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The smile does not stop at the hug from the beautiful wife ... Ori helper right arm released "happiness 2 shots"

 
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Higgins proposed to Reagan at the baseball stadium on Christmas 2019, and the couple are scheduled for a wedding in Florida on December 12, 4.
 

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Florida

Florida
State of Florida
Florida State FlagFlorida sign
(State flag(State emblem)
State nickname: Sunshine State
Sunshine State
State motto: We believe in god
In God We Trust
Florida location
State capitalTallahassee
Largest cityJacksonville
Governor(English edition
Official terminologyEnglish
area
 - Grand total
 -Land
 -Water area
22th in the US
170,305 km²
139,670 km²
30,634 km² (18.0%)
population(2010
 - Grand total
 - Population density
4th in the US
18,801,310People
130.67 people/km²
Join US
 -Turn
 -Date of subscription

27th
18453/3
Time zoneUTC -5, -6
STD -4, -5
latitudeNorth latitude 24° 30'-31°
longitudeWest longitude 79°48'-87°38'
East-west width260 km
North-south length800 km
elevation
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

105 m
30 m
0 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-FL
WebsiteFlorida Government
Senator
Marco Rubio

Florida(British: State of Florida [ˈFlɒrɪdə] ( Audio file) ) IsSoutheastern United States OfState.Gulf of Mexico大西洋Be sandwiched betweenFlorida PeninsulaOccupies the entire area ofGeorgiaAlabamaIs in contact withSun beltIt is one of the states with a relatively warm climate called.

Florida covers 170,306 km2 (65,758 mi2), Which ranks 50nd among the 22 states, but has a coastline length of about 1900 km.ContinentIt is the longest of the 48 states.

Florida is in the north and centralSubtropical, In the south熱 帯Because it belongs to and is generally warm, it has the nickname "Sunshine State".[1].. The estimated population in 2009 was 18,537,969, the fourth largest of the 50 states in the United States.[2][3].State capital TheTallahassee (Tallahassee), the city with the largest populationJacksonville (Jacksonville) and other majorcityasMiami (Miami),Tampa (Tampa),Orlando (Orlando) etc.Miami metropolitan areaIs the largest metropolitan area in the state with a population of over 500 million.

Kennedy Space Center, Spaceport Florida,Walt Disney World Resort,Universal Orlando Resort, Sea World of Florida, etc., is famous as one of the leading tourist destinations in the United States.

Languages ​​Spoken at Home (Florida) 2010
English
  
73.36%
Spanish
  
19.54%
French
  
2.44%
Racial composition (Florida) 2010
White
  
57.9%
Hispanic
  
22.5%
Black
  
16.0%
Asian
  
2.4%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
  
0.4%
Mixed
  
2.5%

History

Geography

FloridaGulf of Mexico,大西洋, AndFlorida StraitSurrounded byBig peninsulaLocated inBahamasas well as the CubaSuch asWest IndiesThere are maritime borders with countries. Along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, a region called the Florida Panhandle extends northwest, during peninsular hours.Eastern Standard TimeOn the other hand, this pan handle isChubu Standard TimeIt is in and straddles two time zones. It borders Georgia to the north of the pan handle and Alabama to the west. Second World WarAt that time, Florida's long coastline was considered a visible target, and the federal government built runways throughout the state. Even today, there are about 400 airports operating in the state. According to the National Drug Information Center, there are 131 public airports and more than 700 private airports, runways, heliports and seaplane bases in the state.[4].. FloridaMississippi RiverIt is one of the largest states in the east and also in water area in the United States.ア ラ ス カ 州ミ シ ガ ン 州It is the third place after that.

Briton Hill, 105 m above sea level, near the border with AlabamaBritton Hill) Is the highest point in Florida, which is the lowest among the highest points in the 50 states of the United States.[5].OrlandoThe area south of is generally low and flat. However, Florida is surprisingly uneven, on the west coast of the central peninsula.Clear waterIn some places, there are undulations of 15 to 30 m above sea level. Most of Florida's central and northern inland areas, generally more than 40 km from the coastline, form hills with undulations of 30 to 76 m above sea level. Mount Sugar Loaf (95 m above sea level) in Lake CountySugarloaf Mountain) Is the highest point on the Florida Peninsula[6].

National Park ServiceThe areas managed by are as follows.

The areas under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Services are:

  • Apalachicola National Forest (East Bank of the Apalachicola River)
  • Choctaw Hatchie National Forest (near Nice Building)
  • Okara National Forest (Central Florida)
  • Oceana National Forest (Northeast Florida)

State border

Florida's border begins in the Atlantic Ocean and meanders west, south, and north along the St. Marys River. A straight line is drawn from the source of the St. Marys River almost to the west and slightly northward to the confluence of the Flint River from Georgia and the Chattahoochee River that forms the border between Alabama and Georgia (Woodraf Dam is formed). From now on, this point is at the bottom of Lake Seminole). The state border with Georgia rises north along the Chattahoochee River from there.31th parallelAt the west border with Alabama, it reaches the Perdido River and descends south, from Perdido Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.

climate

Florida's climate is somewhat mitigated by the fact that no part of the state is far from the ocean.Lake OkeechobeeFrom northWarm and humid climateAnd on the coast south of the lakeFlorida KeysIncluding exactly熱 帯Climate[7].. The highest temperature in the state is 100° FIt rarely exceeds (38 ℃), but 90 in summer° FIt is usually in the (32 ° C) range.

From late autumn to winter, Florida is sometimes cold, with strong winds and relatively cold temperatures throughout the state. Maximum temperatures in the northern and central parts of the state are 40° FPlatform-50° FTable (4 ℃ -15 ℃), minimum temperature is 20° FPlatform-30° FIt can reach a level (-7 ° C-4 ° C), but it is rarely below freezing in the south.

Record highs in Florida on June 1931, 6, in Monticello 29° F(43 ° C).The lowest temperature ever recorded on February 1899, 2, 13 km from Tallahassee −40° F(-19 ° C). Average maximum temperature in late July is 7° FIt is in the range (32 ℃ -35 ℃), and the average minimum temperature in late January is 1 in the north.° F4 in the south from the platform (7 ℃ -50 ℃)° FIt is up to the middle of the table (13 ℃).

Florida's four seasons are more than temperaturePrecipitation amountIt is decided by. From spring to summer, it is hot and rainy. From autumn to winter, it is warm to cool and has relatively little rain. From late November to winter in central and northern FloridaAutumn leavesIs commonly seen.

The Florida Keys is completely surrounded by the ocean, so there is little change in temperature.Key westThen even in summer 90° FRarely above (32 ° C), 60 in winter° FIt is rare that the temperature drops below (16 ° C). There is no record of frost.

Florida's nickname is "Sunshine State," but bad weather often occurs. Central is AmericaThunderAlso known as the capital, lightning strikes more often than anywhere else in the country.[8].. Afternoon in most parts of the state from late spring to early autumnthunderstormHas the highest annual rainfall of any state in the United States due to its frequent occurrence. Sometimes a sunny day is interrupted by a thunderstorm and the sun is shining an hour or so later. This thunderstorm, which is thought to occur when air currents from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean collide on land during warm hours after noon, causes showers, strong winds, and sometimes竜 巻Accompanied by. Florida has the highest number of tornadoes per unit area, including tornadoes that occur on the water, in the United States.[9],Midwest,Great planesIt is usually not as strong as the tornado that occurs in. During a heavy thunderstorm(I.e.Often falls.

Snowfall is rare, especially in the peninsulas of Florida. Also in Florida in 1899BlizzardHad blown. In the Tampa Bay areaGreat Lakes region OfLake effect snowThere was a "bay effect snow" similar to[10].. This 1889 was the only 0 in Florida° FIt is when it falls below (-18 ° C). On January 1977, 1, there was the most extensive snowfall in Florida, as well as Homestead at the southern tip of the peninsula.Miami BeachBut there was only one snowfall in history. In the 1 "Ocean Effect Snow", it snowed on the Atlantic coast, far south.Cape CanaveralBut snowfall was observed[11].. During the 1993 storm, a snowstorm struck the pan handle and the peninsula was hit by heavy rain and tornadoes. This stormHurricaneMore than 6 feet (1.8 m) in the Gulf of Mexico, probably due to similar originsclimaxHappened. In the most recent case, snow and sleet fell in the central and southern parts of the state during the January 2010 freeze.Interstate 4There was some snow in the north, but most were sleet.[12].

The hurricane season is said to be from June 6st to November 1th, but some hurricanes occur outside this season. Hurricanes are a major threat to Florida. Florida has a long subtropical to tropical coastline, making it one of the most hurricane-sensitive states in the United States. From 11 to 30, there were 1851 hurricanes that hit Florida, 2006 of whichCategory 3It was larger than[13].. Hurricanes that pass without damaging Florida during the hurricane season are rare. For Category 4 and above hurricanes, 83% of them are in FloridaTexasIs attacking[13].. August-October is the most dangerous time.

In 2004, the state of Florida was hit by four record hurricanes. Hurricane Charlie on August 4th, Hurricane Francis from September 8th to 13th, September 9thHurricane Ivanおよび9月25日から26日のハリケーン・ジャンヌであり、州経済の累積損失額は420億ドルに上った。さらに4つのハリケーンによる被災額は450億ドルだった。2005年7月10日のハリケーン・デニスは11か月の間で5番目のものとなり、8月25日のHurricane KatrinaPasses South Florida on September 9Hurricane RitaAttacked the Florida Keys. October 10thHurricane WilmaCaused a landslide near Kapromano, just south of Marco Island. Hurricane Wilma has been the second-most-damaged hurricane in Florida's history, partly because it has set up a damage reporting window for five years.

Attacked Florida on August 1992, 8Hurricane AndrewCaused more than $ 250 billion in damages, making it the second-largest loss in American history. Other major hurricanes in the past include the 2 Miami Hurricane and the 1926.Okeechobee Hurricane, 1935 Laborday Hurricane, 1960 Hurricane Donna and 1995 Hurricane Opal. Recent studies have shown that these hurricanes are part of the natural cycle.Global warmingIs not the result of[14][15].

Average maximum and minimum temperatures in major Florida cities (° F)
city123456789101112
Jacksonville[16]65/4368/4574/5080/5686/6490/7092/7391/7387/7080/6173/5166/44
Key west[17]75/6576/6679/6982/7285/7688/7889/8090/8088/7885/7680/7176/67
Melbourne[18]72/5173/5377/5781/6185/6788/7190/7390/7388/7283/6778/6073/53
Miami[19]76/6077/6180/6483/6886/7288/7590/7790/7788/7685/7281/6777/62
Pensacola[20]61/4364/4670/5176/5884/6689/7290/7490/7487/7080/6070/5063/45
Tallahassee[21]64/4067/4273/4880/5387/6291/6991/7291/7288/6881/5772/4766/41
Tampa[22]71/5172/5277/5782/6288/6890/7390/7590/7589/7384/6677/5872/52

動物 相

Florida is home to many species of wildlife.

Marine mammals
Bottlenose dolphin, Short-finned pilot whale,North Atlantic right whale,American manatee
Reptiles
American alligator,American crocodile,Higashi Diamond Rattlesnake, Pygmy rattlesnake,Gopher tortoise,Green turtle,Leatherback turtle, Eastern indigo snake
mammalian
Florida panther, Ojiro deer, key deer,Bobcat, Florida black bear,Coconoobi Armagiro
birds
Bald eagle, Northern Karakala, Snail Kite,Osprey,American white pelican,Brown pelican,Seagull,Whooping crane,Sandhill crane,Roseate spoonbill,Florida scrub jay(Endemic to Florida)

Wild turkey variantTurkeyThat is, the Oceana variant is found only in Florida.[23].. Many species of migratory birds in eastern North America make Florida a wintering ground.

The only known delivery area for North Atlantic right whales is FloridaGeorgiaOff the coast.

Fire ants have grown in population and spread to most of the South, including Florida, since they were accidentally imported from South America to North America in the 1930s. This ant is more aggressive than existing species and has a strong firmness[24].

Many exotic snakes have been released naturally. Burmese python, Florida, 2010Burmese python,African rock python,Green anacondaandNile monitor lizardHunting time was set.

Environment issues

Despite its heavy reliance on air conditioning and pool pumps, Florida ranks 1th out of 50 states in terms of per capita energy consumption. Florida energycoal,Natural gas,oilandelectricityRely on[25].. It is estimated that about 4% of energy consumption is generated by recyclable resources.[26].. Energy production is equivalent to 6% of the USNitrogen oxideIs 5.6%,carbon dioxide gasIs 5.1% andSulfur oxidesIs 3.5%, and the amount of air pollutants generated is relatively low.[26].

It is believed that a significant amount of energy resources lie off the west coast of the Florida Peninsula on the Gulf of Mexico, but development has been suspended since 1981.[27].. Governor Charlie Crist and FloridaUnited States SenateMemberBill NelsonAnd Mel Martinez are all opposed to offshore drilling and development. Former governorJeb BushInitially opposed all drilling[28]In 2005, the United States House of Representatives changed its position by supporting a bill that allowed unlimited drilling more than 200 km from the coast.[29].. Cristo, Nelson and Martinez opposed the bill, but Nelson and Martinez had alternatives in the Senate banning drilling within 3 miles of the Panhandle coast and 125 miles (235 km) of the peninsular coast. Supported[30].

In July 2007, Governor Cristo was at the 7 level by 2050.Greenhouse gasThe company said it intends to sign an enforcement order to impose new stricter air pollution control standards in the state with the aim of reducing emissions by 80%. Christ's order was to force utilities, cars and trucks to set new emission targets, impose strict environmental conservation targets on state agencies, and require state-owned vehicles to use alternative fuels.[31].

On the southwest coast of Florida and elsewherered tideHas become a problem. There is fairly strong speculation that harmful algae have blossomed, but there is no evidence that it was caused by pollution, and there is no evidence that the duration or frequency of red tides has increased.[32].

In animalsFlorida panther extinctionIs in danger. In 2009, 23 hunters and car accidents were recorded to have killed, leaving only about 100 individuals in nature. For thisSpecies Diversity CenterAnd other agencies are calling for the establishment of special protected areas for Panther[33].ManateeIt is said that the mortality rate is higher than the birth rate in this case as well.

Geology

Florida Peninsula is called the Florida PlatformBedrockOn top of theLimestoneIt has the structure of the stratum on whichKarst terrainCan be seen. The exposed part of the platform was filled with silt, clay and sand by the Gulf Trough.EoceneからOligoceneIt was built by hanging on.Flora,動物 相 TheMioceneBegan to appear in. Before the Miocene, there were no land animals.

Largest in FloridaPotassium carbonateReserves have been confirmed[34].

Underwater caves, sinkholes andSpringHave been found throughout the state and derive most of the clean water used by the state's people. Over the limestone layer is sandy soil deposited on ancient beaches during the millions of years of rising and subsidence of the Earth's sea level.Last glacial periodMostly due to the low sea level and dry climateSavannahThe peninsula that has become is wider than it is now[35].. The vast and gentle river glaze extends to the southern tip of the peninsula.

Florida, along with North Dakota, is the least earthquake-prone state in the United States.[36].. FloridaStructural plateEarthquakes are rare because they are not located near the boundary of. In January 1879St. AugustineThere was a seismic motion nearby. There were reports of dropping plaster on the walls and dropping items on the shelves. 50 miles (80 km) southDaytona BeachBut there was a similar report. The tremor at this time is in the southTampaAnd northern GeorgiaSavannahBut I felt it. January 1880,キ ュ ー バTwo severe earthquakes occurred inKey westBut it shook violently[37].. The major earthquake outside of Florida was the 1886 Charleston earthquake. The tremor was also felt in southern Florida, ringing the church bells in St. Augustine, and shook violently in a town on the east coast of Florida. Residents of Jacksonville felt strong aftershocks in September, October, and November of the year.[38].. In 2006, a magnitude 260 earthquake struck 416 miles (6.0 km) southwest of Tampa in the Gulf of Mexico, causing tremors in southwestern and central Florida. This earthquake(I.e.Not enough to cause, no damage reported[39].

Demographic

population

Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
183034,730
184054,47756.9%
185087,44560.5%
1860140,42460.6%
1870187,74833.7%
1880269,49343.5%
1890391,42245.2%
1900528,54235.0%
1910752,61942.4%
1920968,47028.7%
19301,468,21151.6%
19401,897,41429.2%
19502,771,30546.1%
19604,951,56078.7%
19706,789,44337.1%
19809,746,32443.6%
199012,937,92632.7%
200015,982,37823.5%
201018,801,31017.6%

Florida is the fourth most populous state of the 50 states in the United States. ThatCenter of gravity ThePork countyLake Wales[40].. As of 2009, the population is 18,537,969. Compared to 2007, there were 128,814 people, an increase of 0.7%. According to the latest population estimates, it is the 30th fastest growing state in the United States. In 2005, when the growth rate peaked, the annual growth rate was 2.2%, ranking fifth in the United States.[41].

Florida's population is third, overtaking New York, according to 2014 demographics released by the Census Bureau.[42].

About two-thirds of the population is born in another state, the second highest rate in the United States[43].. As of 2009, the number of illegal immigrants in the state is the third highest in the United States. As of 3, the number of illegal immigrants is estimated to be 2010% of the total population, making it the sixth largest in the United States at this time.[44][45].. As of 2008, there are 186,102 veterans living in the state.[46].

10 in 1 of the population, about 140 million yuanTorturedIs[47].

Race and ancestry

More than 16% of Florida's population was Hispanic in the 2000 census. The group reported as an ancestor in the 2000 censusGerman descent (11.8%),Irish descent (10.3%),British (9.2%), Americans (8%) andItalian descent It was (6.3%).[3]

Civil WarPreviouslySlaveryIs legal and followsReconstructionBlacks made up nearly half of the state's population[48].. In the following century, black peopleMoved to the northern partOn the other hand, white people in the north moved to the south in large numbers. In recent years, the proportion of blacks in the state has been on the rise again. Areas with a high proportion of blacks today are the northern states (especially Jacksonville, Gainesville, Tallahassee and Pensacola), the Tampa Bay area, and Orlando and Sanford in the Orlando area. In the southern part of the state, the number of Hispanic blacks has increased significantly. This is cuba,ハイチandEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThis is because the number of immigrants from Japan has increased.

Florida's Hispanic population includes Cuban Americans from Miami and Tampa, Orlando and Tampa.プ エ ル ト リ コAmericans of descent and inland in the western and central parts of the stateCentral americaIncludes immigrants. Hispanic societies continue to grow and become more liquid. Between 2000 and 2004, Lie Group, a suburb of the southern part of the state, had the highest Hispanic population growth rate of any county in the United States.

White Americans of European origin live in all parts of the state. Many British and Irish descendants live in all of the state's suburbs. Many Germans live in the southwestern part of the stateGreeceResidents are from the Tarpon Springs region, Italians,スペインResidents andロシアThere are many descents in Miami. Many generations of Caucasians are found in the inland and northern parts of the state. Florida-born whites have long been descendants of Florida-born people, calling themselves "Florida Crackers." Like other southern states, it is primarily a descendant of Scottish Irish and British pioneers. Around St. Augustine, he fled there in 1768 from the New Smootha colony of Dr. Andrew Turnbull of England.MenorcaThere are also descendants of the inhabitants[49].

言语

As of 2000, 5% of Florida residents over the age of 76.91 were at homeFirst languageAsEnglish16.46%Spanish, 1.38% are FrenchCreoleHe speaks (mostly Haitian Creole).French0.83% speakGerman0.59%,ItalianIt is 0.44%. AlsoPortuguese0.36%,Tagalog0.25%,Arabic0.21%,VietnameseIt is reported to be 0.20%. 5% of Florida residents over the age of 23.80 speak a language other than English at home[50].

上記データを2005年時点に直すと、英語74.54%、スペイン語18.65%、フランス系クレオール語1.73%、フランス語0.63%、ドイツ語0.45%、ポルトガル語0.44%、イタリア語0.32%、タガログ語0.30%、ベトナム語0.25%、アラビア語0.23%となり、英語以外が25.45%と増加している[50].

Florida is popular with immigrants because of its climate. Florida's public education accepts students who speak more than 200 languages ​​other than English as their primary language. Latino Citizens' Union against Florida Department of EducationComplex litigation formEducators are now required to be trained to teach English to non-English speakers.

In Article 2, Chapter 9 of the Florida Constitution, "English is FloridaOfficial terminologyIt is stipulated. This clause was adopted in 1988 by a referendum on the direct claim of the citizens.

Religious

Many of Florida's inhabitants were Protestant. However, as immigrants grow, the Roman Catholic community grows.

Florida is a state in the southeastern United States. It occupies the entire Florida Peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, borders Georgia and Alabama to the north, and is one of the relatively warmer states called the Sun Belt.

Florida covers 170,306 km2 It ranks 50nd among the 22 states, but has a coastline length of about 1900 km, the longest of the 48 states on the continent.

Florida is generally warm, with subtropics in the north and center and tropics in the south, hence the nickname "Sunshine State." There = Indian tribe =イ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribe was indigenous to the whole area. They make a thatched-roof hut called "Chicky" a traditional residence. Also, be sure to perform traditional ceremonies. Drink a "black drink" that is a decoction of nuts called "Yapon". The name that led the Seminole Wars in the 19th century means "the one who takes the lead in the ritual of drinking black drinks." The tribes displaced to Oklahoma in the 19th century transplanted nut stocks and used alternatives, and even today this "black drink" is an integral part of their ritual = warmth. Supported by a pleasant climate and abundant fishing resources, many fishermen such as the Carusa tribe formed settlements along the coast, but they were destroyed by whites and are now a specialty.OysterMany huge shell mounds of the island have become islands and remain on the coast to convey their vestiges. Most tribes in the South were either eradicated in the war with whites or fled to Central America. And after the Indians were driven awayEverglades National ParkEtc. have been maintained.

It was hard to be destroyedRacismIsolationistAndrew JacksonThe president is an IndianEthnic cleansingFor the purpose of "Indian immigration lawWas enacted and urged the Indian tribes of the province to choose between "migrating or extinct." Forced relocation of the Seminoles to Oklahoma from 1832 to 1833Road of tears". Most of the tribes and allied tribes were forced by the Army to cross the continent by sea and by foot (green dashed line), resulting in thousands of premature deaths.

Indian Casino

Florida is the first in the United Statesイ ン デ ィ ア ンHigh betting rate by tribesIndian CasinoIs a memorable state where "" was born. PovertySeminoleBased on the treaty with the federal government in 1979, the tribes tried to rejuvenate their lives.Reservation placeBingo field opened at (Reservation). Trial with state government (Seminole vs Florida Court Battle), Won this business right and achieved great success.

Currently, Indian tribes in the United States see the success of the Seminoles and open casinos one after another on their reservations, and for Indian tribes who do not have industry, it is a business model that will become a major tourism industry called "modern buffalo" became.

Major cities and towns

Urban population> 800,000

Urban population> 300,000

Urban population> 200,000

Urban population> 150,000

Urban population> 100,000

Metropolitan area

Metropolitan area ranking
RankingMetropolitan areapopulation
1South Florida metropolitan area5,463,857
2Tampa Bay area2,733,761
3Orlando metropolitan area2,082,421
4Jacksonville metropolitan area1,345,596
5Bradenton-Saratosa metropolitan area688,126

The largest metropolitan area in Florida and in the southeastern United States is the South Florida metropolitan area, which has a population of approximately 550 million. The Tampa Bay region, which has a population of over 270 million, ranks second, and the Orlando metropolitan area, which also has a population of over 2 million, ranks third.

In the stateUnited States Office of Management and BudgetThere are 20 metropolitan areas defined by. Of the 67 counties in the state, 39 are included in the metropolitan area. Metropolitan areas are also concentrated on the coast of the peninsula, reflecting the distribution of the population. On the east coast, it runs from the Jacksonville metropolitan area to the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach metropolitan area, including all counties except Monroe. The west coast of the peninsula also runs in strips from the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater metropolitan area to the Naples-Marco Island metropolitan area, including all coastal counties from Hernando to Collier. There are also several metropolitan areas in the northern half of the peninsula, connecting the east and west coasts. Some metropolitan areas are also scattered in the pan handle area.

Politics

The basic structure, mission, function, and operation of the Florida Government is stipulated in the Florida Constitution, which forms the basis of state law and guarantees the various rights and freedoms of its citizens. The state governmentJudiciary,Executive branchandLegislative office OfSeparation of powersIs. If the legislature adopts the bill and the governor signs it, it becomes state law.

The Florida Legislature consists of a Senate with 40 members and a House of Representatives with 120 members.Bicameral systemIs taken. The current governorRepublican PartyIt is. The Florida Supreme Court has one secretary and six judges.

There are 67 counties in the state, but Duval County is integrated with the city of Jacksonville, effectively 66 counties. There are 411 cities in the state, of which 379 regularly report to Florida's Revenue Department, and some municipalities do not. The main financial resources of the state government areconsumption taxBut the main financial resources of cities and counties areProperty tax.

Political history

Since the Reconstruction era, the Caucasian privileged classDemocratic PartyIn 1877, members regained parliamentary control in the state by reducing the election votes of freedmen with vigilante violence targeting freedmen and their sympathizers. From 1885 to 1889, the state legislature passed legislation to reduce the votes of blacks and poor whites. The subject had been working with populists to threaten the powers of the White Democratic Party. When they were deprived of their voting rights, the White Democratic Party, like other Southern states, built up powers close to one-party rule. 1900African AmericanPopulation was 44% of the state's population. This was the same as the pre-Civil War ratio, but virtually no voting rights. Only in the presidential election between 1877 and 19481928I continued to select Democratic candidates except for.

RacismMany African-Americans, who responded to the deprivation of voting rights and poor agriculture, migrated to northern cities in the 1910-1940s and even in the late 1940s. They emigrated for work, better educational opportunities for children, voting rights and participation in society. The African-American population fell to 1960% in 18, partly due to the influx of another group into Florida.

Despite the large number of Democratic registrants since 19521964,1976,1996,2008Except for the presidential election, Republican candidates are selected. William C. Kramer, the first Republican United States Representative after Reconstruction, was elected in 1954.[51].. Similarly, Republican Senator Edward Gurney was elected in 1968.[52]It was two years after the birth of the first Republican Governor, Claude R. Kirk, Jr. after Reconstruction.[53].

Results of the United States presidential election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
201649.02% 4,615,91047.81% 4,501,455
201249.13% 4,163,44750.01% 4,237,756
200848.22% 4,045,62450.96% 4,282,074
200452.10% 3,964,52247.09% 3,583,544
200048.85% 2,912,79048.84% 2,912,253
199642.32% 2,244,53648.02% 2,546,870
199240.89% 2,173,31039.00% 2,072,698
198860.87% 2,618,88538.51% 1,656,701
198465.32% 2,730,35034.66% 1,448,816
198055.52% 2,046,95138.50% 1,419,475
197646.64% 1,469,53151.93% 1,636,000
197271.91% 1,857,75927.80% 718,117
196840.53% 886,80430.93% 676,794
196448.85% 905,94151.15% 948,540
196051.51% 795,47648.49% 748,700

The Democratic Party of 1998 was said to have a high proportion of racial minorities and dominate areas with a large number of white liberals, mainly migrating from the north.[54].. The South Florida metropolitan area is a typical example of this, with the concentration of these groups being particularly high. For this reason, the South Florida metropolitan area was one of the strongest Democratic regions in the state. The Daytona metropolitan area is in a similar situation, to a lesser extent than the South Florida metropolitan area, and the city of Orlando has many Hispanics who often join the Democratic Party. Republicans remain dominant in other parts of the state, especially in the countryside and suburbs[54].

Runs through central Florida, connecting the cities of Daytona Beach, Orlando, Tampa, and St. Petersburg.Interstate 4The area of ​​the corridor is growing fast, with Republican and Democratic supporters competing. The region is often seen as a fusion of the conservative north and the liberal south, making it the largest battleground in the state. In recent presidential elections, controlling the Interstate 40 corridor, which requires 4% of Florida voters, often influenced state election results.[55].

The Democratic Party has the upper hand in the number of registered voters across the state and in 67 of the 40 counties. This includes Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, which are the top three counties in the population.

Recent elections

The Democratic Party has the upper hand in voter registration, but as of 2008 it has held down most of the Republican Governor's and other state-wide elections. It is the majority of both Houses of State, and 25 of the 15 members of the United States House of Representatives are Republicans. Florida has been a fierce battle state in the presidential elections since 1950, and the candidate who won Florida during this period was defeated nationwide only once in 1992.[56].. The 2000 presidential election was a close battle[57][58][59][60][61][62].. RepublicanGeorge W. BushIs the Democratic Party's election by only 5 votesAl GoreDefeated. Florida has 25 electoral votes, and the president was decided by the victory or defeat of Florida (the difference in the general vote of Florida is 537 votes).

In 2008, Republican and Democratic primaries were stripped of half of their votes because they both violated national rules at the party convention in August.

As of 2012, Florida has 29 electoral votes.

State Law

Drinking water sources in the state have been supervised by the state government through five regional water source supervision offices since 1972.[63].

Florida abolished automobile inspection system in 1981[64].

Health care and public safety

Florida is ranked 2009th in dangerous states as of 5. This rating is based on records of serious crimes committed in 2008[65].

FloridaAmericaMost of allRegulations on gunsIs said to be a sweet state. It is common for citizens to carry guns in dangerous places, and shootings are commonplace. Some human rights activists call for refraining from traveling to Florida, and some artists refuse to work in Florida.[66].. Florida is allowed to preemptively use killing weapons when it feels life-threatening, even if it is not actually attacked.(English editionIs also one of the 30 states that have been enacted[67].. Florida is a strong gun advocate, and Florida state law prohibits the enactment of ordinances on the sale, ownership, and use of firearms, and local governments in the state have their own.Gun controlIt makes it impossible to proceed. For this reason, in Florida,Water gunThere is a strange situation where carrying a gun that can fire live ammunition is allowed while carrying is prohibited.[68].

As of 2009, there were 270 million people in the stateMedicaidThere is a target patient. The Governor is proposing an additional $ 2011 billion budget for 30 patients, expected to grow in 26[69].

Medicaid pays for 2009% of newborns born in 60.

It has a state-specific plan for those who aren't covered by Medicaid.

budget

The state budget for 2009 is $ 665 billion.

Voting right

According to the state constitution刑 務 所ToA person who has been in prisonIt is,Voting rightHas been stripped. November 2018, 11,Mid-term electionMore than 60% agreed with the proposal to amend this provision by voting in[47].

Economy

Within the state of Florida in 2007Gross productionWas US $ 7345 billion (4th in the US)[72].. Its main industries are services, finance, trade, transportation and utilities, manufacturing and construction.

Residents' income

Florida's average personal annual income was $ 2009, the 24th largest in the United States as of 37,780.[73].

It was one of the few states that did not have a minimum wage law until 2004, but this yearminimum wageHas passed a state constitutional amendment that requires adjustments to meet rising prices each year. As of 2010, Florida's minimum wage was lower than the federal government's $ 7.25, so federal values ​​are prioritized.[74].

Florida to individualsincome taxIt is one of the nine states that does not impose.

As of 2008Poverty lineThere were 240 million people in the following states. 18% of the population under the age of 18.4 is below the poverty line[75].

credit cardFlorida is the second highest state of delinquency, with 2% of cardholders delinquent on one or more cards for more than 1.45 days.

In 2010, more than 250 million state citizens received food rations, up from 2007 million in 120. To qualify, it must be less than 133% of the federal poverty line. For a family of four, the annual income is $ 4[76].

Real estate

In the early 1900s, land speculators turned to Florida, and businessmen like Henry Plant and Henry Flagler pulled the railroad, attracting many who were attracted to the climate and local economy here. is what happened. From that time on, the tourism industry flourished, accelerating the development cycle that overwhelmed a large amount of farmland.

As claims for hurricane damage in 2004 were concentrated in the insurance industry, home insurance claims increased from 40% to 60% and deductions and deductibles increased.

At the end of the third quarter of 2008, mortgage delinquency for at least 3 days was 60%, making it the highest state in the United States. Florida's disproportionate figures in 7.8 national housing market statistics, which caused the real estate market to collapse[77].. The housing boom in the early 2000s resulted in 2009 vacant homes in the state in 30.United States Census BureauEstimated in 2009 that Florida citizens spent 49.1% of their annual income on housing-related costs, the third highest rate in the country.[78].

In the third quarter of 2009, there were 3 delinquent loans and 278,189 security interest enforcements. The number of resales of existing houses in February 80,327 was 2010, an increase of 2% compared to the same month of 11,980. Only two of the metropolitan areas, Panama City-Lin Haven-Panama City Beach Metropolitan Area and Palm Bay-Melbourne-Tightsville Metropolitan Area, reduced resales. Resale prices for existing homes averaged $ 2009, down 21% from the previous year.

Labor force

As of January 2010, the unemployment rate in the state was 1%.[79].

Wikimedia Foundation

Until September 2008,Wikipedia,WikibooksOf the foundation that manages sites such asWikimedia FoundationHeadquartered in FloridaSt. PetersburgIt was there, but now it has moved to San Francisco.

Major companies, etc.

Companies based in Florida include:

tourism

Florida's economytourismIs strongly dependent on.Temperateから熱 帯The warm climate and hundreds of miles of beaches that make up the transition to attract tourists from around the world, attracting more than 6000 million people each year. Also,Walt Disney World ResortIs fourTheme parkIt is a world-famous tourist destination with a huge resort consisting of more than 20 hotels and shopping centers in Lake Buena Vista. With Walt Disney WorldUniversal Orlando ResortAnd Busch Gardens,Sea worldTheme parks like this are driving the central Florida economy. Many beach towns are also popular tourist destinations, especially in winter. In 2000, 2,320 million people visited Florida beaches, spending $ 219 billion.

The general public has the right to enter the beach under the public trust doctrine. However, in some areas private owners limit long-distance beaches.[80].

Manufacturing industry, etc.

Concentrate in the Bone Valley areaPhosphateMining is the third largest industry in the state. Florida produces 3% of the phosphate needed for agriculture in the United States, 75% of the world's total, 25% for agriculture (95% for fertilizer, 90% for livestock feed). , 5% used for other production purposes[81].

In 1962Cape Canaveral(Kennedy Space CenterAs famous as)NASA OfMerritt Island Launch SiteSince its inception, Florida has grown a great deal of aerospace-related work.

Another economic driver of Florida isU.S. ForcesIs. Currently there are 24 bases in the state of TampaU.S. Central CommandSpecial operations forces, DoralSouthern ArmyAnd fourIntegrated Combat GroupThere is. Currently 109,390 military personnel are stationed in the state[82], Directly and indirectly affecting the state economy by $ 520 billion annually[83].

Agriculture:

Florida's second industry is agriculture.OrangeBeginning withcitrusfruitIs the center of agriculture, as of 2006 67% of citrus fruits in the United States, 74% of oranges,タ ン ジ ェ リ ン58% ofgrapefruitIt produces 54% of. About 95% of commercial oranges produced in Florida are for processing (mostlyOrange juice) And is also a state beverage[84].. Citrus vine blight continues to be a major problem. As other agricultural productssugar cane,Strawberry,Tomato,andceleryThere is[85].. The Everglades agricultural area is the agricultural center. Environmental pollution caused by agriculture, especiallyWater pollutionIs a big problem today.

Fishery:

As of 2009, the fishery output was $ 60 billion and employs 6 people in both sport fishing and commercial fishing.

building

Many homes and commercial buildings are similar to those found anywhere in the country, but distinctive architectural styles such as the Spanish retro style, the Florida endemic style and the Mediterranean retro style can be found in some parts of the state.[86].

Education

From elementary school to high school in Florida is managed by the Florida Department of Education.

Colleges and universities

State University

Florida State University is a university system founded in 1905 and is now under the jurisdiction of the Florida Governor's Board. In the 2008 school year, 301,750 students were studying at the institutions of these systems.

Major private universities

There are many private universities in Florida, large and small. The Florida Independent Colleges and Universities Union contributes to the interests of private universities in the state. As of the fall of 2006, 121,000 students are studying at this coalition institution.[87].

In addition, there are 20 colleges and universities that do not belong to the Union, but they are well-qualified universities in the state.

Florida College System

28 others in FloridaCommunity collegeThere is.

Art and culture

Museums

Sports team

Florida Professional Sports Team

In Florida4 major professional sports leagues in North America(NFL,MLB,NBA,NHL) There are multiple teams each.

OUR TEAMSportsleagueHeadquarters
Jacksonville JaguarsAmerican FootballNFLEverbank Field
Tampa Bay BuccaneersAmerican FootballNFLRaymond James Stadium
Miami DolphinsAmerican FootballNFLSun Life Stadium
Orlando MagicbasketballNBAAmway Arena
Miami HeatbasketballNBAAmerican Airlines Arena
Tampa Bay RaysbaseballMLBTropicana Field
Miami MarlinsbaseballMLBMarlins Park
Tampa Bay LightningIce hockeyNHLTampa Bay Times Forum
Florida PanthersIce hockeyNHLBank Atlantic Center
Orlando PredatorsArena footballArena football leagueAmway Arena
Tampa Bay StormArena footballArena football leagueSt. Pete Times Forum
Orlando City SCサ ッ カ ーMajor League SoccerCitrus bowl
Inter Miami CFサ ッ カ ーMajor League SoccerRockheart Stadium

In addition,Daytona Cubs,Florida flameThere are also many subordinate teams such as.

Besides thatNASCARIt will be the venue for the opening roundDaytona International SpeedwayAnd the venue for the final roundHomestead-Miami SpeedwayThere are two popular trucks.

Spring camp

FloridaTemperateから熱 帯Due to its warm climate, it is a very popular spring camp for major league baseball teams.

OUR TEAMPlace
Atlanta BravesChampion Stadium
Baltimore OriolesEd Smith Stadium
Boston Red Sox
Detroit Tigers
Houston Astros
Miami MarlinsRoger Dean Stadium
Minnesota Twins
New York Mets
New York YankeesGeorge M. Steinbrenner Field
Philadelphia Phillies
Pittsburgh Pirates
St. Louis CardinalsRoger Dean Stadium
Tampa Bay Rays
Toronto Blue Jays
Washington Nationals

Other

Celebrities from the same state

Transportation

High standard road

FloridaInterstate highway, State road andAmerican National RoadIs managed by the State Transport Authority.Florida's interstate highway system includes high-standard roads with a total length of 2371 km, as well as high-standard roads with a total length of 15,987 km, including state roads and US National Highways.

  • I-4.svg Interstate 4: The peninsula is divided into north and south. It connects Tampa, Lakeland, Orlando and Daytona Beach, with Daytona Beach connecting to Route 2 and Tampa to Route 95.
  • I-10.svg Interstate 10: Crosses the pen handle from east to west, connecting Jacksonville, Lake City, Tallahassee, and Pensacola, connecting to Route 95 in Jacksonville and Route 75 in Lake City.
  • I-75.svg Interstate 75: From Georgia in the north, enter the state near Lake City, Gainesville in the south, Okara, eastern suburbs of Tampa, Bradenton,Sarasota, From Fort MyersNaplesTo. From here, take the toll road "Alligator Array" to Fort Lauderdale in the east, turn south and end at Lake Miami, Hialeah. It is connected to Route 10 at Lake City and Route 4 at Tampa.
  • I-95.svg Interstate 95: Enter the state north of Georgia in the northern suburbs of Jacksonville and head south on the Atlantic coast to Daytona Beach, Titusville, Palm Bay, Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, Port St. Lucie, Stuart, West Palm Beach, and Fort Lauderdale. From there, it ends in downtown Miami. Connect to Route 10 at Jacksonville and Route 4 at Daytona Beach.

1956Federal Aid Highway ActBefore the roads were built under, Florida began building the Florida's Turnpike, a long-distance longitudinal toll road. The first construction area from Fort Pierce to the Golden Glaze Interchange to the south was completed in 1. The second construction area of ​​Homestead was completed in 1957 from Orlando in the north to Wildwood (near The Villages today) and from Miami in the south.

State roads are numbered according to special conventions. The first-digit numbers, with a few exceptions, indicate which areas of the state the roads are located in, from 1 in the north and east to 1 in the south and west. Major north-south roads are numbered with one- or two-digit odd numbers, increasing from east to west. Major east-west roads are numbered with one or two even digits, increasing from north to south. Secondary roads are numbered three digits. Its first digit is the same as the first digit on the double-digit road just north. The numbers on three-digit roads are still even from north to south and odd from east to west.

Following this convention, Miami Beach State Route 907, or Alton Road, is further east of State Route 997, or Chrome Avenue. Chrome Avenue is the westernmost north-south road in Miami-Dade County. One exception is State Highway 1, the Palmetto Expressway, which runs north-south, albeit even-numbered. State roads are numbered 826 to 1 digits depending on their importance and location[88].. County roads are often numbered in the same way.

Intercity rail

In FloridaAmtrakThere is a line of. Sanford in the Orlando metropolitan area is the terminal station for Amtrak Auto Train, and this line isWashington DCSouth ofVirginiaI'm going to Lawton. OrlandoSunset LimitedIt is also the eastern end point ofNew Orleans,Houston,San AntonioExit throughLos AngelesHead to (but2005 OfHurricane KatrinaandHurricane RitaDue to the influence of, the east of New Orleans has been suspended indefinitely). And with Amtrak's Silver StarSilver MeteorThere are also two trains runningニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIt connects the city with Miami.

Between Tampa, Lakeland and OrlandoHigh speed trainPlans have begun to build[89].. This is the first stage of the Florida high-speed rail[90].. Civil engineering work began in July 2010[91][92].. Construction began in 2011 and the first phase was scheduled for completion in 2014, but on February 2, Governor Rick Scott refused to receive a $ 17 billion federal subsidy, effectively introducing a high-speed rail. Refused[93].

In 2012, the Florida East Coast Railway, which operates a freight railway (Florida East Coast Railway) IsOrlando International AirportMiamiAnnounced that it will carry out passenger rail transportation between. The name isBright lineIs. The plan is to connect Miami and Orlando International Airport in about three hours by constructing its own railroad tracks and new lines. January 3, 2018West Palm BeachFort LauderdaleBusiness operation will start between, by 2020MiamiからOrlando International AirportIt is planned to extend to.[94]

State airports

The numbers after the major airports below are the number of passengers a year in 2006.[95].

Sister states

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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  2. ^ behind California, Texas, and New York
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  6. ^ "Green Mountain Scenic Byway”. Florida Department of Transportation. 2008/1/23Browse.
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  45. ^ behind Nevada, Arizona, New Jersey, California and Texas
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  63. ^ Florida Statutes
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  86. ^ [2]
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