy. According to Article 4, Paragraph 10 of the Act, the vote can be regarded as a distrusted vote. If it is deemed to be a vote of distrust, the governor will dissolve the parliament within XNUMX days after receiving the budget from the parliament. Nori ”Daiichi Hoki Shuppan p280). The exercise of the right to dissolve the parliament by the governor who does not meet the requirements is invalid (Sendai High Court decision on October 23, 10 ("Local Assembly Member Encyclopedia" p25)), and the Cabinet can voluntarily dissolve the House of Representatives. Unlike, the governor cannot voluntarily dissolve the parliament.
- National Governors' Association
- Vice Governor (Japan)
- Multiple selection
- List of ordinance-designated city mayors
- Deposit money
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