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Month(Tsuki, gatsu, getsu,British: month) IsTime Ofunitone of.YearsとDayIn the middle of,OneYears12 minutesDayQuantityIs.. Currently used as standard in the worldGregorian calendarIs the originalJulian calendarBased on the month of 1 or 30 days,2Usually only 28 days, once every 4 years (but with 1 exceptions in 400 years)leap yearHas 29 days.
The hourly "month" is used to know the daily progressCelestial body OfMonth OfPhase (phase)It is because it can be easily recognized by seeing the state of.New moonFrom the next new mooncyclePointing to 1SakumotsukiIs about 29.530 589DayTherefore, 30 days (large month) or 29 days (small month) were set as one month... Use this cycle unitLunar calendarThen 1YearsIs about 354.4 days,(I.e.Govern the circulation of(I.e. Celestial sphereGo aroundcycleIs 365.2422 daysCompared with the above, there is a gap of about one month in three years. For this reason,Leap monthAdd as appropriateLunar solar calendarWas made.. But how to set the leap monthOkabo methodRemained the problem.. Determine the year from the operation of the sunsolar calendarIt is,Nile River Offlood Sun yearHappens in the cycle ofAncient egyptWas invented inAncient romeIncorporated into the Julian calendarEuropeSpread toChange of calendarIt spread throughout the world as the Gregorian calendar that passed through, and the standard of the "month" of time was to be transferred from the celestial moon to the sun..
When observing from the earth,SakumotsukiOr say lunar month. Sun-Moon-Earth lined up in a straight lineSakuFrom (new moon) to the next Saku, or sun-earth-moon lined uphopeFrom (full moon) to the next desired period.. In contrast, it is far awaystarThe cycle in which the moon goes round to the position of is called stellar moon, and the moon goes around the earth.Revolution periodBut also.. The orbit of the moon as seen from the eartheclipticSay the cycle that comes to the point (ascending intersection) that intersects in the rising direction[twenty one].. the moonSpring equinoxThe cycle of passing through is said to.
the moonPerigeeThe cycle of coming toPerigee monthSay.. During these lunar cycles, 223 Shugetsu Moon = 239 Peripheral Moon = 242 Intersection Moon = Ts(6585.5376 days)ExhaustionThere is this Ts TheSaros cycleKnown since ancient times.
The Shugetsu Moon is about 29.530 589 days and the Star Moon is about 27.321 662 days. Their cycle is not constant and changes little by little as the years progress. The calculation formula is as follows.
|Sakumotsuki||29.530 588 853 (Sun) + 0.000 000 002 162 × Y|
|Stellar moon||27.321 661 547 (Sun) + 0.000 000 001 857 × Y|
|Intersection month||27.212 220 817 (Sun) + 0.000 000 003 833 × Y|
|Equinox month||27.321 582 241 (Sun) + 0.000 000 001 506 × Y|
|Perigee month||27.554 549 878 (Sun) − 0.000 000 010 390 × Y|
Where Y isJ2000.0(January 2000, 1 1:12 (Earth timeTT))fromJulian yearIs a number. For example, the lunar month of January 2017, 1 is 1 29.530 588 (days) + 853 0.000 000 002 × 162 = 17 29.530 588 days = 890 days 29 hours 12 minutes 44 seconds, which is 02.8801 of the lunar month of January 2000, 1. 1 29.530 days = 588 days 853 hours 29 minutes Compared with 12 seconds, it is 44 seconds longer.
On the other hand, the rotation of the earthtidalIt is also known that it is gradually decelerating due to the influence of.. There is also a theory that the difference from the revolution period of the moon will gradually decrease, and after about 50 billion years, it will agree and the earth and the moon will always face the same side... When this happens, one lunar month becomes one day, and almost half of the earth's mustard months are invisible.
calendarThen, the month is an integral multiple of the day. The length varies depending on the calendar and even on the same calendar.Lunar calendarとLunar solar calendarThen there isLunar phase(In principleSaku) Is the beginning of the month. Therefore, one month is on average equal to one sloppy month. Since the number of days in the Sakubou month is a fraction, each month has a 1th month (large month) and a 1th month (small month).. As a rule, one year is 12 months, but once every 2.713 years in the lunar solar calendar.leap yearToLeap monthHas been added for 13 months.solar calendarDoesn't have a unit that corresponds to the despair. Therefore, it is not necessary to set the moon, but it has a "moon" that is unrelated to slacking.
Names and days from Roman calendar
English,FrenchThe name of each month such asAncient romeEstablished byRoman calendarHas taken over the name.RomeFounding KingRomulusThe first calendar established by the is the Romulus calendar, which began in 735 BC,A human Of妊娠It is said that the number of days is 304 days, which is said to be decided based on the period. In the first 10 monthsGreek mythology,Roman mythologyThe names of the gods are followed by the names "5th month" and "6th month" (the same applies below).numberWaved.
However, in this calendar[Note 1]There were many complaints, especially from farmers. Therefore the second kingNuma PompiliusWhile adding 2 months, based on the lunar calendar of 354 daysevenI hatesuperstitionFrom this, add one day to 355 days as one year700 BCIntroduced around. However, this still leaves a gap of about XNUMX days a year.Leap month (Merdedonius) AndLeap dayI responded by inserting貴族,PriestThey began to do leaping without permission, and the calendar fell into a disjointed and disjointed state..
Gaius Julius Caesar(Julius Caesar)Roman Civil WarEscaped atGnaeus PompeiusChasingエジプトTo theCleopatra VIIWe won the victory in cooperation with. At this time, heSocigenesLearned the calendar from and brought it back to Rome. Based on this, the year was established in 47 BC, and one year is the solar calendar 365 days (leap 366 days),new YearThewinter solsticeFrom the first day of Januarius nearJulian calendarIs. One month is set to alternate 1 days or 30 days, and the excess is the last month in the Numas calendar Februarius (2) Was reduced to 29 days (30 days for leap years). On this occasion,SenateMade a resolution in honor of Caesar to revise the designation "Quintilis" to "Julius".
after that,Roman EmpireFirst generationemperorBecameAugustusOperated the Senate under his control and was the birth monthRenamed "Sixth Moon" (Sextilis) to his name (Augustus). At this time, he disliked the fact that he had fewer days than Julius, so he moved one day from Februarius to 6 days, and changed the following months so that 1 and 31 days alternate. From such a flow, the state of "30", which continues for 31 days in July and AugustprefixOCTThe moon with10In this way, four months with meanings that are two months off, and the respective "months" that lead to the present that the number of days in February are few and are used for adjusting leap have been set..
|← (31)||← (31)||January (Jan.)||January||January||January||January|
|← (29)||← (28)||February (Feb.)||february||February||February||February|
|← (31)||← (31)||← (31)||March (Mar.)||March||March||March||March|
|← (29)||← (30)||← (30)||April (Apr.)||April||April||April||April|
|← (31)||← (31)||← (31)||May||may||may||May||May|
|← (29)||← (30)||← (30)||June (Jun.)||June||June||June||June|
Fifth month (5)
|← (31)||Julius (31)||← (31)||July (Jul.)||July||July||July||July|
Fifth month (6)
|← (29)||← (30)||Augustus (31)||August (Aug.)||August||August||August||August|
Fifth month (7)
|← (29)||← (31)||← (30)||September (Sep.)||September||September||September||September|
Fifth month (8)
|← (31)||← (30)||← (31)||October (Oct.)||October||October||October||October|
Fifth month (9)
|← (29)||← (28/Leap 29)||← (27/Leap 28)||November (Nov.)||November||November||November||November|
Fifth month (10)
|← (29)||← (30)||← (31)||December (Dec.)||December||December||December||December|
Incidentally,emperorThe custom of naming the moon as "the moon" continues to applyNeroMoves Aprilis (April) to "Neloneus"DomitianBut September (September)Germanics(The emperor famous as Caligula) and October (October) were renamed. But these were restored after the Emperor's death. Meanwhile, the second emperorTiberiusIs known to have overturned the Senate's decision to change September (September) to its name by saying, "What if the emperor becomes 9?".
Names of various months in the world calendar
Names based on the season and life cycle
In a primitive society that relies heavily on agriculture and hunting, a calendar was created that does not necessarily follow the phases of the moon. For exampleフィリピンLuzonAccording to the Bontok Igorotto calendar, eight irregular months were set according to agricultural work..
|Bontok Igorotto Moon||meaning||period|
|Inana||Rice cultivationPeriod when there is no work||3 months|
|Ratup||Early harvest period||4 weeks|
|Chooku||In earnestRiceHarvesting period||4 weeks|
|Rivas||The period to finish the harvest of parley||10-15 days|
|Burr ring||Planting period for camotes||6 weeks|
|Sagamma||Period for making rice nurseries||2 months|
|Patching||Seeding period||5-6 weeks|
|Sama||Seedling planting period||7 weeks|
Hokkaido OfAinuThe calendar used by1892年It was recorded in the published book "Ainu Brethren". It is considered to be a simple lunar solar calendar because it has irregular leap months in the year starting from March of the lunar calendar... Name of each month based on natural phenomena and daily activities,Daylight hoursThe feature that begins one year from the month whenAmerica OfIroquoisCommon to the calendar used by.
|Lunar month||Hokkaido Ainu calendar||meaning|
The month when sunshine hours start to increase
|4||Haplup Chupu||(I.e.The moon that comes and rings, Or the moon when the leaves open|
|5||Mokiuta Chupu||Himesui (Lily familyPlants) The month to start collectingOrLily OrebaThe month to start collecting|
|6||Shikiuta Chupu||Month when Himesui can be actively collected, Or the month of actively picking up lily|
|7||Momota chup||HermanusThe month to start collecting|
|8||Shimauta Chupu||Month when Hermanus flourishes|
|9||Monitor Chup||Fallen leavesMonth begins|
|10||Shinyorapu Chupu||A month with many fallen leaves or salmonComing month|
|11||Umboku Chupu||SoleThe month when it gets cold|
|1||Que Kai||bowSo that it breakshuntingDo the month, Or a moon so cold that the bow breaks|
|2||Chiurupu Chupu||海 FreezeMonth|
|Leap month||Holkaba||Moon going back|
|Lunar month||Karafuto Ainu calendar|
|3||Moon with long day legs|
|4||Bird coming month|
|5||Moon digging a lily of the valley (we can't actually dig it due to climate)|
|6||Cucumber fishThe moon that climbs|
|7||Moon trout climbs|
|8||The month to make dried trout|
|9||Moon with falling leaves|
|10||The moon that traps|
|11||Moon collecting traps|
|Lunar month||Kuril Ainu calendar||meaning|
|1||Asinu Echu Chup||First month|
|4||Baiken Chirp||Baiken bird coming month|
|5||Kopiunoka Chupu||鴎The month that lays eggs|
|6||Harunoka Chupu||Hull bird laying the moon|
|7||Shikibikaru Chupu||Moon when salmon climbs the river|
|8||Siinuum Chupu||Moon trout climbs river|
|9||Chiral Cal Chup||Moon with many chiralka birds|
|10||Morsus muca||Meaning unknown|
|11||Toe reed||Meaning unknown|
|12||Quakai||Fox hanging the moon|
|Moon when the sun grows again|
|The moon whose leaves fall into the water|
|Moon when leaves fall in the water|
|The moon in which plants sprout|
|fruitThe month that begins to bear fruit|
|The month when plants grow|
|The month when plants are in full bloom|
|Month to start harvesting|
|Month when harvest ends|
|The month when the cold returns|
|Very cold month|
|Moon where the sun returns|
Japanese style month name
現代 のJapanThen,Gregorian calendarIn each month ofOld calendar(Lunar solar calendarThe name used in () was inherited from the Japanese name (Japanese-style month name) may be given (however, for example, "Mutsuki" is the name of the lunar January, so it was originally misused). There are various theories about the etymology of Japanese-style moon names.. On the other hand, the notation "January" and "February"Ancient timesUsed from the oldest exampleNara period Of720年Was compiled intoJapanese calligraphy"(Kamitakenori)漢字In "February"KatakanaIn the lessonKisaragi, Etc., there is also a part in which the Japanese style month name is written together. Note that11Is "January Tori (Shimotsuki)"12Is "February (Sihas)Is.
Also, each month has various synonyms. Taking August as an example, ``Hazuki"Others"Ken Rougetsu""Sogetsu""Keigetsu""Autumn Fugetsu""Moon""Mid-autumn""Bamboo spring"and so on.
|Month||Japanese name||Main synonyms|
|1||Yuzuki(Mudging)||Kentogetsu, early spring, new year, new year, etc.|
|2||February(Kisaragi)||Ken-betsu, Chu-shun, Yin-chun, Seicho, etc.|
|3||Yayoi(Yayoi)||Kensetsu month, late spring, denshun, chikusho, etc.|
|4||Yuzuki(Uzuki)||Kenshigetsu, early summer, Shuka, Kenmei, etc.|
|5||Satsuki(Satsuki)||Kengogetsu, Chuka, Midsummer, Morin, etc.|
|6||Minazuki(Minazuki)||Months of construction, long summers, late summers, fires, etc.|
|7||July(Fumizuki, Fukizuki)||Kenshin, early fall, new fall, urine, etc.|
|8||Hazuki(Hazuki)||Ken Rougetsu, Chushu, Shinshu, Chikushu, etc.|
|9||Long moon(Nagatsuki)||Kenjutsutsugetsu, Late Autumn, Banshu, Soshin, etc.|
|10||Kannazuki(Planning)||Kengetsu, early winter, winter, Kyoyo, etc.|
|11||Shimotsuki(Moment)||Kenshigetsu, Chuyu, Midwinter/Midwinter, Tensen, etc.|
|12||Teacher(Wrinkle)||Kenyutsuki, late winter, Zanto, gekkyu, etc.|
Lunar calendar based month name
|Month||Hijra calendar||Number of days|
|1||Muharram(المحرّم)||XNUM X days|
|2||Safar / Surfer (صفر)||XNUM X days|
|3||/ (ربيع الأوّل)||XNUM X days|
|4||/ Labia 2 (ربيع الثاني ,ربيع الآخر)||XNUM X days|
|5||/ Jomada 1 (جمادى الأولى)||XNUM X days|
|6||/ Jomada 2 (جمادى الآخرة, جمادى الثانية)||XNUM X days|
|7||(رجب)||XNUM X days|
|8||Char Burn / (شعبان)||XNUM X days|
|9||Ramadan / Ramadan (رمضان)||XNUM X days|
|10||/ Shawar (شعبان)||XNUM X days|
|11||/ Durkada (ذو القعدة)||XNUM X days|
|12||/ Durhesia (ذو الحجّة)||29/30 days (leap year)|
Month name based on the lunar solar calendar
イ ス ラ エ ルIs the lunar solar calendar alongside the world standard calendar (Western calendar)Jewish calendarAlso used. Starting from the month of Tishri (chisuri) corresponding to around September of the Christian era, leap months are added seven times in 9 (19 leap method in 7).
|Month||Month of the year||Jewish calendar||Number of days|
|1||9Around||/ Tishri||XNUM X days|
|2||10Around||/ Heshuuan||29/30 days|
|3||11Around||Kiss Reve / Kislev||29/30 days|
|4||12Around||/ Tevet||XNUM X days|
|5||1Around||/ Siebato||XNUM X days|
|6||2Around||XNUM X days|
|7||3Around||XNUM X days|
|8||4Around||/ Ital||XNUM X days|
|9||5Around||/ Shiuan||XNUM X days|
|10||6Around||/ Tanms||XNUM X days|
|11||7Around||XNUM X days|
|12||8Around||/ Elle||XNUM X days|
|Leap month||-||/ Adal 2||XNUM X days|
Month name not according to age
Flourished in Central AmericaMaya civilizationHas high astronomical knowledge, and in the 7th-6th century BCVenusWas being calculated. But they usedMayan calendarThe "moon" was based on the 20th day, which is not related to the phases of the moon. In the religious calendar, 13 months, 260 days, is set as one year,Regular calendarSo I added 18th day, which is only 360 days in 5 days of 19 months..
|Month||Mayan calendar month name||Number of days|
|3||Ship / Ship (Zip)|
|19||Weayp (Uayeb)||5 Day|
Month as period
"Month"Time(period)ofunitAlso used as. Usually, the expression "○ months (○ months, ○ months)" (○ shadows) is used. In addition, there are cases where the expression "○ month" is simply used. In this case,calendarupperYuzuki,FebruaryCorresponds to...Ichigatsu(January),Nigatsu(February)...One piece(January)","With lid(February)”...ReadingIs used, but in official texts, legal texts, etc.Ichigetsu(January)""Longevity(February)”...Reading aloudTo do.
Unless otherwise specified, the term "1 month" does not include the first day of the month, and the next day is counted as the starting day, and the day before the next day of the calculated day of the following month. For example, one month from January 1th is "January 15th to February 1th". If the next month does not have an anniversary date (eg, if the starting date is October 1st), it will be until the end of the next month (until November 16th in this example). These thingsJapanThen.Civil law(Articles 138-143).
However, the number of days of one month defined in this way varies depending on the month, so proofs in science, etc.TimeIt is not used when it is required to express the length of.International unit system (SI) is not a combined unit, so in JapanMeasurement LawNot included in the units that can be used in
- Rokuyo: Based on the Japanese lunar calendar, one month is allocated to six days of six days: "Senkatsu", "Tomohiki", "Sengeki", "Buddha destruction", "Daian", and "Akaguchi". However, the first day of every month is fixed.
- Seven days-週: 7-day cycle with each day assigned to the sun, moon, and planets.
- Season: Originally 10 days. A month is divided into three parts: early, middle, and late. Approximately 3 day cycle
- Half moon-Twenty-four : Approximately 15-day cycle
UnicodeThe full-width "January"-"December" is defined in the following code points.
|symbol||Unicode||JIS X 0213||Character reference||Name|
- ^ Astronomical Observatory Questions: National ObservatoryThen, it is explained that the period corresponding to two months in winter has been passed as time, but is treated as a blank without a "calendar".
- ^ a b c d Okada et al. (1994), pp.70-72, four seasons and calendar, moon and calendar
- ^ "[Month]" "Japanese dictionary"Kodansha, 1989, 1291st print, page XNUMX.ISBN 4-06-121057-2.
- ^ Sato (2009), pp.77-81, Attempt of World Unified Calendar
- ^ a b "Question 3-7 1/1How did you decide? ”. National Observatory. 2011/12/20Browse.
- ^ a b c d Ikeuchi (1999), 3. I am immobile like the North Star, pp.44-47, history of the calendar revision
- ^ Aoki (1982), Preface Month and Hour, pp.1-2, Monthly Spectacle
- ^ "[Year]" "Japanese Dictionary" Kodansha, 1989, 1507st print, page XNUMX.ISBN 4-06-121057-2.
- ^ a b Aoki (1982), Preface Month and Hour, pp.3-4, Lunar Solar Calendar
- ^ a b c Gentoshi Majima "A Study of the Calendar Law, Especially the Okiko LawBulletin of Research, Vol. 7, Nara Women's University, 1965, pp. 15-20, ISSN 03891704, NOT 110001030480,2020/6/4Browse.
- ^ "Moon and Earth orbit". Hokkaido UniversityFaculty of Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2011/12/20Browse.
- ^ "7/22 OfTotal solar eclipse". National Observatory. 2011/12/20Browse.
- ^ a b Koji Matsumoto / Radio Research Department, National Astronomical University. “(PDF)". Tokyo UniversityEarthquake Research Institute. 2011/12/20Browse.
- ^ Shosuke Imoto "Restricted three-body problem and saros cycle"Bulletin of Fukui University of Technology. Part 25" No. 1995, Fukui University of Technology, 275, pp. 281-275-281-XNUMX, ISSN 0286-8571, NOT 110000484848,2020/6/4Browse.
- ^ 2000年1/1 12:00 TTDerived from ELP2000-85: M. Chapront-Touzé, J. Chapront (1991): Lunar tables and programs from 4000 BC to AD 8000. Willmann-Bell, Richmond VA; ISBN-0 943396-33-6
- ^ Aoki (1982), Chapter 4, Units and Ephemeris, p.165, XNUMX Length of year Number of days in year
- ^ Shigemi Numazawa,"space"Seimidou Publishing, 2007, 50 pages.ISBN 978-4-415-30019-1.
- ^ a b Ikeuchi (1999), 3 I'm immobile like the North Star, pp.42-43, Roman calendar
- ^ Okada et al. (1994), p. 297, primitive calendar system, Bontok Igorotto calendar
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Okada et al. (1994), pp.297-298, primitive calendar system, Ainu calendar
- ^ Okada et al. (1994), p.298, primitive calendar system, Iroquois calendar
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Ainu Folklore"Sarashina Genzo1982
- ^ "Useful plants of Ainu people”. Hokkaido Satellite Research Institute. 2011/12/20Browse.
- ^ a b c Okada et al. (1994), pp.15-28, Origin of Japanese style moon name
- ^ a b Okada et al. (1994), pp.299-300, Lunar calendar, Islamic calendar
- ^ Okada et al. (1994), pp.301-302, lunar solar calendar, Jewish calendar
- ^ Okada et al. (1994), pp.315-317, solar calendar, Mayan calendar
- ^ . "Mayan calendar". Toyama International UniversityFaculty of Contemporary Sociology. 2011/11/2Browse.
- ^ "Civil Code Chapter 6 Period Calculation”. Explanation of Civil Code Articles. Com. 2011/11/2Browse.
- ^ "Measurement Law (Act No. XNUMX of May XNUMX, XNUMX)". Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2019/12/23Browse.
- ^ a b "Basic knowledge of calendar”.. 2011/11/2Browse.
- ^ "Twenty-four". National Observatory. 2011/11/2Browse.
This footnote indicates the "source" presented in the source/footnote.
- ^ Calendar chronology 2009
- Masayuki Sato"Time in World History"Yamakawa Publishing, 2009, 1st print.ISBN 978-4-634-34966-7.
- Ryo Ikeuchi"Astronomer's magnifying glass"文藝 春秋First edition of the new book, 1999.ISBN 4-16-660060-5.
- Aoki faith"Time and calendar"Tokyo UniversityPublishing, 1982, first edition.
- Yoshiro Okada, "Modern Koyomi Reading Encyclopedia"Kashiwa Shobo, 1994, XNUMXth edition.
- Sarashina Genzo"Ainu Folklore", 1982, first edition.
Ranking (ranking) Is a member of a groupRankingIt is a list that has been.
- Grand Sumo OfNumbering
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