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responsibility(Cough,British: responsibility / liability) Originally means to respond to something, a state of responding to something, and the action of a person自由If the actor is believed to be the cause of what is likely to happen or has already happened, then the person may be concerned with the act itself or the consequences of the act.LawResponsible, ormoralResponsible.When something happens, respond and deal with itobligationThing.
Responsibility (English: responsibility, French: responsabilité), which is used in the present and modern times, can be traced back to its origin.LatinIt comes from "respondere" (answer, reply/respond, respond in English), and in the form of -ity, it means to respond to something and to be able to respond. The word respondere in ancient Roman times meant explaining or justifying one's actions in court.
It is said that a person (for example, Mr. A) is responsible for certain actions/results, which means that there is a choice for Mr. A himself (that is, freedom in philosophical terms). It is determined to be based on the will). Responsibility and freedom always exist at the same time and cannot be separated. It is said that there is no responsibility where there is no freedom, and no freedom where there is no responsibility.
The concept of responsibility means being able to do other things, or at least to do what they want to do.Free willIt is based on the concept of. Therefore, the concept of responsibility has traditionally beenFree willIt has also been linked to the concept of.
From a near-contemporary perspective on responsibility, there is a mindset and a person's conduct.
In modern society, when each person exercises some freedom and chooses an action, he/she must recognize and be aware that he/she has a responsibility according to that freedom. However, since it is said that it is not necessary to acknowledge anything other than the responsibility according to that freedom, it is often vague that how much was free, what was selectable, and what was forced. It may be a cause.
Also, the concept of responsibility applies not only to what has been done, but to what should have been done but not done.
And in general, the responsibility isCauseIs a concept that is distinguished from. Just because B is the cause of A does not conclude that B should assume A's responsibility.
The feeling of responsibility to fulfill responsibility for one's work or actions is called a sense of responsibility.. Not being responsible or not being aware of responsibility is called irresponsible.. It is called "irresponsible system" that the state that does not try to fulfill the responsibility is created collectively and systematically.
To impose the responsibility that one should bear on another person or to blame another person is called “responsibility transfer”... Generally, in Japanese, it is called “fulfilling the responsibility” to execute the reaction/action expected by others as expected, and conversely as a result of not executing the expected reaction/action. It is called "responsibility" to get punished afterwards or to let go of command and status. The state where someone is said to have "responsibly" basically means that "it did not fulfill the responsibility it was supposed to fulfill."[Annotation 1].
Responsibility isEnglishThen responsibility,FrenchThen we call responds abilité,Imano TomonobuAccording to (1956)Greek languageThere are no words, neither the classical Latin nor the medieval Latin, responsibilitas. In English, the first publication of the literature on responsibility is1780 era.
And according to McKee On,John Stuart MillIt is in the book, but is not coined by Mill.
"Responsibility" in Mill is mostly described by the word punishability. The German words Verantwortung and Verantwortlichkeit were coined in the 19th century, and their meaning was only Zurechnung.
The presence or absence of the word forms themselves such as responsibilitas and responsibility is as described above, but when they are explained as the history of the concept regardless of the word forms, it usually goes back to a considerably old age.
Max WeberArgued responsibility in "politics as a profession" by contrasting emotional ethics with responsible ethics.
Various usages of "responsibility" in Japan
Traditionally, the concept and word "responsibility" has not been well understood in Japanese society, and it is far from the original meaning of responsibility.[Source required],obligationIf you are confused with the wordpunishmentMany people misuse it in the sense that they bear it. Alternatively, exclusivelyriskSometimes they are short-circuited only to bear (partially overlapping, but not the same concept).
In Japan, when something bad happens in a political situation, it is often the case that the person in charge takes “responsibility” by resigning his/her position/position/position.
Forcing the responsibility is called "to get hungry", but this is historicallyAccusedIt is a wording that comes from being a way to take responsibility for scandals. In the modern era, the typical action equivalent to harassment is resignation or resignation, but if you just quit and you do not explain the circumstances leading to the problem behavior to the people concerned, you will be criticized as "not fulfilling your responsibility". There is also a tendency.
On the other hand, even if (a person or a person around whom a person should be responsible for supervision) causes some kind of problem, he/she should maintain his/her current position/job status. To fulfill the responsibility)..
Responsibility isethics,Sociology,psychologyHowever, the way of understanding the legal responsibility is slightly affected by them, but it is different from the legal responsibility and needs to be clearly distinguished.
Criminal responsibility in the narrow sense,Configuration requirementsCorresponds toIllegalBeing able to blame the actor for doing such an act (responsible/possible). This is a legal criticism for the fact that the actor dared to commit an illegal act even though he could have performed another legal act (possibly another act).
The types of responsibility are:PurposelyとNegligenceThere is. The intention is that there is a possibility of another act or criticism in that he/she acts while recognizing the illegal result, and the negligence is that even if the duty of caution was exercised, the illegal result could be avoided. This is because there is a possibility of other acts and criticism in that it was not.
Even if there is willfulness or negligence, it is possible to discriminate between good and bad things and to act accordingly.AccountabilityWithout it, the responsibility is blocked (denied) and the crime does not hold. In particular,Loss of mindPerson's actions are not punished (Criminal lawArticle 39(1)),WeaknessThe penalties for acts of persons are reduced (paragraph 2 of the same article). In addition, the acts of persons under the age of 14 will not be punished (Criminal Code Article 41).
Basically myactionIt is a responsibility based on, but those who contributed to the acts of others are alsoAccompliceMay be liable for (Criminal boss,Assistant criminal,Joint offender). For those who are criminally responsible, in accordance with the provisions of the criminal law, etc.Imprisonment-fineEtc.punishmentWill be imposed.
However, distinguish responsibility from debt andRepaymentIt may also be used to indicate that you will be treated. For example, A lends money to B andMortgageIf B receives the obligation of A,Real estate auctionTakes responsibility in the sense of receiving (forced auction). In contrast,GuarantorC is not liable to A, but is liable to A in the sense that he is forced to convert his real estate (perform mortgage).
In terms of debt, there are the following.
- Contract liability
- Tort liability
- In Japan todaymoneyThe principle is to compensate withApology advertisementMay be ordered (Civil Code Article 723). In certain cases, you will be responsible for the actions of others. Here is an exampleUser responsibilityThe grounds for the occurrence ofCivil Code Article 715).
- When exercising public powerCivil servantHowever, the state shall be liable for compensation if it causes damage to others in carrying out its duties (National Compensation Act Article 11).
Administrative responsibility means the burden of administrative law that arises from the violation of certain administrative regulations. There are fines, surcharges, business improvement orders, business suspension orders, and license revocation.
Liability under litigation law
It is said that the parties who did not assert the fact that it would bring about a legal effect that is favorable to them suffered from the fact that the fact was not recognized.
In addition, the fact that a party who has not proved the fact that produces a legal effect that is favorable to him will be inflicted on the fact that the fact is not recognized willProof responsibility(Burden of proof, Burden of proof).
The disadvantaged side cannot receive the benefit of the legal effect he or she desires. If facts remain unclear depending on whether they bear the burden of proof, the conclusions will be completely different.Distribution of proof responsibilityBecomes a problem in law.
Regarding political responsibility, it is necessary to break it down into several stages and discuss it.
- In case of dictatorship
- For a democratic nation
In democratic countries, political responsibility is discussed in several stages.
For example, there is a parliament whose members are elected by election,PresidentIn a country where is elected, the political responsibility lies directly with the president. Basically, the president can choose the policy. If there is a serious error in the president's policy decision, it means that the president has not fulfilled the responsibility of "making the proper decision as the president for all the people." Is not fulfilled. What happens when the president fails to fulfill his responsibilities varies from country to country. In most countries, the public criticized “not fulfilling the presidential responsibility”,popularityGoes down. In most countries, it is rare for a president to take responsibility and stop mid-term. The general one isTermThe result is that when people come to the meeting, that is, when the (next) presidential election is held again (even if they run for the presidential election again), the people will not vote and lose in the (next) election. .. In many countries, the legalrecallProcedure is (for the time being) established, but in practice there are various conditions to do it, and in many countries it is quite difficult to actually do it (even if there is a problem with one president Quite few countries actually (even if) dismissed the president. However,Korean PresidentAfter his term has expired, he has been arrested and prosecuted by the prosecution, and he has been repeatedly imprisoned for exposing the many illegal acts he had performed during his term as president.
In a democratic country where elections are functioning normally, if bad politicians continue to carry out bad politics for multiple periods, (of course, directly to each politician) It goes without saying that it is also responsible for the people who continue to select such poor-quality politicians (not to mention their political responsibilities). Whether it is a system in which the people directly select the president or a system in which the people directly select the members of the Diet and the members of the parliament select the prime minister, that is, whether it is direct or indirect, a low-quality politician is selected. It is because they are the people. Therefore, in a country with elections, each citizen is responsible for choosing and voting for a person who can make an appropriate decision as a member of the parliament, and for selecting and voting for that person as the president. Each and every nation (as a member of parliament and president) has the best person (as a member of parliament and president) with the happiness of all people (rather than considering only their own personal and immediate interests) and the well-being of the people of the whole world. It is up to you to determine and be responsible for voting for that person.
For example, during World War IIAdolf HitlerAdolf Hitler is directly responsible for the policies he has taken. However, the German people at that time also have a responsibility to make the villain named Hitler take power. After World War I (at the time, it was a very democratic constitution)Weimar ConstitutionIn Germany below, the German peopleNaziAs a result of voting on the (party) and giving the party great power,Adolf HitlerBecame the prime minister, and also became the head of state (general president), resulting in the wrongdoing that remains in human history. If the Germans at the time saw the words as wiser and more fueling their sentiment as dangerous and did not do stupid things like voting for the Nazis, the Nazis would not have power. Humanity did not have to experience such a tragic event in human history without Hitler becoming the head of state. In that sense, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi members were responsible for the many inhumane acts and policies of Germany that occurred during World War II. It is also in the German people. After World War II, there was a debate in Germany as to "what was wrong?" During World War IIHolocaustSome Germans knew that was happening, but others didn't.Hitler's responsibilities were naturally pursued, but at the same time, Germans who did not know that the Holocaust was taking place were still responsible for choosing Hitler, even if they did not know at the time. Many Germans noticed.Each of our Germans who chose Hitler to do such inhumane things (even if hidden from the public) should be blamed, even though there was a democratic system. Regardless (by Hitler's discourse), the Germans are responsible for voting for the Nazi Party and choosing a holistic regime, and each German is responsible for choosing a decent politician. Many Germans realized that it was there after the war.As a result, even today, in Germany, discussions are held in the classroom about the responsibilities of each and every citizen when selecting members and politicians in elections, such as in social studies classes (elementary school, junior high school, and high school), and each person is aware of it. There is an opportunity for compulsory education to give birth to a politician, and efforts are being made to prevent a politician like Hitler from appearing again in Germany.This effort later spread to the world.For example, clothes that resemble Nazi uniforms worldwideNazi saluteIs strictly prohibited, wearing Nazi military uniforms or raising the right hand straight up anywhere is prohibited, and police may be dispatched if found by others. ..JapanIs no exceptionPlayer oathOr raising your hand when speaking,IdolCostumes and choreography from overseas countries (or foreigners)NaziMay be strongly criticized in connection with.
War responsibilityFor details, refer to the relevant item.
Result responsibility(Kekasekin) is the responsibility for the consequences of an action. As a general rule, responsibility is incurred as a result of all actions, but the person who performs an action and the person who bears the responsibility do not always agree.
For example, the responsibility for the actions caused by voting in the election, the action for withdrawing, and the consequences of each choice, and then how to distribute the responsibility to each person becomes a problem. Since negligence is the principle of legal responsibility, result liability often remains moral responsibility.Faultless liabilityIn some cases, it is legally prescribed as follows.
Result responsibility is a basic principle of modern society社会Participants are obliged to be careful not to cause any actual harm.In the event of actual harm, someone will always be liable and cannot be exempted from liability because they were not offended, did not know, or did not notice (for example, unknowingly in public). An apology is required even if it causes trouble to others).The reason is that if someone does not respond to the actual damage that has occurred社会This is because
Self-responsibilityThe word (jikosekinin) is now ambiguous. "Solidity responsibility" is the opposite word.
Primarily,"First and foremost, you are responsible for what you do at your own risk, instead of relying on and relying on othersHas the meaning. It is based on the value that "they do not get into each other's problems." It is one of the basic principles of post-examination and post-relief society by administrative reform and judicial reform based on the view of the nation in American society. However, this principle is not valid without sufficient information and judgment.
Secondly,"Individuals are only responsible for their negligent conductHas the meaning. It is a principle of modern law that an individual is not responsible for the actions of others, but only for the actions of his own.
Third,"Individuals are responsible for all actions that they chooseHas the meaning. If for some reason a person loses judgment or is forced to do something,SelectionThis is not true because it cannot be concluded.
In addition, "Investors bear all losses from securities transactions, even if they are unexpectedIt may be said that the responsibility of the above first or third meaning has been manifested in the field of securities trading. Since securities trading is inherently risky, investors must bear the loss, even if the damage occurs due to unforeseen circumstances. (See ⇒Self-responsibility principle,Loss compensationProhibited)
For example, "The accuracy of the content is not guaranteed.WikipediaAny damage incurred by participating in each of the above will be at your own risk." In this wordEnglishIt includes a literal translation of Own risk and is widely used as a basis for disclaimers in contracts and the like. However, for example, if you forget to lock the window,theftIn such cases, the content of self-responsibility is that "theft may result in the loss, damage, or consumption of personal belongings, and the risk of being unable to recover it." Negligence will not be justified, the cost of the investigation will not be borne by the victim, the punishment of the thief will be reduced, or ownership will not be confiscated by the state. In addition, it does not depend on judicial proceduresSelf-help(English: self-help) is prohibited in principle in the current society where judicial procedures are established, except in the case of urgency.
In economics,ExternalityThere is a problem. For example, if a company pollutes the airNegative externalityCall. On the other hand, if, for example, the government that installed the purification equipment takes taxes from companies that pollute the air,InternalizationIt is called (self-responsibility). BesidesriskとIncentiveTrade-off is explained. For example, if the insurer bears all the risk, the policyholder would be completely discouraged from avoiding the risk. thisMoral hazardThat.
"Self-responsibility" is originally a word that impairs responsibility for others, but not only avoids responsibility of those who should be responsible for others, but also refuses to relieve the weak, and ridicule it There is even a risk of being used as an excuse (eg, the above example does not justify a police officer's neglect of duty).
Cases where "self-responsibility theory" was regarded as a problem
- 1999年8/14 OfGenkura River water accident
- 2004年4/7 OfIraqi Japanese hostage case
- 2005年12Of the apartment found inSeismic camouflage problem
Okutani Reikolike,Disparity society-Death from overworkUse as a basis for affirmingManagementAlso exists. The poverty disparity is a claim that workers are neglected, and death from overwork is a self-responsibility of the worker due to failure of self-management of workers, and the management side has no responsibility or obligation to relieve.
- Limited liability
- Proof responsibility
- Risk liability
- User responsibility
- Faultless liability
- Responsible property
- EnforcementProperty subject to.
- A person who gains a profit from his or her own actions means the responsibility of compensating for the damage caused to others in the process of obtaining a profit.
- ^ For example, if the leader of the student (who is responsible for the lead) on the excursion properly leads the students, fulfills the purpose of the excursion, and safely sends the students home It will be. On the other hand, if, for example, you are about to be involved in an accident on the way, but you do not take the reaction or action to avoid the accident, it is said that "(the leader) did not fulfill your responsibility". It Also, as a result, he said he "takes responsibility" when the leader is in a state of being dismissed or compensating.
- ^ Daijizumi "Responsibility"
- ^ Daijisen "Irresponsibility". (In addition, not being responsible is also called "irresponsible." (Source: Daijisen "irresponsible")
- ^ Daijizumi "Responsibility Transfer"
- ^ Regarding advancement and retreat, he only stated that he must fulfill his responsibility as governor.
- ^ Attorney General Obayashi said it was my responsibility to get the prosecution back to what it should be.”
- ^ "Athlete player oath pose, "reminiscent of the Nazis"?Discussion spreads with the indication of a German talent (June 2017, 6)”(Japanese). Excite News. 2020/11/3Browse.
- ^ "What is the problem with the worldwide flames of Keyakizaka46 "Nazi-style costumes"? (Masanori Tsujita) @gendai_biz". Contemporary business. 2020/11/3Browse.
- ^ Chuyasu Fujita "Self-responsibility" Society and Administrative Law
- Itsuro Obama"Who has" responsibility "?" PHP Institute ISBN-4 569-64627-1
- Takeshi Ohba "What is" responsibility "?" Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho Kodansha ISBN 4061498215
- Takao Saito"Reliable Fascism" Iwanami Shinsho ISBN-978 4004308973
- In Chapter XNUMX,Iraqi Japanese hostage caseI consider the self-responsibility theory in.
- Keishi Saeki"What is freedom-from" self-responsibility theory "to" murder without reason "" Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho Kodansha ISBN 4061497499
- Maki Sato and Kazuko Ito "Iraq'Hostage' Case and Self-Responsibility: We Moved and Thinked" Otsuki Shoten ISBN 4272210807
- State-responsible doctrine
- Indirect offender
- Identity criminal
- Free will
- Attribution theory
- Scape goat
- Disparity society - Neoliberalism
- Responsibility (English) - Internet Philosophy Encyclopedia"Responsibility" item.
- Civil liability law in the first half of the Meiji period
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