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🏓 | Kasumi Kimura "It's embarrassing, so it's a secret" "Secret weapon" What is Kasumi's unexpected secret?


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Kasumi Kimura "It's embarrassing, so it's a secret" "Secret weapon" What is Kasumi's unexpected secret?

 
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Currently, Japanese table tennis players have been attracting attention since their early teens.
 

It was Christmas that appeared after a long time. After four consecutive victories since the opening of the T-League, it has been warm for a while as a "secret weapon" ... → Continue reading

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Table tennis

Table tennis(Takkyu,British: Table tennis) IsBall skillsIt is a kind of.Also known as Ping pong (乒 乓).Athletes face each other across a table tennis table and play celluloid or plastic balls (currently often made of plastic).racketCompete for points.

History

Table tennis isJu de PoumeAncient such asTennisBased on the game, in the second half of the 19th centuryUKDevised in[1].. Not sure about the inventor, but found that James Devonshire applied for a patent in 1885[1].. 1887 is a well-known game and sports equipment manufacturerJack of LondonReleased it under the name GOSSIMA[1].. The first product did not reach commercial success, but around 1900, when the ball was modified from cork to celluloid, moderate repulsion was obtained and the game was enhanced. When Jack of London launched it under the name Ping Pong based on the sound of hitting a celluloid ball, it quickly became popular.[1].

In 1902, a professor at Tokyo Higher Normal SchoolGenso TsuboiBecame popular with the introduction of a set of equipment from the UK into Japan[2].Yamada KosakuAccording to the book, there is a record that Takumi, born in 1886, played table tennis in Okayama when he was 15 years old (1901).[3].. The Japan Table Tennis Association was founded on July 1931, 7.[4].

International Table Tennis Federation(ITTF) is1926å¹´Was born in. same year,UKThe first world championship was held in.

Rules

Equipment regulations

Table tennis tableThe top surface of the is a rectangle 2.74 m long and 1.525 m wide, and is horizontally located at a height of 76 cm above the ground. A net stretched perpendicular to the long side of the table divides the table into two coats. The net is suspended at a height of 2 cm from the base and is supported by supports attached to both ends of the base. ballIs a 40 mm diameter plastic, white and matte[5]. racket,uniformRegarding the provisions ofToolSee section.

Match progress

One match is September 1, 2001[6] より、各ゲーム11点先取の7ゲーム制(4ゲーム先取)、5ゲーム制(3ゲーム先取)、または3ゲーム制(2ゲーム先取)で行われる。10対10になったときは先に2点差を付けた方が1ゲーム先取となる(又は、11対11でも2点差を付けた方が勝ちとなる)。

Before the match starts
In general local games, first practice (rally), then exchange racket (check opponent's racket) and coin toss (Janken in Japan). At competitions that include official referees, such as large competitions, greetings, racket exchanges, and coin toss (janken) are given, and the winning player can choose either "service" or "court".
Service
Two services are replaced. However, after 2-10, it will be replaced by one.
The server throws up 16 cm or more almost vertically from the palm of the hand (free hand) who does not have a racket, hits the falling place with the racket from the back of the table, first bounces on his own court, then You have to go over and bounce on the opponent's court. If the service hits the net and falls on the other party's court, it becomes a "let" and the service is redone. Otherwise, the service will be missed and the opponent's score will be scored.
Also, when serving, the ball must not be hidden from the opponent by the player's body or uniform. If the toss is low (toss less than 16 cm) when servicing, or if the referee doubts that it is an illegal service, attention will be given and the service will be redone, but again the same suspicious service will become a fault, It becomes the opponent's score. Apparent breach services are faulted (without notice).
receive
Returns the ball from the time it is serviced or returned and bounces to your court until just before you make two bounces.
The returned ball must be returned so that it falls on the opponent's court either directly or after contact with the net. If this is not possible, the opponent will score.
Bounce the ball two times on your court, hit the ball against your body, hit the racket twice intentionally, or hit the ball directly on the racket or body before the ball returned by the opponent bounces on your table. must not. If any of these apply, the opponent will score. However, double-hit in a series of unintentional ball hitting is effective. Even if the ball hits the wrist (finger, etc.) of the hand holding the racket, or if it enters the opponent's court without hitting the rubber, it is effective as a return ball and does not become the opponent's score.
Volleying on the bench is prohibited. If you volley, you will score the opponent. If the freehand touches the table during play, it will be a goal.
Change end
At the end of one game, change end (court change) and enter the next game. In the next game, the service will begin with the player who first received in the previous game. When the game becomes full, a change end (replacement of court) will take place when either player reaches 1 points.
How to count
The referee who scores the scoreboard utters the score on the server side and the score on the receiver side in English each time the score is entered.In China, the score on the server side, the score on the receiver side, and the score on the receiver side are spoken in Chinese in that order.
Other
If the ball is broken during the rally, the score for that rally is invalid, and if the ball is picked up after the rally and the ball is cracked, the score for that rally is valid. After the ball was exchanged by the referee and a practice hit (rally) was made, the service was restarted and the game restarted.
If the ball flies from another court and interferes with the rally, the points scored by the rally will be invalidated and the game will be restarted by restarting the service.
The game can be timed out only once per game, but the game can be interrupted. However, the time limit is 1 seconds or less.
If the total score of both players is less than 1, it will not end even if 10 minutes have passed from the start in one gamePromotion rulesIs applied. Or, if both parties agree, the promotion rules will be applied from the beginning.
A yellow card will be shown as a warning for bat etiquette (throwing racket on table, profanity in dirty words, kicking fence, kicking table with racket, etc.). A yellow or red card is presented for the second similar action, and the opponent is awarded 2 point. The other person is given 1 points for the same action for the third time. The fourth time is reported to the referee (chief referee), and the referee chief takes action.

Doubles

Basically the same rules as for singles, but with some additional requirements.

  • Services must bounce across the right side of the server side court to the right side of the receiver side court. If you make a mistake in the bounding surface, it will be the opponent's point.
  • In the after-service rally, the pairs must be struck alternately. If the same player hits twice in a row, it becomes the opponent's point.
  • When the service right is transferred to the opponent, the player who was not in service becomes the receiver, and the player who was the receiver until then becomes the next server.
  • When one game is over and the next game is started, the service is started from the pair that first received in the previous game. In that case, either player of the pair may be the first server. The receiver should be a different combination than the previous game.

World table tennis championship,All Japan Table Tennis ChampionshipFor example, in addition to the usual doubles performed by a pair of two boys or two girls, mixed doubles performed by a pair of one boy and one girl.

Team battle system

Various methods are used for team battles.World table tennis championshipFor example, both teams have a maximum of five single-player matches with three players, and the system that wins the first three wins is adopted.Beijing OlympicsIn the team competition, three players played 3 singles and 4 doubles.

In Japan, there are many 4 single, 6 doubles systems by 4 players (1 players in junior high school students) including the Japan Table Tennis League. In this case, the same athlete may appear in both singles and doubles. Depending on the competition, there are also methods such as 6 singles 1 doubles (Kanto Student Federation) and 3 singles 2 doubles (New Japan Sports Federation). Furthermore, when it comes to local tournaments, there are 2 singles, 1 doubles, group competitions with only doubles, and mixed team competitions.

Transition of rules

1900 eraBy the timeEuropeでrubberMade ofrubber(Rubber equivalent to the present) was developed and became mainstream[7], Because I could not hit such a strong ball and the height of the net was high[8], The 1936th time in 10, when it was advantageous to stay protectedWorld table tennis championshipThen there is a record of the game that took more than 1 hours to get one point[8].1937年, Japan's first international match, played against a former Hungarian world champion, at which time Japanese players touched the rubber for the first time[7].. At that time, the Japanese player's racket had nothing on it (also known as Ki Bella), but achieved good results.[7].. Around that time, boysAmericaThe team developed the "finger spin service," a service that uses fingers to generate various rotations, and brought in a play with strong rotation for the first time at the 1937th World Table Tennis Championships held in 11.[8].. The U.S. team that made full use of this achieved good results, but on the other hand, opponents who were not accustomed to the strong rotation had a series of receive misses and the rally did not continue.[8].. The rally was too long, but on the other hand it was too short, and the two extreme developments made the crowd feel boring.International Table Tennis FederationHas revised the rules to lower the height of the net, limit the game time, and ban the service that gives the ball various rotations using fingers (finger spin service)[8].. Under that influence, the defensive type became advantageous again, and from the 1940s to the early 1950sEuropeThe main type of cut by the players was[7][8][9].

The turning point in which this situation changed was after World War II.1950 eraJapan has developed new tools one after another and used them in actual battles to produce results.[7][8][9].. First of all, "back rubber", which is a conventional rubber that is turned over and pasted, has come to be used. This is because the contact area with the ball is wider than the conventional rubber (current rubber is considered to be front rubber against back rubber)frictionIs large, and it is easy to make a strong rotation, and it is possible to make an attack that makes full use of it. further,Pacific WarSometimesaircraftFuel tankBulletproofThe closed-cell sponge, which was used for military purposes, will now be used as table tennis equipment. This has a strong repulsive force, and the striking power has improved dramatically compared to conventional rubber[7][8][9].. "Sponge rubber" that is pasted on the ball striking surface[9], "Back soft rubber" with back rubber and sponge attached, and "Front soft rubber" with single rubber (front rubber) and sponge developed. In addition, "tsubu high rubber", which is an extension of the table software, was also developed. Armed with a smash attack that makes full use of those characteristics,1952å¹´Japan participated in the 19th World Table Tennis Championships for the first time, while winning the championship in the 4th category of women's group, men's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles and breaking the golden age, Japanese players in the 1950s world championship Produced many winners at[7][8][9].

However1959å¹´The International Federation of Table Tennis has embarked on equipment restrictions. The use of sponges alone is prohibited and sponge rubber has disappeared. The thickness of other rubbers was limited to 4mm.

2000å¹´So the ball diameter went from 38mm to 40mm. by thisballThe air resistance of the car has increased, and the rally continues more than before. However, on the other hand, it became difficult to rotate, and the rubber became less susceptible to rotation, so battle types such as cut type and front attack type were struggling.[Source required].

2001å¹´Has been changed from the conventional 21-point system to the 11-point system, and the service has also been changed from five-by-two to two-by-two.

2002å¹´The act of hiding the ball at the time of service (handhide service, bodyhide service) was completely prohibited.

2007å¹´Since September, the use of organic solvent adhesives has been banned at major competitions in Japan.2008å¹´From September, the use of organic solvent-based adhesives was completely banned, and one month later, post-processing using auxiliary agents was banned. Also, the use of anti-processed grain height rubber was banned.

2014å¹´Since the diameter of the ball remains 40 mm, plastic balls appeared from celluloid balls,2015å¹´It was also used in major international competitions.

Tool

racket

The racket used for table tennis mainly consists of a plate made of wood and a rubber rubber. There are various types of racket and rubber products with different characteristics, and players can choose the equipment that suits them.

There are rubber rackets sold at low prices for leisure, commercially available rackets used at competition level, and custom rackets that can be customized to your taste.

The racket used for official games in Japan must have the manufacturer's name and the official recognition of the Japan Table Tennis Association (JTTAA) in a visible place (For the use of the racket without the JTTAA mark, the organizer side Notification of use permission is required).

According to the regulations of the International Table Tennis Federation, except for grips, 85% or more of the material is natural wood, which is flat and hard, and the size is not decided, but the larger it is, the more disadvantageous it is due to weight and wind resistance. is there[10].

Types

The difference between table tennis and other racket ball games is how to hold itShake hand-Pen holderThere are two types of types. Traditionally,EuropeMost of the original players used the shake hand, while pen holders were the mainstream in Asia,1980 eraFrom aroundAsiaIn each country, the percentage of athletes using shakes has increased, and is now equal to or higher than that of penholders. Since the pen holder is lighter, female players and players with confidence in footwork were often selected, but nowadays it is necessary to attack both forehand and backhand, so many players choose shake hand. Has become. However, players who are good at both hand attacks using Chinese pen holders may be ranked in the top ranks in the world rank, and it is not possible to conclude which one is technically superior.

Shake hand
A type of racket that you can hold like a handshake. Use by sticking rubber on both sides.
Currently, many players are shake hands, and it can be said that they are the mainstream of gripping.The reason is that both fore and back hands are easy to do, and various two-hand attacks that take advantage of the advantage of sticking rubber on both sides are easy.On the other hand, it is relatively difficult to handle the ball that came to the middle, it is difficult to distinguish between the forehand cross and the straight, and there are cases where you have to change the way you hold the racket due to service etc.Because rubber is stuck on both sides There is also a drawback that the total weight of the racket tends to be heavy.
There are various types of shakes for the shake hand, such as flare grip that extends from the blade in a curved line, straight one that is straight, conic that that extends in a straight line, conic of barrel-shaped grip, and anatomic grip. There are various shapes. A straight incline grip shape has also been developed in which the grip gradually thickens from the blade to the grip end.
Pen holder
ペ ンA type of racket that you can hold to hold (common name). It can be roughly divided into a Japanese pen holder and a Chinese pen holder. Since you have to support it with your thumb and forefinger, you usually stick rubber on only one side and hit the ball only on that side.
Compared to the shake hand, the ball is hit from the state where the racket head is lowered, so it is easy to fine-tune the racket angle etc., it is excellent in operability on a table with a wrist, and it is relatively easy to hit the ball that came to the middle. There is a feature called.On the other hand, the back technique is poorer than the shake hand, and the head is lowered due to the way the racket is gripped, so it is difficult to provide a direct rotation service, and if the racket angle shifts or the feeling is off even a little, it is easy to lead to mistakes and it is shaken off to the fore side. There is a disadvantage that the accuracy of the forehand bang from the jump at the time is reduced.
However, there are cases in which rubber is affixed on both sides for the purpose of expanding the width of the hit ball by enabling a direct rotation service by inserting a racket from the vertical to eliminate the difficulty of the direct rotation service, and during the game, To reverse and hit the ball during the rally (reversal type), to supplement the backhand technology, which is said to be inferior to the shake handBack strikeThe number of athletes who play is increasing.
As for the color of the rubber, it is necessary to stick different colors of rubber on the front and back sides, as with the shake hand. Also, if you stick the rubber on only one side, you must put or paint a sheet of a different color from the surface. Many Japanese-style pens are already painted when you purchase them.
Japanese style pen holder
The shape of the blade is divided into square type, elliptical type, round type, etc.corkIs used. Many players are used in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, etc., and rubber is attached to only one side, so there are many users for battle-type players who rely on rubber performance such as pendula. In the Japanese style, cypress veneer is popular due to its unique shot feeling and momentum, but the quality of cypress has decreased in Japan, and the number of high-quality cypress has decreased. Along with this, the price of cypress single-plate pen holders is also increasing.
Reversible pen holder
Of the Japanese-style pen holders, it is a racket that is designed to be easy to hold even if it is flipped over so that rubber can be attached on both sides. Although a cork is used for the grip part, it has cork on both sides unlike the Japanese style. It is mainly used by players who change by sticking different rubbers on both sides such as pen particles. Until the first half of the 1980s, rules did not prohibit the same color on both sides, and there was also a way to attach backside software and anti-backside software in combination.
Chinese pen holder
The shape of the shake hand is similar to that of the shake hand, and the shape and thickness of the blade are almost the same as those of the shake hand. There are many users in China, but also in other countries. in recent yearsWang Hao,Ma LinA Chinese player, etc. has pasted rubber on both sides to complete a pen-type hand-drive type that incorporates a back-side hitting method, and has achieved a world-class level of achievement. On the other hand, a grain-height rubber is attached to one side, and it is often used for a defense type called pen grain, which is the main defense.
Hand saw
A type of racket that holds like a pistol[11].. It is sometimes called "pistol type" or "pistol type" because of how it is gripped. It is said that a bendable drive is easy to hit, but very few players use it. Due to the characteristics of the grip, it is difficult to change the service. Fewer players have different fore or back sides.

blade

Only the plate portion of the racket is called a blade.

In general, table tennis rackets tend to focus on rubber and ignore blades, but in fact, the opposite is true, and blades are more important than rubber. This is because at the competition level of top athletes, ball touch and ball control that are not out of order are required, and the hygroscopicity and characteristics of the blade have a considerable effect on the feel at impact and elasticity. Therefore, it is necessary to pay close attention to the storage of rackets, and racket cases for storing rackets have been released by various manufacturers.

The characteristic of the blade is that the repulsive force represents the speed when hitting a ball, and the rigidity represents the feeling when hitting the ball. Generally high rigidity = a hard racket has a high repulsive force, a fast release of the ball, and enables a fast ball hit[12].. On the other hand, a racket with low rigidity = a soft racket easily absorbs the impact of a hit ball and suppresses the repulsive force, so it is easy to control. Further, if the blade thickness is thick, the rigidity of the plate is high and it is easy to bounce, but the balls are easily separated, and if the blade is thin, the plate is liable to bounce and it is difficult to bounce, but it is easy to rotate. The hitting sound depends more on the material used than on the performance of the racket.

Notation varies, but each manufacturer describes the racket characteristics in order. Overseas, it is mainly written as OFF, ALL, and DEF, and each item is often marked as +, and those that do not are marked as-. In Japan, according to the notation used overseas, it is indicated as first, mid-first, mid, mid-slow, or slow. The hardest is OFF+ or fast, the softest is DEF or slow.

Veneer and plywood

The racket is mainly made of wood, and when it is made of one plate, it can be divided into a single plate and a plywood made by bonding a plurality of plates. Veneer rackets are mainly made from a single cypress, whereas plywood rackets are made by combining plates with different characteristics.

The use of the blade wood depends on the material, but the characteristics of the racket also depend on the wood used, the manufacturing process, and the storage method. Regarding the wood used, in veneerJapanese cypress,KatsuraIs mainly used. There are a wide variety of plywood such as Japanese wood and Western wood, but for the corePaulownia,BalsaMaterial,willowLightweight wood such as sina wood, abashi, a youth, samba, etc. are used, pine, anegre, spruce, dyeing materials are used for the core, and limba, koto, walnut, cypress, aus, dyeing for the upper plate. Wood is mainly used, but in recent years, hard wood such as ebony, rosewood, wenge wood, blood wood, and white ash has been used for the upper plate.

The paulownia and balsa wood used for the core of plywood are lightweight materials, so they had the fatal drawback of being lighter in the celluloid ball era. In particular, paulownia wood has been used for chests of drawers, etc., so it absorbs moisture, so it has a characteristic that the feel at impact and elasticity are likely to change. However, the situation has changed with the advent of plastic balls. The change in the material of the ball changed the feel at impact. Since paulownia has high elasticity as well as the sensation of gripping a ball peculiar to the material and high elasticity, even if the plate thickness is a little thick, a plastic ball can exert a ball power, so there is almost a drawback except the problem of moisture. It has been eliminated, and the lightness of the ball power of the balsa material is almost eliminated by the material of the ball, and in the plastic ball era it is used as an option to leave the amount of rotation.

Veneer
As its name suggests, the veneer is made from a single cypress or katsura board, giving it a distinctive shot-like feel. It has the drawback that it is more fragile than plywood, which can be made more durable by combining wood grain vertically and horizontally. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the durability by arranging the wood grain in the vertical direction to increase the plate thickness, and it will not be made much because it will be heavy with a shake hand with rubber attached on both sides. In addition, since the characteristics are affected by the quality of the plate material, there is a large variation in quality even for the same type of racket, but a single-plate racket using a high-quality cypress has a unique shot feeling, as well as resilience and rigidity. Because of its good balance, it is particularly popular with the main drive type players with square pen holders. Therefore, some players who want high-quality cypress veneer can buy a custom-made veneer racket.
Plywood
Balancing repulsion and rigidity is achieved by combining wood materials of different characteristics vertically and horizontally. As a result, a racket with a variety of characteristics is created compared to a single-plate racket, and the quality variation is small. It is most often used in shake hands and Chinese pen holders, and is basically divided into 3 plywood, 5 plywood, 6 plywood, and 7 plywood. It is also characterized by being able to be used in combination with special materials. There are various types of shot feeling and momentum, depending on the combination of wood and special materials used. Therefore, from 3 plywood, there are rackets called 17 plywood in many cases.
In the case of plywood, for example, five plywood is used, in which the core material is sandwiched between two additive materials and further sandwiched between two upper plates. The core material is wood, which is the origin of the racket, and because of the high proportion of the racket, lightweight materials are mainly used. The degree of momentum varies depending on the wood used and the thickness. On the other hand, the additive and the upper plate are used to balance the repulsive force and the rigidity. For the upper plate, too soft wood is not used to prevent the wood from cracking and peeling when the rubber is replaced.
3 plywood
It is composed of a core material and two upper plates. Since the number of plywood is small and it is inferior in strength, rackets with high momentum have been introduced by ensuring the thickness of the core material and inserting special materials. However, because the number of plywood is small, it is difficult to make the blade thin and the grain of the core material is sideways, so the softness of the shot feeling and the sidewaysness of the core material are used, Or a racket for the cut main battle type has appeared.
5 plywood
It is composed of a core material, two additive materials, and two upper plates. Since the grain of the middle core material is vertical, the balance of repulsive force and rigidity is good and the blade can be made thinner. Since each product has different characteristics and there are many products, it is widely used by beginners to advanced players regardless of the battle type. In addition, even if a special material is put in, the core material becomes a vertical grain, so it is the most mainstream of plywood blades regardless of whether it is solid wood or containing special material.
7 plywood
It is composed of a core material, four additional materials, and two upper plates. The characteristics differ depending on the individual product, but since the blade tends to be thicker, the ball rebounds quickly because of its high repulsion and rigidity, but since the grain of the core material is sideways, it has more momentum in the middle and apse compared to 4 plywood. Since it has a fatal drawback that it will not rise, it is a specification dedicated to the front team. Therefore, it has been traditionally considered as a racket for advanced players or people who do not like special material rackets, but with the advent of plastic balls, the tendency for exclusive players to become stronger is stronger than it was in the celluloid ball era.

Special material

It is permitted to use materials other than wood for the racket within 15% of the material,Carbon fiber(Carbon fiber), (),Kevlar,Glass fiber(Glass fiber),Titanium,ZylonRackets using special materials such as are also used. In addition to the above materials, allylate carbon that combines carbon fiber and allylate, what combines Zylon and carbon called ZLC, Kevlar carbon that uses Kevlar and carbon, Texarium, silver carbon, basalt fiber, There are a wide variety of special materials such as textreams.

By arranging the special material, not only the momentum is higher than that of the solid wood racket, but also the sweet spot of the racket is widened to achieve a uniform momentum. However, the use of a special material has a shot feeling different from the original shot feeling of wood, and has a drawback that it is difficult to make the momentum of the momentum. The arrangement pattern includes an outer arranged between the upper plate and the core, and an inner arranged between the middle core and the core. The outer has a high bounce and a high ball separation, and the inner has a shot feeling closer to wood.

Wood heat treatment

In modern table tennis, where both hand styles have been established, a lighter racket is required as the weight of rubber becomes heavier, and after non-glue, not only rubber but also racket repulsion has been required. Moreover, since it is made of wood, the racket is weak against moisture. In addition, the manufacturer was looking for paulownia wood that was not suitable for table tennis rackets, both for effective use and cost reduction. In order to solve such problems, a manufacturing method for easily drying wood has been established.

This is to remove the moisture contained in the wood by heat treatment at a temperature lower than the boiling point of the wood, thereby reducing the weight and reducing the hygroscopicity. The racket manufactured by this method, in addition to the uniform bounce, is able to obtain higher rigidity and repulsive force than before even without using a special material even though it is made of five plywood. This is a new type of racket that appeared around 5.

However, this method has the drawbacks that it loses the feeling of grasping the original sphere of wood because it is physically processed, and that it loses its ball power with light materials such as paulownia wood. It is possible to supplement the power of the ball.

rubber

The rubber of table tennis is a rubber (rubber in English) sheet and a sponge bonded together with an adhesive (however, only one sheet of rubber is a sheet). Hit the ball at the seat. The provisions of the following explanation are described according to the rules of the International Table Tennis Federation.

Only bright red and black rubber colors are allowed. The opposite side of the rubber side must be attached with a different color or colored differently. This is because the opponent player cannot be distinguished when the same color rubber having different properties is attached to each surface. Regarding the thickness, it is specified that the thickness of the rubber sheet is up to 2 mm, and the total thickness of the rubber sheet and the sponge is up to 4 mm. Further, the regulations regarding the shape of grains are also defined in detail. Also, there are many types of rubber, such as rubber whose surface is sticky. Many new rubber products released after 2008 have the official recognition of the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTFA), and the manufacturer's number and registration number (manufacturer's number-registration number) enclosed in a frame.

At official competitions such as international competitions, only the rubbers listed on the official rubber list of the International Table Tennis Federation are allowed to be used (the official rubber list is updated every April and October). At official competitions in Japan, even rubber that does not have the official recognition (JTTAA) of the Japan Table Tennis Association from April 4 can be used as long as it is on the official rubber list of the International Table Tennis Federation. Became. Prior to that, at official tournaments in Japan, the manufacturer name, ITTFA mark, and JTTAA mark were obligatory to be visible.

In addition, as a measure against the rule of prohibiting post-processing of rubber, a Chinese manufacturer has released an "Imitsu bottom" rubber in which a sponge surface of rubber is coated with an auxiliary glue at the manufacturing stage. It is distinguished as "bottom". Regarding "un-bottomed bottom", we do not touch the violation of the officially-registered adhesives described below, and also for "already-bottomed bottom", any rubber listed on the official rubber list of the International Table Tennis Federation can be used at official competitions. Is.

Sheet
The main raw material is natural rubber or synthetic rubber, and the color of the sheet becomes red or black by mixing the pigment. The shape of the sheet takes into consideration the bite into the sponge, one side is flat and the other side has grains or columnar protrusions called warts, and the grains are densely arranged in a vertical or horizontal arrangement. .. The properties and weight of rubber are highly dependent on the properties of the seat. Generally, the higher the natural rubber ratio, the greater the amount of rotation, and conversely, the higher the synthetic rubber ratio, the higher the momentum. Further, the harder the weight, the heavier the softer the lighter the weight, but the thicker the flat portion, the heavier the weight tends to be.
sponge
It is greatly involved in the bite of the ball and the resilience of the ball. The faster and stronger the restoring force, the higher the elasticity and the more the amount of rotation due to the effect of pulling the seat. Although the weight is lighter than that of the sheet, sponges with the same hardness have large variations due to the manufacturing process. There is also a hard one called "with skin".
Regarding the thickness of the sponge, if the sponge is thick, the ball easily bites, the direction is easy to set, the resilience is high, so the elasticity is high, and at the same time the contact time with the ball is long, so the seat is pulled in and strong rotation is applied. Therefore, a powerful hitting ball is possible, but the elasticity at the time of repulsion becomes high and it becomes difficult to control the distance. On the other hand, the thin sponge does not bite the ball, so it is difficult to set the direction, the momentum decreases, and the contact time with the ball shortens, so the effect of pulling the seat weakens and the amount of rotation decreases, but the smash It is easier to apply rotation by rubbing or rubbing, so depending on the characteristics of the sheet, thinning the sponge may give the characteristics of rubber.
Rubber characteristics
The properties of the rubber largely depend on the properties of the sheet, and are comprehensively determined by the combination with the properties of the sponge combined with the sheet. Therefore, a product lineup in which the same sheet is combined with sponges having different characteristics, or a lineup in which the same sponge is combined with different sheets may be prepared. The characteristics of the racket also affect this, so trial and error is required to find a combination that suits you.
A hard sheet/sponge makes it easier to cut the opponent's lower rotation and enables powerful hitting, but it is difficult to control because the ball does not bite easily and it is susceptible to rotation. On the other hand, a soft sheet/sponge is easy to control because the ball bites, and it is easy to offset the influence of rotation by biting, but since the restoring force when the ball bites is slow, energy loss when hitting is severe.
Rubber is not very durable. Even if it is left alone, the rubber will deteriorate due to drying and oxidation, and it will rub the ball to bite it and rotate it, so the friction and elasticity of the rubber will decrease. The standard for replacement by life is 1 month for general athletes and 2-3 months for athletes with less practice.[13].. Also, while hitting the ball, dust such as dust adheres to the rubber, and the frictional force decreases. Dedicated to wipe thisRubber cleanerThere is.

Back soft rubber

A rubber sheet with a flat surface facing outward facing the sponge. Since the contact area with the ball is large, it is easy to rotate the ball. Currently most commonly used.

High elasticity/high friction system
Since the sheet is thin and the grains are slightly thin and high design, the grains easily bite into the sponge, and at the same time the repulsive force of the sponge causes the ball to fly, and at the same time, the frictional force on the surface of the sheet is used to create a pulling effect and rotate the ball. By doing so, high elasticity and frictional force are realized.It has good trajectory stability and is suitable for hitting a long drive. Since it has a long history of more than 40 years, there are many long-selling rubbers.In the past, rubber with improved momentum by increasing the synthetic rubber ratio of the sheet and 2.6 mm ultra-thick sponge with high elasticity comparable to tension rubber by taking advantage of the characteristics of high elasticity and high friction system were adopted. Unique rubber such as rubber has also been developed.It used to be the rubber with the highest market share, but the number of users is decreasing due to the spread of tension rubber along with non-glue.Rubber, which has appeared in recent years, has achieved higher elasticity and frictional force than conventional rubber by improving production technology.Specialty field of Japanese manufacturers.
Tension system
It creates a state where a load (tension) is applied to the rubber molecules that make up the seat and sponge, and due to the fast restoring force after the ball bites and the strong seat pulling effect, compared to the conventional high elasticity and high friction system. Realizes high elasticity, frictional force, and high hitting sound. Therefore, the rubber life tends to be shortened. The shape of the sheet conforms to the high elasticity and high friction rubber, but in some rubber the sheet is thick and the particles are low and thick, and the thickness of the particles is made to the limit that is recognized on the rule, Tension rubber suitable for table tennis on the table has also appeared. The trajectory is straight, and it is suitable for hitting a sharply curved curve drive, shoot drive, etc., but the stick ball tends to increase at the time of hitting, and if it is a soft rubber it is easy to fall into the amount of rotation due to the slow recovery force, It also has the aspect that it is difficult to control the momentum. Depending on the manufacturer, there are various names such as high tension type and built-in energy type. Although it has a short history since its appearance, there are many users among the top players, and since 2008 when the use of glue was banned, the "rotation system tension rubber" appeared, and it is now the most mainstream. It is a rubber. However, in recent years, the price has risen as the performance and durability of rubber have improved. Specialties of German and Japanese manufacturers.
Speed ​​system tension
It has the longest history in the tension system.Since the seat is generally soft, the seat is easily deformed, and the response after the ball bites is very sharp, so it has high momentum even when hitting lightly, but energy is easily lost when hitting hard.The elasticity is high due to the sharp response in general, but if the technique of applying rotation is poor, the ball tends to come out when hitting.However, depending on the striking method, it is possible to apply a strong rotation due to the effect of pulling the seat.Suitable for sticking on the back side of a shake or the back side of a Chinese pen.
Rotation system tension
It is a type of rubber that combines a sheet with a high natural rubber ratio and a tension sponge with large air bubbles. Since the sponge is slightly softer than the rubber hardness, the ball easily bites into it, and the sheet is slightly thicker than the normal tension system and the particles are slightly thick and low, and the sheet surface has frictional force, so it is easy to rotate. Due to the exquisite rubber design of the hardness of the seat and the softness of the sponge, it is easy to add momentum and rotation at light hits, medium hits, and strong hits, but generally the response that the ball bites is excellent while Since the response after biting is very slow, it is very difficult to hit mainly by the wrist, and the softer the sponge is, the slower the response after biting is, so the ball floats easily when hit. It is the most popular rubber since non-glue.
Of the rotating system tensions, the so-called "fogging system" and "matt system" often refer to a hard sheet made of natural rubber with strong tension. It is easier to rotate than it is, but it is heavy because the sheet is hard, and when the sponge is hard, the hardness is comparable to adhesive rubber. Since the sheet is very hard, it is very difficult to handle on the back side of the shake, but it can be said that it is a long-awaited rubber for the main battle type and the Japanese style pen.
Adhesive system
Since the surface of the sheet is sticky, the sheet is thick and the grains are low and thick, and the grain arrangement is not only vertical rubber but also horizontal rubber, so it is heavier than other types of rubber of the same thickness. Is heavy and often has low elasticity. Some sticky ones won't fall off even if you attach a ball. Since the particles are low and the sponge is often hard, and the ball does not easily bite, it is suitable for applying a strong rotation to the ball by rubbing it with the surface of the racket, and it takes longer for the ball to touch the rubber. Therefore, while it is easy to get a habit ball and change the amount of rotation easily, it is easily affected by the rotation of the opponent. In addition, it is extremely delicate compared to other rubbers, and there is a demerit that commercial rubber cleaners cannot be used because the surface of the sheet is sticky. On the other hand, it is possible to strengthen the adhesive force of the sheet by storing the rubber using the adhesive sheet for rubber storage released by each manufacturer. It is mainly used by Chinese players, and even in Japan, the main battle typeCut main battle typeThere are many users such as athletes. Areas of expertise of Chinese manufacturers.
Strong adhesion type, slight adhesion type, ultra slight adhesion type
It may be classified according to the adhesive strength of the sheet surface. The stronger the stickiness, the more the amount of rotation tends to increase, but the hitting speed tends to decrease.
Adhesive tension
It is a type of rubber that combines the performance of adhesive rubber and tension rubber and has higher elasticity than conventional adhesive rubber. In addition, an adhesive rotary tension rubber that uses a tension sponge with large bubbles as described above has also appeared, and the bite of the ball, which was a drawback of the adhesive system, has been improved, and the drive striking method of rubbing is very easy to do. ..
Ultra-thin system
Adhesive rubber that achieves the performance of "grain-height rubber-like" by combining with an ultra-thin sponge by taking advantage of the characteristics of the adhesive sheet and sheet with low particles. In addition to the amount of rotation and habit balls that are the characteristics of adhesive rubber, it is possible to make changes like grain height rubber, but since the momentum is very weak and the influence of rotation is large, it is a specification that is suitable for pen grains only Is.
Control system
A rubber that uses a soft sponge and seat and is designed for easy ball control. It is easy to handle, cheap, and often has a long life, so it is sometimes used when learning techniques, including beginners. On the other hand, since the repulsive force and the frictional force are low, there is a feeling that the power is insufficient at the competition stage and few people are using it.

Table soft rubber

Rubber that is attached to a sponge with the grain side of the sheet facing outward.Due to its structure, it is difficult to bite into the sponge, so a sponge that is softer than the back soft is used.In addition, tension-based front soft rubber that has been sold as having higher elasticity than conventional rubber has appeared, and in recent years, rotating tension-based front soft rubber that uses a sponge with large bubbles like the back soft rubber has appeared. It has appeared.

Because the contact area with the ball is small, the ball is released quickly, and it is less likely to be affected by the rotation of the ball hit by the opponent than the back soft, but it is difficult to apply the rotation and it is difficult to do the small skill of the rotation system.

Depending on the grain shape and characteristics of the sheet, it is classified into rotation type, speed type and change type, and the grain arrangement has a pattern of vertical and horizontal lines.

Basically, it is often used by front-line fast attack type players and cut main battle type players, but in recent years there is the influence that the drive main battle type with back soft rubber stuck on both sides of the racket is in full swing, so rubber development However, the number of types is far smaller than the soft rubber back.

Incidentally, in the large ball described later, only the rubber of this shape is allowed to be used by the rule.

Rotation system table software
The shape of the grains is trapezoidal and large. It is easy to rotate even in the table software, but it does not release the ball quickly like the speed system, and it is also difficult to produce changing balls such as knuckles. Mainly used by smash-type battle players, who often intertwine with drives.
Speed ​​system software
The shape of the particles is trapezoidal + columnar, and most of the particles are smaller than the rotating system. Among the table software, the ball is the fastest to separate from, and it is easy to get a knuckle type ball, but it is difficult to apply strong rotation like a rotating system. Mainly, the drive is used as a tie, and many players of the type whose main battle is smash are used.
Change system software
The grains are cylindrical.The grain is a little high, and it is designed so that changes such as knuckles are likely to occur.In the past, there were fewer users among the table soft rubbers than the former two,Ai FukuharaHowever, in addition to the fact that this type of rubber has been pasted and left a track record, the power of cutting with grain height rubber, which will be described later, has decreased due to the shift to plastic balls, and in recent years the number of users, mainly cutmen, has increased. ing.

Grain height rubber

Generic term for grain height rubber with sponge and single grain height rubber (OX) without sponge. It is also called wart height, but it is often called grain height rubber to avoid the word wart feeling. Tension-based high-rubber rubber, which is said to have higher elasticity than conventional rubber, has also been introduced.

The shape of the sheet is higher than the soft rubber and has a thinner horizontal surface. The grain arrangement is overwhelmingly large in the sideways, and the softer the grain, the easier it is to change. The amount of change also depends on the presence or absence of the texture. Even with a sponge, the sponge is very thin and has a weak momentum, resulting in a trajectory different from that of the front soft rubber.

It is more difficult to give rotation than the table software, but it is less affected by the opponent's rotation. Therefore, there is a characteristic that it is possible to use the rotation of the opponent or leave the ball as it is to return the ball. When the ball is struck, the grain repels the ball, so it does not rotate much when hit normally, or the hit ball often remains weakly rotated. However, in reality it depends on the batting method and the quality of the opponent's ball, so there may be rotations and changes that the handling side did not anticipate. It is also possible to return in reverse rotation. Driving is also possible.

In the past, anti-grain height rubber that was anti-processed on the sheet surface existed, but now that it is banned, the performance of grain height rubber is relatively lower than before, and plastic balls After the transition to, the performance degradation is even more pronounced.

It is mainly used to make changes by the players who are the cut type or the front side defense type, but it may be used by sticking it on the inverted racket. The application differs depending on the battle type, and in general, the cut type that determines the amount of rotation and change of the cut has high and thin particles, but the defensive type such as the pen type that requests the change amount in the block and the spin reversal ability The low and slender ones tend to be in the middle of those in the front-shake attack type, where the weakness is weak and the attack power is required for grain height.

One piece rubber

Soft rubber excluding sponge.Second World WarPreviously there was only this rubber. It's a rubber that doesn't bounce too much and is hard to spin, but it has the advantage of being able to hit a stable ball. Currently, very few players use this rubber. In the past, there was also a rubber that reversed this form (corresponding to the back soft rubber without sponge), but it is currently prohibited by the rule.

Anti rubber

It looks like a normal soft back, but it has very little friction and is hard to rotate. It was mainly used in a style that combined with the back soft of the same color and utilizing the similarity and the difference in appearance of the rubber to reverse it and make it difficult for the opponent to understand the change of the hit ball. Since the use of the same color rubber on both sides was prohibited by the rule revision in 1983, the number of users has decreased dramatically. A soft sponge is often used to increase controllability, but some manufacturers are composed of a sponge and sheet that are hard enough to break.

ball

General table tennis (hard table tennis) is 40 mm in diameter and weighs 2.7 g, and large ball table tennis is 44 mm in diameter and weighs 2.2-2.4 g. There are white and orange colors. Either may be used for rigid table tennis, but only orange for large balls. There are also competitions where you can choose either color if it is difficult to see depending on the surrounding environment (lighting, floor, background), uniform color, and table tennis color. Since it is technically difficult to make a large number of perfect spheres with high precision, the spheres made in the same manufacturing process are graded according to how close they are to spheres. The highest one is called 3 star, and it is divided into 4 stages up to the lowest rank MUJI. Grade classification is determined by the amount of deviation when the ball is rolled on a slope. If it is a perfect ball, go straight down the slope, and the greater the distortion, the greater the deviation. Normally, 3 stars (three stars) are used in competitions. Unlike other ball games, there were cases where multiple manufacturers were selected as the official ball for one tournament.[14].

Conventionally, a ball with a diameter of 38 mm was used in the game of hard table tennis, but the rule has been changed to a diameter of 40 mm. The changes due to the change in diameter include the fact that it became difficult to fly due to the increase in air resistance, the change in the knuckle was small, that the rally was easy to continue, and it became difficult to rotate. To be

The material used to becelluloidWas the mainstream, but in the 2010s it was replaced by non-celluloid materials (at the Olympic Games in 2012London OlympicsChanged by)[15].. It is said that the IOC asked the ITTF to change the material because the celluloid ball had a high risk of fire and there were cases where it was refused to be brought into the aircraft (in front of the Athens Olympics).[16].. The reason for the change by the ITTF is that celluloid is easily burned and deteriorates due to sunlight etc. and has poor durability, it is difficult to obtain good quality celluloid, and plastic material has less rotation and can suppress momentum and rally battle. It is said that there was a reason such as[15].

From 2014, plastic balls with a diameter of 40 mm (with and without seamless) appeared. There are changes such as a change in feel at impact due to the change of material to plastic, a relative decrease in the amount of rotation due to the lack of grain, and an increase in the initial velocity at the time of hitting. In addition to that, the seamless ball has a feature that the hit ball is easily stabilized because the variation in the bounce is reduced. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that the plastic balls vary greatly in performance depending on the manufacturer and are easily broken.[17].

The official sphere of celluloid takes half a year to manufacture, it takes 3 months to knead the celluloid into a plate, half a month by rounding it out and dipping in alcohol, half a month to dry naturally, half a month to make a hemisphere, one sphere. It takes half a month to polish the surface, and the process of drying, marking, and packaging is completed.[18].

Side tape

Attach so that the racket does not get damaged when it hits the table tennis table. Some people stick it only to cover the racket, and some stick it to the sponge part of the rubber they are using. Generally, the width is 6mm/8mm/10mm/12mm. There is also a metal side tape that allows you to adjust the weight and center of gravity of the racket.

adhesive

Used to bond the rubber and racket. Currently approved for use are water-soluble adhesives, adhesive sheets, and solid adhesives. In the past, adhesives made by dissolving rubber in organic solvents were widely used.However, because organic solvents are harmful to the human body, the use of adhesives containing organic solvents was not accepted in 2007 at elementary school students in Japan. Starting with the ban on use from April 4, it was banned at competitions in Japan after September 1, 2007. It was banned at international competitions from September 9, 1.

Currently, the use of adhesives approved by the Japan Table Tennis Association is permitted in Japan. However, as of 2009, no adhesive has been certified by the International Federation of Table Tennis. This is because the applied adhesive may react with the residual solvent slightly contained in the rubber, and even if an adhesive that is approved for use is used, it remains in the racket inspection after the match. Disqualification will occur if solvent is detected. Therefore, to prevent this, it is recommended to open the rubber package, leave it for 72 hours, and then attach it to the racket using a certified adhesive.

Speed ​​glue

One of the organic solvent-based adhesives for bonding rubber and rackets. It contains more organic solvent than ordinary adhesives, and when applied to rubber, it volatilizes in the sponge and the sponge expands. When rubber is attached to the racket in this state, the sheet surface is pulled laterally by the amount of expansion of the sponge, so the rubber is always under load. The repulsive force and the frictional force are increased, resulting in a high hitting sound called a metallic sound. Since the sponge becomes soft, even if the sheet becomes a little hard, it becomes soft as a whole. However, since the rubber is always loaded, the rubber deteriorates faster than when using a general adhesive.

The first person to discover the glue effect was said to be Hungary's Thibo Klampa. In Japan, in the early 1980s, it was the first time that former Japanese champion Takehiro Watanabe brought back and used Belgian glue. After that, since the development of Speed ​​Glue, Glue has spread worldwide, mainly to attack-type players.

It was the chairman of the International Federation of Table Tennis at that time that made it a problemIchiro OgimuraMet. Ogimura says that slowing down the ball speed from the viewpoint of popularizing table tennis, doping of equipment from the viewpoint of sports spirit is not preferable, many speed glues contain toluene, which is harmful to the human body and is similar to thinner play. Although there was a history of being used as a social problem by being used for inappropriate purposes other than table tennis, we proposed a ban on speed glue, but once Ogimura died, it was left blank.

Due to these problems, we have started to regulate the speed glue's toluene, and instead of toluene, heptane becomes the main component, which reduces elasticity and rotation. In order to compensate for the elasticity and the decrease in the amount of rotation, a method such as overcoating and steaming of speed glue was established, and the state of weasel play continued for a long time.

However, speed glue had accidents due to anaphylactic shock even when used for table tennis applications, and these health problems were discussed, and because it was highly volatile and dangerous in terms of transportation, speed glue was used. Has been prohibited. The ban on speed glue was originally planned to be enforced on September 2007, 9, but the following yearBeijing OlympicsIn the end, it will come into effect on September 2008, 9 after the Beijing Olympics.

Auxiliary agent

As mentioned above, non-toxic water-soluble adhesives (mainly composed of water, natural rubber, and acrylics) have become popular because the use of adhesives containing organic solvents has been banned. A non-adhesive auxiliary agent called water-soluble glue or water-soluble glue has been announced by the table tennis equipment manufacturer.

Similar to Speed ​​Glue, the state of using the auxiliary agent is superior in elasticity and rotation amount to the state of not using it, and since it contains mineral oil as the main component and does not contain organic solvent, it is relatively easy to handle and the effect lasts. It has the advantage of being easy. On the other hand, its low volatility has the disadvantages that it is not possible to reapply it by peeling off the rubber, the sharp response like speed glue cannot be compensated for, and the weight becomes heavy when applied.

However, the International Federation of Table Tennis is that the act of applying an auxiliary agent is the action of processing and remodeling the rubber (before sticking), and it is the doping of equipment, and the International Federation of Table Tennis amends the rule and from October 2008, 10 Added the rule "Prohibition of post-processing". This effectively prohibited the use of adjuvants. In response to this, the Japan Table Tennis Association (JTTA) will also use adhesives such as boosters and speed aids in all competitions held after October 1, 2008, based on the notification of revision of the rules of the International Table Tennis Federation. Announced to ban[19][20].. In response to this, the table tennis product manufacturer that sells the targeted adhesive aid and speed aid announced that it will stop selling at the end of September 2008.

In this way, supplementary agents were banned just one month after the speed glue was banned, so manufacturers that have released glue and supplementary agents have a large inventory, which puts pressure on business. Right after thatEuropean Table Tennis ChampionshipHowever, because the racket inspection could not comply with the new rules, some players were still using supplements.

Table tennis table

The ping-pong table has a three-layer structure to prevent it from warping due to aging, and in the middle layer, elongated boards are arranged with horizontal seams offset like flooring floors.

Table tennis table until the 1980s绿Color (dark green close to black[21]), but at the timeInternational Table Tennis FederationWas the chairmanIchiro OgimuraTo change the image of table tennis[22], CurrenttagProduced a colored table tennis table.1991年ToChibaHeld at41st World Table Tennis ChampionshipsAnd the next1992年 OfBarcelona OlympicSince this blue table tennis table was used, it has spread all over the world to the present day.

The table tennis table turned blue in the programTamori Tetsuro OdaTo theThat (table tennis) is so dark.The following year, the number of junior high school table tennis club members drastically decreased.[23].

Uniform shoes

Table tennisuniformIs abovecollarWithPolo shirtWith a shape similar toT-shirtShaped, belowHalf pants・Skirts are the basics. Only official products of the Japan Table Tennis Association are allowed to be used in official matches in Japan, and their labeling is mandatory. It will interfere with the game, such as unapproved items and hit balls will be difficult to seeDesignThose marked with are not usable.

Prior confirmation is required, but personally designed uniforms can be used as long as they meet the above requirements.2007å¹´1In the All Japan Table Tennis Championship held inNamoto YumiThe player entered the game in a unique uniform consisting of a one-shoulder and a mini skirt, which drew attention.

Most of the uniforms used to be mono-colored polo shirts, but in recent years many of them are made of a material and design similar to that of tennis and badminton, and have improved water repellency. Shorts were often unpopular with women, with short inseam being short, but in recent years, more and more men's thighs have been worn. You can also wear undershirts and spats.

As for shoes, there is no official regulation, so you can wear any shoes made as gym shoes.

Play

It is mainly classified into forehand and backhand, but one of the characteristics of table tennis is that there is table technology that processes balls on the table in addition to this.

Until now, forehands were at their heyday, but due to repeated regulations on speed glue toluene, the introduction of 40mm balls, prohibition of speed glue, etc. By supplementing with speed, the speed of the rally is generally faster, and the proportion of backhand usage is also increasing accordingly.

Forehand and backhand

The forehand is a method of hitting from the dominant hand side, and since the swing is large, it is possible to hit a powerful ball, but it is difficult to catch the ball at a fast hitting point, and there is a large risk when receiving a counter.

On the other hand, the backhand is a method of hitting from the opposite side of the dominant hand, and since the swing is small, the power of the hit ball is hard to come out compared to the forehand, but since the ball can be hit at a faster hitting point than the forehand, the ball is returned after the opponent hits the ball. It takes less time to reach the opponent than the forehand, so it is effective when bringing it to a fast rally development.

In the heyday of pen holders, it was basic to hit with the reverse foot of the dominant hand in front, but when the shake hand became widespread and the two-handed striking method was required, the reverse foot of the dominant hand was pushed forward. Although the strike zone is wide in the batting method, the hitting point is slow, the backhand is difficult to swing, it is difficult to switch, and it is difficult to distinguish between the forehand cross and the straight.

Currently, the de facto standard is to hit the forehand and backhand with both feet parallel, and to hit the cross with the forehand or to hit the backhand with the foot on the dominant hand side forward each time to make it easier to swing.

Bench technology

Tsutsuki
A batting method in which a short ball on a table is hit with a more compact swing than a cut. It is often the case that a slightly long ball that does not come out of the table is turned down and returned. The risk of making a mistake is low, but the probability of being attacked by the opponent's third ball is high. However, depending on the technique, it is possible to induce mistakes by making a strong downward rotation or horizontal rotation, or by making a long or short change. In addition, a non-rotating type Tsutsuki that does not rotate may be called a knuckle.
stop
A batting method that mainly captures the hit ball immediately after bouncing and returns it to the opponent's court with a small bounce of at least two bouncing balls, in response to the opponent's short lower rotation system ball. Since the hitting point is faster than Tsutsuki, it is mainly used for receiving for short serve on the table. It is effective as a defense technology because the drive cannot be physically hit against a low stop. However, if it floats, it becomes a chance ball for the opponent. When it comes to receiving by advanced players, it is possible to return even a short upper rotation system ball at a stop or to apply a strong downward rotation. Returning a stop as a stop is called a double stop. In addition, it may be called a drop shot to give a stop to the opponent who has fallen to the point where it drops a little on the net.
Flick
A batting method in which the opponent's short service or the ball on the table is returned by giving forward rotation on the table and paying. The risk is high when countered, so it is a very compact batting without takeback. If technology improves, it is possible to hit a ball with a speed that can be said to be a strong hit on the table, and it is also possible to aim for a score directly from the receive.
push
It is a batting method that hits like pushing out, mainlyPen holderUsed to attack the back side of.Shake handCompared to the backhand of, it is harder to exert power, but depending on the method, it can strike equal or better.
Tabletop drive (tabletop forehand drive)
A method of hitting a ball that does not come out of the table by rubbing it against the ball. The big difference from the forehand flick is that it requires a take-back when hitting the ball, resulting in a large swing. Originally, it was a table-top technology developed in China to take advantage of the characteristics of adhesive rubber, and it has the disadvantage of being restricted by the tools used.
Chiquita
In some cases, it may be called Chiquita Receive.Peter Colbell(Czech Republic) is a batting method, which is a backhand horizontal rotation type flick. There is also a drive striking method that applies this striking method. Basically used by shake hand players, but even with a penBack strikeIs possible with. It came to be called this way because it drew a curve like Chiquita Banana (one of the brand names of banana). Also, the reverse lateral rotation type Chiquita that hits from the swing of the Chiquita is called "inverse Chiquita", and there are various hitting methods,Kato MiyuThe reverse chiquita that is often used bySimon GojiThe reverse chiquita that is often used by is called "Gogeta".
Back hand drive on bench (BD on bench)
Backhand version of the bench drive. It is easier to catch the ball at a hitting point as fast as the Chiquita compared to the bench drive, and the BD on the bench captures the top of the ball against the Chiquita that captures the side of the ball, so it is possible to get out with one shot with speed Is. Also, since the swing is compact, it has the merit that it does not bounce too much on the table and is less subject to the constraints of the equipment. However, catching the ball above is easily affected by the rotation (especially downward rotation) of the opponent's service, and in addition to the swing speed to some extent, the freehand, the movement of the body, and the weight at the time of hitting the ball. It needs to be moved. Since it has been used for a long time in the world championship due to the heavy use of Chinese Zhang Jie, it has become widespread not only in top players in the world but also in junior and elementary and junior high school classes.

Applied technology

drive
A batting method that gives the ball a strong forward rotation (top spin).EuropeLet’s talk about the drivetopspin". It is a technique that is acquired after learning basic batting techniques to some extent, and is basically divided into two methods: rubbing and biting. Various batting methods represented by the following have been established, and even batting methods that are considered to be weak points, such batting methods have been popular, centering on top players. Also, with the evolution of equipment, rackets, and rubber, and changes in the practice environment, the number of players who have difficulty in power in the past has become more and more familiar with a single drive batting method, and is widely used by many battle-type players. Came to be.
The drive is basically more stable than the smash because it draws a falling trajectory, and the range of tactics is widely used because it is possible to hit various balls depending on how to apply speed and spin as will be described later. That is the reason.
Speed ​​drive
It refers to a drive in a nearly horizontal orbit with emphasis on speed. If you become a top player, it will be as fast as a smash. Due to the high performance of the rubber, it is relatively easy to control and has many users.
Loop drive
It is a drive in an orbit close to a mountain with an emphasis on spin. As research on loop drive progressed, a loop drive with a sinking orbit was used in the game, after bouncing with a trajectory that drew a mountain arc near the opponent's net, and then bouncing on the opponent's court with a lower trajectory. I started to be seen. While a normal drive draws a trajectory that extends after bouncing, a loop drive sinks. However, the loop drive has a high trajectory, and if you land far from the net, it will be a slow drive and you will be counterattacked. Control is required to kill the speed and drop it near the net while applying a strong rotation.
Curve drive, shoot drive
A drive that gives the ball lateral rotation. When a right-handed player hits in the forehand, a left-handed drive is called a curve drive and a right-handed drive is called a shoot drive. The curve drive turns to the side opposite to the dexterity (as seen from the hitter), and the shot drive turns to the dexterity side. Like a changing ball in baseball, it changes in various ways depending on the direction of the rotation axis, the amount of rotation, and the speed. The angle of bending changes depending on the axis of rotation, and the direction of flight of the ball also changes when bouncing. Further, when returning a ball, the hit ball changes to the left and right due to the influence of lateral rotation. There may be some lateral rotation due to the habit of swinging the drive, but advanced players can consciously control the rotation.
Power drive
A drive that has a spin on a speed drive. In addition to the speed of smash and the intense rotation, it requires a proper amount of practice and strength to learn.
Counter drive
A drive that hits the opponent's drive. Since there are situations in which a player returns a ball with a fast drive, not only the amount of practice but also the ability to determine the hit ball and the timing to return the ball are required. Often used by advanced players.
smash
A striking method that hits the ball flat like a ball. Many players hit the final shot. You can hit a fast ball with a swing smaller than a drive, but since the trajectory is linear, there is a high possibility that it will not enter if the angle shifts. Some of the world's top players hit the smash with an initial speed of over 280 km/h. It is difficult to hit the racket because of the speed, but it is possible to return if the racket angle is matched. In recent years, as a result of the modification of the form, it can no longer be distinguished from the driving method.
Backhand smash (pen holder)
With a pen holder type back, pull your freehand with your right foot in front (if you are right-handed), put your weight around your elbow and hit the opponent's court. It is difficult to read the course because it swings compactly with few preliminary movements.
cut
It is a method used by cut type players with a large swing in the middle and apse, and is distinguished from Tsuttsuki. There are fore and back striking methods, but since grain height or table soft is pasted on the back side, it is often the case that the back is cut frequently. At the advanced level, in addition to the downward rotation (backspin), there are also players who mix diagonal downward rotation and lateral rotation.
Meat strike
It is an attack method mainly used by front soft rubber players. It is a hitting method that repels a spinning ball strongly and receives it like a smash. The striking method that finely adjusts the angle of the racket according to the rotation of the opponent is sometimes called angle striking. Whether or not to distinguish them strictly is a matter of judgment. Since the racket is shaken off compactly and the ball is not rubbed, it does not rotate much and the power itself is not so great, but it may be a decisive hit because the opponent's defense can not be made in time because it hits with a high hit point quickly.
Cut
It is a technique to return a ball by using Tsuttsuki or lower rotation of a cut. Since the opponent's downward rotation is used, RBI and timing are required. There is also a method of returning a ball by applying drive rotation while using this.
block
Against the opponent's smash and drive, the defensive technology to return the ball so that it hits at the top of the bounce and the peak of the bounce in the front-middle team. When blocking with the back soft, it is necessary to adjust the racket angle accurately. Swing is not so big because the purpose of the block is to return the opponent's smash. There are also techniques to change the return ball, such as "kill and return" the power of the opponent's ball, "return as it is", or "add and return your own power". Depending on the skill level, depending on the player, it may be possible to block the power so much that two bounces are made on the table against the opponent's smash. Some players take the tactic of turning by side spin block etc. to induce mistakes and blocking all the balls hit by the opponent and aiming at the connecting ball.
counter
It refers to all the techniques to return the opponent's bang with a bang. There is no fixed way to hit because the purpose is to punch out an opponent who is not in a proper position and to use the opponent's ball power, and it has a defensive side like a counter block from a hard hit like a counter drive Technology is also included. This is a high-risk, high-return tactic that has a high degree of difficulty but a high score because it strikes at the opponent's swipe.
Robbing
A batting method in which the ball is launched high to gain time and return. It invites the opponent's mistakes, but is easily hit by the opponent. However, since the hit ball is high, it is easily affected by the rotation at the time of bouncing, so it is possible to return the ball as a ball that is difficult for the opponent to hit by striking it with intense rotation.
フ ィ ッ シ ュ
The technique of returning the opponent's ball with a trajectory lower than lobing in the middle and apse. It is said that the fish hitting point is later than the block hitting point and the fish hitting point is past the apex. It is a tethering ball that surpasses the so-called opponent's attack, but it is harder to hit than robing. A tactic is also used in which the opponent's attack is overwhelmed by fish, and a counterattack is made at a stretch when the opponent attacks.

Service (serve)

At table tennis, the rally starts from the service. Since the game is assembled as the starting point of the attack, if you become a top player, you can use the service replay by Let to escape the service that missed the ball with let and prevent unnecessary goals, miss the opponent's receive timing, Many players adopt advanced service tactics for purposes such as disturbing the pace.

Services are broadly classified into fore service and back service, and there are short service and long service, respectively. In a broad sense, short service refers to a service that results in a trajectory of two or more bounds on the opponent's court, and long service refers to a service of one trajectory on the opponent's court to leave the table tennis table. In table tennis, rotation is very important in service, and it is mainly divided into vertical rotation (upward rotation, downward rotation), horizontal rotation (forward horizontal rotation, reverse horizontal rotation), non-rotation. There are variations such as diagonal rotation (forward horizontal up rotation, forward horizontal down rotation, reverse horizontal up rotation, reverse horizontal down rotation) and gyro rotation. However, since the diagonal rotation can change the vertical/horizontal ratio depending on the racket angle, direction, service motion, etc., the change amount varies depending on the vertical/horizontal ratio, rotation amount, speed, etc. even with the same rotation.

Since 2002, when handhide and bodyhide services were completely banned, it became easier for the other party to see the service, and advanced service technology developed. Typical ones are fake motion, hiding the racket before and after hitting, follow through, vertical service, etc.

Type of service (serve)

Fore service
A service that uses the fore side of the racket on the dominant arm side of your body. Depending on the player, the grip varies depending on the purpose, such as easy control, widening the range of movement of the wrist to apply strong rotation, and quick return after servicing. In some cases, the grip will be similar. In singles games, there are many cases where services are basically issued from the position on the back side of the team, and there are cases where services are provided near the center depending on the game development and tactics.
Up-down service
A type of fore service, which is a service that swings the racket up or down from the same swing path and uses up and down rotation separately. If the technology improves, it is possible to mix a horizontal rotation system, to make it a vertical service described later, or to add fake motion.
YG (Young Generation) Service
A type of fore service, which swings from the inside of the body to the outside to apply rotation, so it is mainly used for reverse lateral rotation services. Before the rule was revised, it was often used together with normal foreservice because it was possible to hide the impact of a hit ball. Even after the ban on bodyhide/handhide services, it has been used to increase variations in rotation, change service tactics and rally development. Commonly known as YG and Yangene.
Involvement service
A type of fore service, in which the racket head is raised slightly upwards. As with the YG service, the amount of rotation is inferior due to the reverse lateral rotation system service, but since there is no need to change the grip of the racket, there are many users mainly for female players who need a quick return.
Vertical service
Although it is a type of horizontal rotation service, it can provide forward horizontal and reverse horizontal services. The forehand service was developed with the prohibition of bodyhide and handhide services, and is mainly used by top athletes. Since the racket is erected at the time of impact and the surface of the racket is shown to the opponent, it is difficult for the opponent to know in which direction the rotation is applied. Due to the characteristics, horizontal rotation is always applied, so there is a disadvantage that pure lower rotation service and upper rotation service cannot be performed. It is technically possible to use it as a back service.
Back service
A service that uses the back side of the racket. The position at which the service is provided for one's body depends on the athlete. You can quickly get back in position.
Crouching service
When you serve, you should bend your knees and crouch while you serve. It is possible to apply a strong rotation, but there is also the drawback that the reaction to the returning ball will be delayed if it returns slowly to its original position.
Prince serve
It is a kind of crouching service. It is a serve that bends down and extends the racket vertically and cuts the ball on the back of the racket to rotate.
Speed ​​long service
A type of long service that accelerates the second bounce near the end line of the opponent's court. It is easy to aim at the service ace and is also used for the purpose of not letting the opponent hit with a sufficient posture, but there is also a disadvantage that the server can not return to the posture quickly and receive a goal when receiving the counter.
Throw-up service (Hightos service)
Serve by throwing the ball high when making a serve toss. If you don't get used to it, the trajectory of the falling ball will shift from the hitting point and you will make mistakes, but the rotation and speed will increase. In addition, it is necessary to check before the service because the light of the illumination is exposed. Some players in the world raise 7-8 meters toss.

Fake motion follow-through

It is a type of service technology that can make the opponent dazzle before and after the ball is hit in the service.

In normal services, the rotation pattern of the service is easy to spot, so fake motion is used to put a fake at the service at the competition level. Also, in the follow-through immediately after hitting the service, by raising the elbow, making a movement different from the swing trajectory of the racket, raising the elbow to change the direction of the racket, hiding the racket, etc. , Used as a means to deceive the other party. There are many users, mainly top players.

Battle type

Shake hand
Drive main battle type
The battle type that is currently the mainstream among many battle types. Keeping a little distance from the table tennis table, making full use of the front, back, left, and right footwork, a strong drive is always applied to the ball, always looking aggressively and aggressively. The rally battle between drive main battle types is well-known for its powerfulness and power.
Front team haste type
As its name suggests, it is a battle type that always plays close to the table tennis table. A play style in which you can instantly see the type and course of the opponent's ball and start an attack at an early timing. It can be said that the battle type requires the quickest judgment and dynamic visual acuity, but even small players can exert their strength, so many Japanese top players take this battle type.
Cut main battle type
A dynamic battle type that responds to the opponent's bang with a ball that has a strong downward rotation at a position away from the table tennis table, and when it sees a chance, it goes forward at once and fights back.It is often thought of as a defensive battle type, but since the shake hand itself is weak against the middle and a defensive style is impossible, it is actually an aggressive battle type that also uses cuts.In addition to the drive main battle type and front team haste type technology, footwork with a wide range of motion, tenacious cutting technology, and power and speed when turning to offense are required, so it is exclusively for advanced players. (The above is from page 5 of "Mirumiru Improvement Sports Practice Menu 106 Table Tennis".)
Alien defense
A battle type that scores points due to the opponent's mistake against the short without leaving the table.Generally, a grain height rubber is pasted on the back side of the racket, and the change ball and the slowness of the course due to it invite the opponent's mistake.Usually, the back soft rubber or front soft rubber is stuck on the fore side, and the ball that comes to the fore attacks with a smash or drive.In addition, when hitting a ball slowly or quickly, the racket may be reversed during the rally to attack.
In contrast to the foreign short type called pen grain, the foreign offensive and defensive type is called shake grain.Unlike the heterogeneous short type, it is vulnerable to the middle, so it is not possible to take a defensive style that changes with blocks, so aggressive grain height rubber is often attached.JapaneseFukuoka HarunaIs famous.
All round type
A battle type in which back soft rubber is attached to both sides and points are scored by making full use of many techniques such as drive lobing. It requires tactical flexibility, high physical ability, and technical ability to fight in the front, middle, and rear teams. SwedishWaldnerAnd JapanJun MizutaniIs famous.
Pen holder
Drive main battle type
Popular namePendora.. Attack mainly by forehand drive. Many players make dynamic moves that take advantage of their footwork, such as turning around and jumping. It is said that it is difficult to hit a backhand drive that is stronger than the shake handdrive type due to its structure, but some players are good at quick push and backhand smash that have enough points to make up for it. However, the weak point of the pen holder is basically the back. Therefore, it is often the case that they run into the opposite course and defensively. However, recently, mainly in China,Back strikeThere are also players who hit a powerful backhand drive (so-called backside drive). KoreanLiu Chengmin,Gold,ChineseWang Hao,Ma Lin, Xuchang, JapanKai YoshidaIs famous.
Table software haste type
A battle type that uses a table soft rubber to connect to an attack with the shortest amount of effort possible and to aggressively attack. Mainly used smash as the final hit. There are also players who hit the backhand drive by the back-side hitting method like the drive main battle type. JapaneseToshio Tasaki,ChineseLiu Guo Liang(Former China National Team Coach, now Chairman of the China Table Tennis Association) is famous.
Heterogeneous short type
This refers to a type in which rubber is pasted on both sides using a reversing type or Chinese style pen holder racket, and grain height rubber is pasted on one side.Commonly known as pen grain.The combination of back soft + grain height and front soft + grain height is common.During the game, play near the table, break the opponent's timing by changing the block due to the grain height rubber, attack when the opponent has a gap, flip the racket and hit the opponent with a different ball quality It is a defensive battle type, such as inviting mistakes.Due to changes in rubber standards and changes in rules, the power of grain-height rubber has decreased from the past, and very few top players have adopted this type of battle.For girls, he is a former Chinese national teamLuxembourgIs famous.

Table tennis terms

Tawelling
During the competitionTowelでSweatWipe.Short-term taoring is permitted in the following cases.
Every 6 points from the start of each game (that is, when the total number of points for both players is a multiple of 6)[24]
When you make a change end (change of court) in the final game
When the racket surface gets wet with sweat or the glasses get sweaty and the referee has given permission.
Cross and straight
The cross points diagonally to the opponent's court side, and the straight points to the opponent's court side directly in front of where you are.
Edge (edge ​​ball)
A ball that has fallen by touching the edge of a table tennis table[25][26].
Let
To play again. This applies when the ball of the serve touches the net and enters the opponent's court, or when the opponent hits the serve without being ready.[27].
Love games
Take a set without the opponent getting any points.
In international competitions, it is "manner" that the winning side intentionally makes a mistake and gives 10 point to the opponent when it becomes 0-1, and the losing side does not try to win and makes the next mistake. ing.This is not a rule, and some players do not follow the "manner" and shut out.[28][29]

Countries with thriving table tennis

Japan - 1950 era - 1970 eraJapan was one of the best in the world.Armed with the dynamic forehand of a Japanese-style pen, he has produced a total of 13 men and women who have been world champions of singles in the past.However, after the 80s, the spread of shake hands forced the change of play style, and the stagnation continued for a long time due to the failure of generation change.

2000 eraSince then, the strengthening policy led by the Japan Table Tennis Association has been established, and women have won five consecutive bronze medals in the world championship group, silver medals in 5 and 2014, and silver medals in 2016 at the Olympics.Rio de Janeiro OlympicsWon the bronze medal in the group. In addition,2017 Asian ChampionshipでHirano MiuDefeated three Chinese players to win the championship,2017 World ChampionshipでHirano MiuWon a bronze medal in women's singles for the first time in 48 years.

Even in boys2005å¹´Won the World Junior Championships team competition,2008å¹´After that, he won the bronze medal for four consecutive games in the world table tennis championship group, and the silver medal in 4Rio de Janeiro OlympicsThen, in the men's team, silver medal, in the men's singlesJun MizutaniDemodulated, such as winning a bronze medal.

In December 2019, Koji Kimura, a former table tennis player and Honorary Vice Chairman of the Japan Table Tennis Association,All Japan Taekwondo AssociationBecame chairman of.

People's Republic of China -World's largest table tennis power. Historically, they were good at table tennis on the table centering on the front-line haste, and once there were many players who used table software, but in recent years overwhelmingly many players use adhesive rubber. Both the boys and girls have a strong player base, and many strong players who have nowhere to go have been leaked overseas, eventually sending naturalized players all over the world.2008å¹´ OfBeijing OlympicsSo, men and women monopolize the podium, and men and women win gold medals in groups. According to a report by Larry's in 2019, a system in which players go to school all year long from the time of elementary school and aim for a national team by striving for table tennis is producing strong table tennis players.[30].

Hong Kong -Part of China as a country, but participate as a region in international table tennis competitions. Naturally, there are many players with a play style similar to China. Most of the representative players are Chinese naturalized players.

South Korea -There are many players who play dynamic by making the most of their footwork.Seoul Olympics-Athens OlympicsThen won the men's single gold medal.

DPR Korea ――Boys are good at playing stoic compared to Korean players, and many girls are foreign players who use grain height and table software.2002年Defeating China in the Asian Games final, Kim Hyangmi defeated a Chinese player to win a silver medal at the Athens Olympics, and a woman won a bronze medal at the 2016 World Table Tennis Championships group. I sometimes show it. Kim Sung Yi won the bronze medal in the singles at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics.

There are many players with play styles similar to Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea.It's not as strong as China, but it can appear in the top ranks.

Singapore -Many of the national players are naturalized players in China, and their play styles are similar to those in China. Girls2008å¹´World Championship and 2008Beijing OlympicsHave won silver medals, and defeated China in the 2010 World Championships (groups) to win gold medals.

ドイツ -Table tennis professional league (Bundesliga), the leading men from all over the world are gathering. In Europe, boys won silver medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics group, silver medal at the 2012 London Olympics group, bronze medal at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics group, and women's group silver medal at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics. It is a powerful country.

スウェーデン - 1980 eraFrom the second half1990 eraOverスウェーデンOccupies the top of men's table tennis. Recently, it has revived again and has won the bronze medal in the 2018 World Championship team competition and the silver medal in the singles in the 2019 World Championship individual competition.

France -There is a professional league of table tennis, and in Europe, it is a powerful country like Germany and Sweden. However, due to the failure of generational change2000 eraUntil then, it was sluggish.In recent years, young people have come out, and I am looking forward to the future.

England -Part of the United Kingdom, but as a region in international table tennis competitions. Due to the historical background of Hong Kong, which is an island nation, there are many players with different play styles from other European countries. Although it remained sluggish for a long time, the men won the bronze medal at the 2016 World Table Tennis Championships.

ロシア -There is a table tennis professional league (premier league), and men are influential players from all over the world. Also, young people are growing there and I look forward to the future.

オーストリア -In the world championship team competition, most of them have advanced to the final tournament in recent years, boasting stable strength. Werner Schlager won the gold medal in the singles in the 2003 World Championship individual competition.

EuropeCountries-Sweden, Germany, table tennis is also popular in various European countries other than France. The ups and downs due to generational changes are large because there are many relatively small countries, but in countries with influential players, it may leave good results in international competitions.

North America -Although not as active as in the countries mentioned above, naturalization players from China have become the representative to raise the level.

Brazil -Table tennis has been popular since the Rio de Janeiro Olympics, and it entered the first 2018 best in the 8 World Championship team competition.

TypicallyAsiaIt was popular in Europe, but as mentioned above, naturalized players from China are scattered all over the world, so there are many countries with representative Chinese players.

Large ball

Large ball table tennis (which was called new table tennis before April 24, 4) is performed using a ball larger than the ball (1 mm in diameter) used in general table tennis (hard table tennis). It is a table tennis competition. The main difference from hard table tennis

  • The ball used is large (44 mm in diameter) and light
  • Only front soft rubber can be used for rubber, but grain height rubber is not possible
  • The height of the net is 2 cm higher
  • There is no provision for the height of service toss (16 cm for hard type).

And so on.

Japan Table Tennis Association devised for the purpose of popularizing table tennis, rules, equipment standards, etc.1988å¹´Established. Since the ball is large and the influence of air resistance increases, the speed and rotation amount of the ball are less than conventional table tennis, and the rally is easy to continue. In Japan, it is popular among middle-aged and elderly people as a lifelong sport that can be easily performed by elderly people, and many competitions are held.

Slippers table tennis

Large yellow balls are used in slipper table tennis. Deuces can be settled with up to 1 points in one game. Maximum game 13 game match. At the hot spring table tennis held in Yamaguchi City, a player who was originally a member of Nippon Life won the title and was featured on the newspaper.

Soft (Japanese style) table tennis

The first table tennis to be introduced in Japan is1902å¹´ToTokyo Higher Normal School OfGenso Tsuboi UKIs supposed to be the first to bring back table tennis equipment from[7]. For a while, there was development of Japanese unique tools and rules[7], Japan's first table tennis governing body was founded1921å¹´Around 10th year of Taisho, competitions were held on soft (Japanese) table tennis. The main difference from hard table tennis

  • The diameter of the ball used is 36.9 mm or more and 38.9 mm or less
  • The weight of the ball is 2g or more and 2.13g or less
  • Net height is 2 cm higher 17.25 cm

And so on.

With the popularization of large ball table tennis and the change of the rules for hard table tennis,2001å¹´(13) The curtain came to an end at the end.

Table tennis as entertainment and culture

Compared to other sports, table tennis is easier to meet the conditions for playing the game (understanding the rules, skills, securing places, tools, and players), so it is easy for people of all ages to get familiar, practical, and a lifelong sport. Widely loved by Japanese. But the table tennis staffJock(Yang Cat)notNard(Shadow) Is treated asprejudiceAndTamori OfDarknessRemarkCauseThere is an opinion that such a situation has been made in)) is common, but there is no such prejudice in North America and Europe. However, there is an image in Europe and America that it is a popular sport for Chinese and other yellow races as mentioned above.

Manga in 1993Go! Inaka table tennis clubIs a bestseller, and Ai Fukuhara was spotlighted as a "genius table tennis girl" at about the same time, and the movie "2002" was released in XNUMX.Ping-pong』(Yosuke KubotsukaSince the (starring) was screened, the boom has spread among young people. It is one of the sports that you can play casually, because it can be done by ladies and children, regardless of clothes, and there is little concern about injury.

Tactics

Table tennis organization

Country representatives

Major international competitions

Main table tennis league

Table Tennis Tournament

Major domestic tournaments

Other tournaments

賞

Table tennis supplies manufacturer

Table tennis media

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d "HistoryofTableTennis”. International Table Tennis Federation. 2020/3/30Browse.
  2. ^ Table Tennis Fountain of Knowledge Motoo Fujii 2003 Ping Pong Kingdom P23
  3. ^ Complete Works of Yamada Kosaku 2001 Iwanami Shoten Co., Ltd. 667 PXNUMX
  4. ^ Japan Sports Association XNUMX Years History
  5. ^ SO Summer Sports Rules June 2016 (PDF) ス ペ シ ャ ル オ リ ン ピ ッ ク ス 日本
  6. ^ Background of the introduction of the 11-point system and how to fight it All About 2001/7/16
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i History of Japanese table tennis glory(As of January 2009, 1Archive) 2009World table tennis championshipYokohama convention officialサイト
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i World Table Tennis Championship History(As of January 2009, 1Archive) 2009World table tennis championshipOfficial website of the Yokohama Games
  9. ^ a b c d e Takayuki Shirahige・SPORTS 21,Ichiro Ogimura, the famous player who supported the XNUMXth table tennis Nippon(Internet archive) Japan Senior Online
  10. ^ Fuji Television Trivia Dissemination Committee "Trivia Fountain: Hee no Hon 6" Kodansha, 2004.
  11. ^ An example of a hand saw racket Yasakaformulaサイト
  12. ^ Frequently Asked Questions/Q. What do you mean by the hard and soft feeling of hitting on the racket?(As of January 2008, 8Archive) Butterfly table tennis equipment /TamasOfficial Website
  13. ^ Frequently Asked Questions/Q. Do rackets have the same life as rubber?(As of January 2008, 8Archive) Butterfly table tennis equipment /TamasOfficial Website
  14. ^ [Sports news] "Illumination is too dark" "Unification of the balls used in the tournament" Ping-pong "Something king, Jun Mizutani" raised the problem -Sankei News February 2015, 2
  15. ^ a b "Plastic material analysis example-Ping-pong ball material”. Plastics Japan.com. 2020/1/15Browse.
  16. ^ Table tennis balls change... Is the "plastic ball" a poison or a drug for players? -Toa Nippo
  17. ^ [Table tennis] Only 6 unexpected "baptism" game balls! Makoto "I have to be careful" -Sports report, August 2016, 8
  18. ^ Fuji Television Trivia Dissemination Committee "Trivia Fountain: Hee no Hon 2" Kodansha, 2003.
  19. ^ About future use of adhesive and racket inspection (Japan Table Tennis Association June 19, 6) (PDF) Tokushima Prefecture Table Tennis Association
  20. ^ About rule changes (PDF) (As of January 2008, 9Archive) Japan Table Tennis Association 2008 year (Heisei 20 year) 9 month 13 day
  21. ^ "Philosophy and Management" August 2016 Issue
  22. ^ [Supporting athletes] Blue table tennis table Hope for reconstruction -Asahi Shimbun April 2016, 4
  23. ^ Narinari.com September 2015, 9 Retrieved February 2017, 2
  24. ^ TV Asahi"Only 3% of Japanese know that it's Hanashika from Creamy Chu!』From the broadcast on August 2016, 8
  25. ^ What is an edge ball?
  26. ^ "A must-see/sports dictionary to understand immediately" published on January 1998, 1, publisher Shunsuke Nakayama, page 20.
  27. ^ What is let -Kotobank, viewed June 2016, 6
  28. ^ https://number.bunshun.jp/articles/-/832627
  29. ^ https://www.tv-tokyo.co.jp/tabletennis/news/2020/03/010022.html
  30. ^ Why is table tennis so strong in China? <Vol.1 Jun Mizutani> Larry's 2019.08.02 (viewed on August 2020, 8)

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