Hokkaido's winter tradition is here again this year! Chance to meet "Snow Miku" [Snow Mark Megmilk Cup Jumping Tournament]
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This winter, due to the spread of the new coronavirus infection, the tournament has been canceled or postponed, and the situation remains unstable.
"Snow Brand Megmilk Cup Jumping Tournament" started in 1958 as a winter tradition, and this year marks the 62nd time ... → Continue reading
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Pandemic of New Coronavirus Infection (2019-)
Global pandemic of new coronavirus infectionsWhat is (Shingata Coronavirus Infectious Diseases)?New coronavirus (COVID-2） OfinfectionCaused byAcute respiratory illness (COVID-19） OfPandemic(Pandemic).2019The epidemic started from the end, thisSpread of COVID-XNUMX infectionIn the process of stopping (Shingata coronavirus), the world system was reorganized..
As mentioned above, it is highly latentNew coronavirus (COVID-2）Caused byPandemicIs.The whole worldInfectionBeing exposed to the danger ofLockdownAnd immigration restrictions,OlympicWe have fallen into a situation that humankind has not experienced in the past, such as postponement and reduction.PandemicIn various policies such as lockdown implemented to convergeAnti-globalism, AntiDemocracySome of the measures were required, which made a big difference in the world system.In the world after Corona, of social lifeonlineOn the other hand, the freedom of action has retreated significantly compared to the past, and economic activity has shrunk significantly.Eating out,Tourism,leisure,Entertainment,Public transportationAnd so ononlineThere are some commercial activities that cannot be transformed, and the situation of nesting steadily undermines the real economy.COVID-19 vaccineThere is an urgent need to restore freedom of action by inoculation ofNew normal(Human activityAdaptation to the new normal state of.
2019March 11Wuhan City, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China"Unknown causeウ イ ル スsexpneumoniaWas confirmed for the first time, and then from Wuhan cityMainland ChinaInfection spread to other than ChinaCountryAnd expanded to the area.. The characteristics of the new coronavirus are so farSevere acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)Middle East respiratory syndromeIt was thought to be similar to (MERS), but due to its unprecedented high latency, it rapidly spread the infection by utilizing the economic activities of humankind.2020March 1who (WHO) is the 6th "Public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC) ”declared did. On February 2, the disease was rated "very high" at the highest level of risk for a global epidemic., March 3,Tedros AdanomWHO Executive Secretary deviates from WHO standardsPandemicEquivalent to (pandemic)Expressed the recognition.
PandemicSince the outbreak, information has been confused with situations that are too unprecedented, and in the worldRacism,ideologyProblems such as conflicts also became apparent at once.In order to prevent the influx of the new coronavirus, countries around the world have imposed immigration restrictions, but due to the high latency of the new coronavirus, the epidemic has affected more than 180 countries and regions.Chugoku, South Korea,イタリア,スペインStarted withEurope,Japan,米 国There is a large-scale epidemic in.. As a result, one after another in major cities around the worldLockdown(City blockade・ Movement restrictions) were implemented, which hindered demand and the supply chain.Corona shockと 呼 ば れ るSocio-economic impactIs also causing. In particular, there was a significant decrease in demand for businesses that could not be digitized (especially sales in the travel, traditional culture, and event industries decreased by 2020% in May 5 compared to the same month of the previous year.) And the turmoil in the supply chain caused serious damage to the real economy.Subsequent responses from countries around the world aimed at achieving both economic activity and prevention of the spread of infection have been difficult, and as a result of the resumption of economic activity by many countries, the number of infected people worldwide has grown exponentially again. I'm starting.In order to distinguish the society before and after the corona shock, terms such as "before corona", "after corona", "post corona", "under corona", and "with corona" are also proposed..
Since SARS-CoV-2 is a virus under research, the situation remains uncertain. As of October 2020, 10, infections have occurred in 2 countries and territories, with 215 infected, 34,205,773 dead and 1,021,576 recovered...In addition, the number of infected people in the world continues to grow exponentially.WHOBut,1918Occurred inSpanish cold OfPandemicAs you can see from the comparison with,Human historyTop worst classPandemicIt can be said.
Characteristics of new coronavirus infection
COVID-2と 呼 ば れ るCoronavirusIt is,Chugoku OfWuhan City, Hubei Province OfWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketFirst identified in.. SARS-CoV-2 is mainlycough,sneezeCame out withRespiratory dropletsOr through something that touches your hand, such as a doorknobInfluenza virusBy the same route asInfection between humansTo.Time from infection to onsetIs usually 5 days, but varies from 2 to 14 days depending on the person.
It is said to be a "warm virus"As such, it exhibits characteristics that make it difficult for the host to detect the infection, and the virus is very easy to spread and also leads to sudden death.In many cases, even if infected, the condition remains asymptomatic, and there is little awareness of infection (becoming a carrier of the virus), but the symptoms areFever,cough,shortness of breath,tasteorSense of smellMay be accompanied by abnormalities, chills or chills, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, etc... As a complicationpneumonia,Acute respiratory distress syndromeMay be accompanied by.In the case of death, the patient's blood oxygen level dropped to a dangerous level without being aware of it (unawareness of severity), and even if he rushed to the hospital after the onset of suffocation, he could not wear the oxygen mask in time.Respiratory failureThere are many cases of death in..Since it takes several hours to wear an oxygen mask, it is necessary for the infected person to go to a medical institution when there are no subjective symptoms, but even medical personnel can judge whether or not the condition has become severe if there are no subjective symptoms. It's hard to do.
Has a special effect on SARS-CoV-2Antiviral drugDoes not exist and research is underway. In clinical practice, symptom management andSupportive therapyEfforts are being made with a focus on. The recommended precautions areHand washingKeep a distance from the sick, and 14 days if you suspect an infectionSelf-isolationAnd taking follow-up, etc..
On the other hand,PCR testI was hospitalized with a positive reaction, and after that, I was discharged because my symptoms had subsided. Possible reactivation of CoV-2 or another type of reinfection has been pointed out.
Economically, the impact is great,International Monetary Fund (IMF)2020world ofGDPAnnounced forecast for growth of -4.4%.. This negative growth rate2008 OfLehman shockAt a value far exceeding -0.1% of the time,1929 OfWorld DepressionIt was the Great Depression since (the world GDP growth rate at that time was -15.0%), and in various fields.Corona shockWas also called.Financial marketOnly confusedLehman shockRather than destroying the real economy, in private companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprisesBankruptcy, dismissal, suspension of employment, wage cuts, and bonus cuts continueIn that senseCorona shockIs said to be worse in nature, andDue to job loss, outage of society as a whole, and stagnationSuicide due to mental illnessIs also increasing rapidly[Source required]..As the spread of infection continues to accelerate, there is no prospect of economic recovery.Under this circumstance20st centuryIt has been maintained sequentially from the endonlineUsing the environmentShut in economyThe practice of (economy that stays at home) begins, and when you go outSocial distanceThe world economy, such as securingITChanged to make the best use of..The performance of IT companies that provide online services is growing due to the rapid progress of digitalization.New coronavirus (COVID-2）Unexpectedly became a game changer in the economy. For example, it is said to be the top company in the IT industry.GAFAMOfMicrosoft The2020In the April-June periodAzureRelated sales increased 47%,XboxRelated sales increased 64%,SurfaceRelated sales increased 28%.. In this income and expenditure report, the companyCEO OfSatya NadellaIs "COVID-19Affects every aspect of our work and life, for two years in the last two monthsDigital transformationWas seen. "..In addition, it has been reported that a high load has occurred on the Internet infrastructure, demonstrating the importance of the Internet infrastructure in an emergency.The largest in the worldContent delivery networkIt is said that it controls 15 to 30% of the Internet traffic.Akamai TechnologiesHas confirmed that Web traffic has increased up to twice the previous year, and although it is an inexperienced traffic volume, content can be delivered without delay.[Note 1]..This change in economic activity is in the political and business worldNew normalWas recognized as.
Vaccine development and inoculation
In COVID-19vaccineSome development methods are notable in terms of technical breakthroughs.Originally, in order to ensure safety in the human body, vaccines are developed in a development period of several decades or more (100 years or more at the longest), but vaccine development has not been successful yet.HIV,malariaThere are many infectious diseases such as, and vaccine development was abandoned.SARSInfectious diseases such as..Despite such high technical difficulties, it was necessary to develop in a very short period of less than one year in order to avoid the economic collapse and converge the pandemic.
2020,America OfPharmaceuticalCorporatePfizerとModernaIt is,mRNA vaccineHe argued that the new technology could overturn the conventional wisdom and significantly shorten the period of vaccine development, but the COVID-19 vaccine was the first to be put into practical use, and there are many unknowns about its safety.However, as of November of the same year, the COVID-11 vaccines of both companies are expected to be put into practical use at the fastest speed, and together with good clinical trial results, they are considered to be the most promising vaccines in the world. On November 19, Moderna announced tentative results that it was 11% effective for the vaccine under development... On November 11, Pfizer released its final analysis that it is 18% effective for the vaccine under development... On December 12, public COVID-8 vaccination began in the United Kingdom.At the earliest in Japan2021At the prospect of conclusion whether also approved during the month of February comes out, health care workers the government to prospect the late February anticipation of this, the elderly in the prospect of the end of March, with priority such as the subsequent people with underlying disease We are in a hurry to improve the system so that we can start inoculation... RNA, which is the main component of the mRNA vaccine, is easily destroyed when it is considered to be preserved, so it is used at ultra-low temperatures.Cold chainTechnology development is also urgent.
Also, of Japanese companiesAngesAlso announced that the second stage clinical trial of the COVID-19 vaccine has started, and the second stage clinical trial is expected to be completed around March 2...After that, after the final stage of clinical trials, it is expected that the AnGes vaccine will finally be put into practical use around the middle of the same year, so when compared with other countries, Japan will be far behind in the development of the COVID-19 vaccine.
However, it is difficult to identify infected persons with COVID-19, and it has been observed that even the above-mentioned Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines, which are considered to be the most promising, cannot be immunized for life, and from around the end of 2020, all over the world. Since mutant types are also appearing, we will continueSocial regulationIt is said that it will be necessary to carry out vaccination and regular vaccination every few months...Furthermore, medium- to long-term COVID-19 vaccineSide reaction(Side effects) Has not been fully verified and is still in a situation where it cannot be optimistic.
Late June 2019,People's Republic of China OfWuhan City, Hubei ProvinceOf unexplained pneumoniaclusterA (small outbreak) outbreak was reported by health authorities. The first group of patients is mainlyWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketThe virus was found to be related toAnimal-induced infectionIs believed to have been.. The virus that caused this infection is the bat coronavirus,PangolinCoronavirus,andSARS coronavirus(SARS-CoV) As a new virus closely related toCOVID-2Was named.. The virus is believed to be derived from the Greater Horseshoe Bat..Prior to that, on December 12, the first symptoms occurred in a person who had no history of exposure to the Wuhan South China Seafood Wholesale Market or contact with the remaining 1 people in the first cluster where the new virus was detected. Was later found to have been reported.. Two-thirds of this first clusterIt was also found that they were selling live animals..
Meanwhile, in November 2020Academic journalPublished in "Tumori Journal"イタリアCollected from September 2019 to March 9, according to a study by the National Cancer Institutelung cancerWhen the blood samples of the test examinees (959 people) were examined, 11.6% (111 people) of the samples were specific to the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).antibodyWas detected, and it was also detected in 2019% (9 persons) of the sample collected in September 14.From this, it is also pointed out that the virus may have spread to the world before the above-mentioned cases reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province..
August 2020, 1,who(WHO) received an outbreak of infectious diseasePublic health emergencies of international concern Declared (PHEIC).. WHOTedros Adanom[Question]As of February 2, the Executive Secretary said, "to avoid a significant number of cases," despite the possibility of persistent community transmission of the disease in other parts of the world. Maintained praise for China's response to the virus.
In the early stages, the number of cases doubled approximately every 7 days and half a day.. From early to mid-January 2020Movement of Chinese New YearIn addition to the rapid spread of infected people throughout the country from Wuhan, a transportation hub in China, the virus has spread to other parts of China.provinceSpread to.. January 1th in ChinaBeijingWith two of深圳Reported that nearly 1 new cases occur daily, including one in.. Later official data show that by January 1, 20 virus-infected patients had already developed symptoms..
WHO reported a declining number of new cases in China on February 2020, 2,イタリア,(I.e.,and South KoreaThe number of infected people has increased sharply in China, and on February 2, it was reported for the first time that the number of new infection reports outside China exceeded the number of new infection reports in China..
As of February 2, few cases of children were reported..
As of September 2020, 9, COVID-30 has killed more than 19 million people... According to the National Health Commission of China, the majority of people who died were elderly. About 80% of the deaths are older than 60 years and 75%Cardiovascular disease,Diabetes mellitusI had a chronic disease such as.
The first case of death was confirmed on January 2020, 1 in Wuhan... The first deaths outside of China were in the Philippines, The first death outside Asia was France.. furthernorth koreaIt is estimated that 19 soldiers were killed due to COVID-200..
Map showing the confirmed number of COVID-19 cases by country (per million, as of April 2020, 4)
Map showing the number of confirmed deaths for COVID-19 by country (per million, as of March 2020, 3)
Spread of infection
Information based on "Digital Infectious Diseases" as of June 2020Boston UniversityTaken from January 2018 to April 1, according to Nora's research teamWuhanAnalysis results of 111 satellite photos and internet search engineBaiduBased on the frequency with which specific symptoms were searched for, it is considered to be a symptom peculiar to COVID-19.diarrheaThe number of searches for "" surged in August, and the epidemic of the new coronavirus may have started in August, and diarrhea "may have played an important role in community-acquired infections." However, it is not clear whether the indication is due to COVID-8 or not..
2020年11月現在、イタリア国立がん研究所の研究によると、2019年9月から2020年3月までに肺がん検査を受診した受診者から採取した血液を調べたところ、11.6％の受診者から新型コロナウイルス（SARS-CoV-2）に特異的な抗体を検出。このうち、14％は2019年9月、30％は2020年2月に採取された検体から新型ウイルスの抗体が出来ていたことが検出され、後にPeople's Republic of China OfWuhan City, Hubei ProvinceIt was later announced that the virus may have spread worldwide before the cases reported in...However, the research of the Italian National Cancer Institute has been criticized, saying, "Even if a new coronavirus existed in Italy in September last year (2019), it does not necessarily have its origin. There is also an indication that "it will not be".
- August 11- Hubei ProvinceA 55-year-old man from China may have been the first case of a new coronavirus in China, but Chinese officials said he did not release data.South China Morning PostReports.
- December 12-The first case of unexplained pneumonia was reported by a health agency in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
- August 12- CDCIn a later survey, from December 12th to 13th on the west coast of the United StatesAmerican Red CrossAntibodies to the new coronavirus were found in 39 blood samples donated to.
- August 12- According to an analysis of 40 sewage samples taken from a sewage treatment facility in northern Italy, which was later conducted by the company, new species from sewage samples in Milan and Turin as of December 12CoronavirusTraces of the (SARS-Cov-2) gene were confirmed, confirming that the virus may have started in northern Italy before China reported its first new corona infection on December 12..
- December 12-in FranceinfluenzaWhen a sample taken on December 12 was examined at a later date from a patient with such symptoms, it became clear that there was a positive reaction for the new coronavirus..
- December 12-Pneumonia of unknown cause was described公 文書Was found at the hospital where I workLi Wenliang WeChatPosted as an image to.. January 2020, 1, the cause is a new speciesCoronavirusWas identified as.
- August 12- whoThe first report to (WHO) was made.
- August 1- South China Seafood Wholesale MarketClosed.
- January 1-The cause is a new speciesCoronavirusConfirm that it is.
- January 1-The first dead.
- January 1-First outside of China,ThailandConfirm infected person in.
- August 1- JapanConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 1- CDCAccording to a later survey, from December 2019th to January 12th, 13 in the United StatesAmerican Red CrossAntibodies to the new coronavirus were found in 7389 of the 106 blood samples donated to.
- August 1- South KoreaConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 1- GuangdongHumans in --- Announced that human infections have been confirmed. Cruise liner "Diamond PrincessDeparts from Yokohama Port.
- August 1- Republic of ChinaTaiwan,The United States of AmericaConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 1- MacauConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 1- WuhanBegins to restrict the entry and exit of people.Hong Kong,Singapore,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 1- ネ パ ー ルConfirmed the infected person in.
- January 1-in JapanWuhanConfirmed infection of female travelers in their 30s living in Japan.Malaysia,France,AustraliaConfirmed the infected person in. Cruise liner "Diamond PrincessA Hong Kong man disembarked.
- August 1- GuangdongThe government is in publicMASKSMandatory wearing and introduced penalties for violators.北京市All governments cross city boundariesbusReported that the service will be stopped.
- August 1- Cambodia,Sri Lanka,Germany,カナダConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 1- United Arab Emirates,フィンランドConfirmed the infected person in. Infected people confirmed throughout China.
- August 1- フィリピン,India,イタリアConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 1- ロシア,スウェーデン,The United Kingdom,スペインConfirmed the infected person in. WHOPublic health emergencies of international concernDeclare.
World wideEpidemic preventionA system is set up, charter flights are sent to Wuhan City to return each citizen, and in countries other than China, it goes through China.Cruise linerSome passengers could not disembark from (see below).SARS-CoVThan in 2003 when the epidemicGlobalizationProgresses,COVID-2It is also characterized by the fact that infected people are often asymptomatic.Epidemic preventionSARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly all over the world. In addition, both the net and the mass media are filled with the topic of "Corona", and a large amount of inaccurate information flies around.InfodemicI fell into a state.. There were also high-priced resales of daily necessities that took advantage of the psychology of consumers in distress..
- February 2-Cruise liner "Diamond PrincessConfirmed the infection of a Hong Kong man who disembarked in Hong Kong on January 1.
- August 2- ShanghaiAs the authorities bought from domestic factories, masks became scarce worldwide, and some people resold them at a high price.フィリピンThe first death outside China was confirmed in.
- August 2- Vulcan Mountain HospitalIs completed.
- August 2- ベルギーConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 2- Thor Mountain HospitalIs completed. In Japan, a cruise liner that caused an outbreak "Diamond PrincessHowever, according to the instructions of the Japanese governmentDaikoku PierOff the coast14-day quarantineStarted.
- August 2- CDCBy inspection ofCaliforniaSanta Clara CountyAutopsy of two people who died at home on February 2th and 6th revealed that a new type of coronavirus was found..
- February 2-The doctor who first reported on new pneumonia on SNSLi WenliangDied.
- February 2-One Japanese man in his 8s died in Wuhan due to new pneumonia.. Confirmed the first Japanese death due to new pneumonia.
- February 2-WHONew coronavirusDiseases caused by infectionCOVID-19Named,ICTVCalled this virusCOVID-2Classified and named.. Hubei Province announces 103 deaths and 2,097 more infected from the new coronavirus that causes pneumonia.. As of the same day, the death toll in mainland China totaled 1,011 and the number of infected people exceeded 4..
- August 2- JapanThe first death was confirmed in.. Philippines, Japan, Taiwan, as there are passengers suspected of being infected with the new coronavirusAmerican GuamCruise liner refused to enter the countryWesterdam"ButCambodiaEnter the port.. Infected a man in his 20s in Chiba prefecture who has never traveled.
- August 2- EgyptConfirm infected person in.
- August 2- FranceConfirmed the first death in. Confirmation of death due to new coronavirus in the third country other than China.
- August 2- TaiwanConfirmed the first death in.. Confirmation of death due to new coronavirus in the fourth country other than China.
- August 2- (I.e.Confirmed infected and dead in.
- February 2-Over 21 infected people in Japan.Lebanon,イ ス ラ エ ルConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 2- アフガニスタン,(I.e.,クウェート,バーレーン,OmanConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 2- オーストリア,スイス,クロアチア,アルジェリア,Brazil Confirmed the infected person in.
- February 2-Confirmed second death in Japan. Over 26 infected people in South Korea.Pakistan,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ,ルーマニア,ノルウェー,Northern Macedonia,Greece Confirmed the infected person in.
- August 2- デンマーク,エストニア,ベ ラ ル ー シ, Netherlands,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,メキシコConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 2- アゼルバイジャン,アイス ランド,リトアニア,(I.e.,New ZealandConfirmed the infected person in.
- February 2-Over 29 infected in Italy.Qatar,アイルランド,Luxembourg,エクアドルConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- アルメニア,チ ェ コ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Indonesia,Saudi Arabia,Jordan,ラトビア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Portugal,チュニジア,モロッコ,セネガルConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- ウクライナ,リヒテン シュタイン,アルゼンチン,チリConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- ポーランド,ハンガリー,スロベニアConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Republic of South AfricaConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- ブ ー タ タ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,カ メ ル ー ン,ト ー ゴ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,コロンビア,ペルーConfirmed the infected person in. The number of infected people in the world has exceeded 10.
- August 3- Maldives,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,マルタ,パラグアイConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- バングラデシュ,ブルガリア,アルバニアConfirmed the infected person in. The number of countries / regions confirmed to be infected worldwide has reached 100.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Cyprus,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,パナマConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,トルコ,Northern Cyprus,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ボリビアConfirmed the infected person in.
- March 3-About epidemics around the worldWHO PandemicShowed the view that it is equivalent.コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル,ホンジュラス,キ ュ ー バ,セ レ ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン,ガイアナConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- America The United KingdomAnnounced that it will suspend entry from other European countries for 30 days.スーダン,Kenya,ガボン,ガーナ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,(I.e.,エチオピア,モ ー タ ニ ニ,(I.e.,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,バ ブ ブ ダ ダ ダ,セントルシア,ベネズエラ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Rwanda,セ ー シ ェ ェ,Central African Republic,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Namibia,EswatiniConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,(I.e.Confirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Tanzania,(I.e.,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in. The Chinese Communist Party plans to gradually withdraw support medical workers from Hubei Province. 16 temporary hospitals in Wuhan were closed by the 10th.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ジブチ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,バルバドスConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Zambia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- イタリアThe number of deathsChugokuThe number of deaths exceeded the number in the world.Mauritius,チャド,ニ ジ ェ ー ル,カーボベルデ,ハイチ,FijiConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Zimbabwe,パ ュ ュ ニ ニConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- 東 テ モ ー ルConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Mozambique,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,グレナダConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Myanmar,(I.e.,ベリーズConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Laos,(I.e.Confirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- (I.e.,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,セ ァ · · · · · · · · · · ·Confirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- AmericaThe number of infected peopleChugoku,イタリアBecame the most in the world.
- August 3- ボツワナ,People's Republic of LuganskConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 3- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,シエラレオネConfirmed the infected person in.
- The Russian government has announced that it will provide humanitarian assistance to the United States, including medical equipment, and a military transport aircraft departed on April 4..
- August 4- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in. The number of infected people in the world has exceeded 100.
- August 4- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 4- 南 ス ー ダ ダConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 4- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.
- August 4- YemenConfirmed the infected person in. The death toll in the world has exceeded 10.
- August 4- AmericaThe number of deathsイタリアBecame the most in the world.
- April 4-Worldwide infections exceed 16 million.
- August 4- JapanThe number of people infected in Japan exceeded 1 and the number of deaths exceeded 200..
- April 4-Worldwide infections exceed 28 million and worldwide deaths exceed 300.AmericaThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million.
- August 4- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euConfirmed the infected person in.whoThe 100th report of (WHO) was made.
- August 4- Comoros UnionConfirmed the infected person in.
- April 5-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million.
- August 5- LesothoConfirmed the infected person in.
- April 5-Worldwide infections exceed 21 million.
- August 5- AmericaThe death toll has exceeded 10.
- August 6- AmericaThe number of infected people exceeded 200 million.
- August 6- BrazilThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million.
- June 6-The number of infected people in the world exceeds 23 million.
- June 6-Before 28:7 pm, the number of infected people in the world exceeded 1000 million.
- August 7- AmericaThe number of infected people exceeded 300 million.
- September 7-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 17 million.
- July 7-India's number of infected people exceeds 17 million.
- April 7-Worldwide infections exceed 23 million.. The number of infected people in the United States has exceeded 400 million.
- July 7-American deaths exceed 30.
- July 8-India's number of infected people exceeds 7 million.
- August 8-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 8 million.. The number of infected people in Brazil has exceeded 300 million. The death toll also exceeded 10.
- April 8-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million.
- July 8-India's number of infected people exceeds 23 million.
- August 8-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 31 million.
- September 9-Russia's number of infected people exceeds 1 million.
- September 9-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 3 million.
- July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 5 million.
- September 9-India's number of infected people surpasses Brazil to become the second largest in the world.
- July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 16 million.
- April 9-Worldwide infections exceed 17 million.
- July 9-American deaths exceed 22.
- August 9-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 26 million.
- July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 28 million.. In addition, the death toll in the world has exceeded 100 million..
- February 10-United StatesDonald TrumpA few people, including the presidentRepublican PartyInfection of the person concerned was discovered.White HouseでclusterSeems to have occurred.
- August 10- Confirmed infected people in Solomon Islands..India's death toll exceeds 10.
- September 10-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 7 million.
- October 10-Brazil's death toll exceeds 10.
- July 10-India's number of infected people exceeds 11 million.
- August 10-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 16 million.
- August 10- アルゼンチンThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million..The number of infected people worldwide has also exceeded 4000 million..
- October 10-Spain's number of infected exceeds 21 million.
- October 10-The number of infected people in France exceeds 22 million.
- October 10-Colombia's number of infected surpasses 24 million.
- August 10- Confirmed infected people in the Marshall Islands.
- July 10-India's number of infected people exceeds 29 million.
- August 10-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 30 million.
- August 10- The United KingdomThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million.
- August 11-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 7 million..France's death toll exceeds 4.
- April 11-Worldwide infections exceed 8 million.
- August 11- バヌアツConfirm infected person in.
- November 11-The number of infected people in Italy exceeds 11 million..Britain's death toll exceeds 5.
- November 11-Mexico's number of infected people exceeds 14 million.
- August 11- サモアConfirm infected person in.
- November 11-India has 20 million infected, Brazil has 600 million infected, Each exceeded.Mexico's death toll exceeds 10.
- November 11-Italy's death toll exceeds 24.
- April 11-Worldwide infections exceed 26 million.
- November 11-Germany has exceeded 27 million infected.
- December 12-Worldwide death toll exceeds 4 million..Iran's number of infected people exceeds 100 million.
- August 12-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 8 million.
- December 12-Turkish number of infected people exceeds 10 million due to statistical correction.
- April 12-Worldwide infections exceed 11 million.
- July 12-American deaths exceed 15.
- July 12-India's number of infected people exceeds 19 million.
- December 12-British infections exceed 20 million.
- December 12-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 21.
- August 12- Chilean military announces 36 infections at Chile's Ohigins base in Antarctica.. Infection is confirmed on all 6 continents.On the same day, the number of infected people in Peru exceeded 100 million..
- November 12-The number of infected people in Italy exceeds 24 million.
- April 12-Worldwide infections exceed 26 million.
- December 12-South Africa's number of infected people exceeds 27 million.
- December 12-Russia's death toll exceeds 28 due to statistical corrections.
- August 1-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 1 million.
- October 1-Brazil's death toll exceeds 7.
- April 1-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million.
- August 1- Confirmed infected persons in Federated States of Micronesia.
- November 1-Germany has exceeded 15 million infected..The death toll worldwide has exceeded 200 million.
- July 1-American deaths exceed 20.
- August 1-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 24 million.
- January 1-British deaths exceed 26.
- January 1-Worldwide infections exceed 27 million.
- September 1-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 28 million.
- October 2-Spain's number of infected exceeds 9 million.
- September 2-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 19 million..The death toll in Africa has exceeded 10.
- July 2-American deaths exceed 22.
- December 2-Worldwide death toll exceeds 26 million.
- November 3-Italy's death toll exceeds 8.
- March 3-Turkey's infections exceed 21 million and deaths exceed 300.
- August 3-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 24 million..Brazil's death toll exceeds 30.
World-wide infections and deaths
The graph below shows the changes in the number of infected people and the number of deaths of the new coronavirus worldwide. On February 2020, 2, the number of infected people exceeded 1, and on February 1, 2, the number of deaths exceeded 11. On March 1,000, the number of infected people exceeded 3, and on March 7, the number of infected people worldwide exceeded 10.And on March 3, the number of infected people worldwide exceeded 19. As of 20:3 on January 23, 30, more than 2021 million infected people and more than 1 million deaths have been confirmed worldwide., Is still increasing.
As of the end of February, mainland China, the country of outbreak, accounted for most of the infections and deaths ("The outbreak situation of 2019 coronavirus infectious disease in mainland ChinaSee also). The number of infected people increased sharply on February 2 because Hubei Province of China changed the certification criteria for new coronavirus infection..
On March 3, the number of people infected outside mainland China exceeded the number of people infected outside mainland China.
on the other hand,China National Sanitation and Health CommissionChanged to a standard on February 2 that even if the test is positive, it will not be announced as an infected person unless there are symptoms such as fever and cough..
Also, on May 3Beijing UniversityIn a paper, the director of the National Development Research Institute pointed out unusually that "local officials have been ordered to'dispose of any new infected person'.. No new cases have been identified in Hubei on March 3-18, but it has been pointed out that China is tampering with statistical data to pretend to reach its goal of controlling infectious diseases..
The death toll in the United Kingdom by April 4 does not include those who died in long-term care facilities. From now on, all residents will be inspected if they have any symptoms, and accurate data will be released soon..
- Honorific titles shall be omitted for both infected and dead.
(Alphanumeric / alphabetical order)
- Kumiko Okae(actress）
- Ken Shimura(comedian(The Drifters))
- Yoshie Sue(Vocalist）
- (Okura school OfKyogen）
- Kenzo Takada(fashion designer,KENZOBrand founder)
- (Engraving彫刻家,Mainichi calligraphy exhibitionJudging member)
- Yuichiro Haneda(政治家, OriginalMinister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport）
- (All Japan Judo FederationFormer Vice Chairman,KodokanDirector)
Celebrity infection / disease
(Alphanumeric / alphabetical order)
- EC3(Professional wrestler）
- ELLY(dancer,Third generation J SOUL BROTHERS from EXILE TRIBE）
- DJ Lemeiille(Professional baseball player〈New York Yankees>)
- JK rolling(作家,Harry Potter SeriesAuthor)
- P! Nk(Singer-songwriter)
- Ryoji(ミ ュ ー ジ シ ャ ン,Ketsumeishimember)
- SWAY(Rapper,DOBERMAN INFINITY）
- Toru (In charge of guitar for ONE OK ROCK)
- Tamao Akae(Free announcer)
- Hiroki Akiyama(Comedy trio,Hanako）
- Adam Pearce(Professional wrestler）
- Abe Sada(Actor)
- Sho Aranami(Former professional baseball player, baseball commentator)
- Alyssa Milano(actress)
- Kon Arimura(Film critic)
- Prince Albert II (Prince of Monaco)
- Alexander Lukashenko(First generationPresident of Belarus）
- Aroldis Chapman(Professional baseball player <New York Yankees>)
- Antoki Inoki(comedian)
- Antonio Banderas(Actor)
- Hiroki Iijima(Actor)
- Junichi Ishida(Actor)
- Satomi Ishihara(actress)
- Junta Ito(Professional baseball player〈Hanshin Tigers〉)
- Idris Elba(An actor）
- Waka Inoue(talent）
- Kei Inoo(Hey! Say! JUMP）
- Yui Imaizumi(OriginalKeyakizaka46,actress)
- Uesugi Hiiragi(Actor)
- Masakazu Ueno(Double actDoi Uenomember)
- Jun Utahiroba(Golden Bomber Be-su charge)
- Takashi Utsumi(comedian,Milk boy）
- Umberto Rispoli(Jockey)
- Ed O'Brien(Musician,Radio headGuitarist)
- Edmundo Sosa(Professional baseball player <St. Louis Cardinals>)
- Endo Shozo(comedian,Cocorico）
- Takuzo Oshiro(Pro baseball player<Yomiuri Giants〉)
- Landlord Shizuka(AKB48）
- Ryunosuke Okada(Actor)
- Okabe University(Comedy trio, Hanako)
- Yoshio Obara(Combi Egu-SPLOSION member)
- Olga Kurylenko(actress)
- Oleg Vasiliev(Figure skatingplayer,Sarajevo OlympicsGold medalist)
- Shouma Kai(Actor)
- (Sports caster)
- Miwako Atsumi(Actress, model)
- Shunsuke Kazama(Actor)
- Atsushi Kataoka(Former professional baseball player, baseball commentator)
- Shigeaki Kato(NEWS）
- Yume Kanzaki(soccer player<Nagoya Grampus〉)
- Callum Hudson-Odyi(Professional soccer player,England national football team）
- Ryudai Kikuta(Comedy trio, Hanako)
- Kankuro Miyato(Writer・Actor)
- Christopher Cross(Singer-songwriter）
- Kuroki Honoka(Voice actor)
- Kurosawa Kazuko(Comedy trioMori Sanchumember)
- Tomoyo Kurosawa(Voice actor)
- Cody Whitley(Professional baseball player <St. Louis Cardinals>)
- Rio Komiya(An actor at that time"Mashin Sentai Kira Major』Starring)
- Keiichiro Koyama(NEWS)
- Golan Ivanisevic(Tennis instructor,Barcelona OlympicCopper medalist)
- Yohdi Kondo(model)
- Takanori Sakai(soccer player〈VISSEL KOBE〉)
- Sakakibara Tetsuji(Actor)
- Hayato Sakamoto(Pro baseball player<Yomiuri Giants〉)
- Kaede Sato(Female soccer player）
- Taiki Sato(FANTASTICS from EXILE TRIBE)
- Yuto Sano(M! LK, Actor)
- Yuka Sawada(Asahi Broadcasting TVannouncer)
- Jamie Noble(Pro Wrestler)
- Kasaki Shizaki(Voice actor, keyboard player)
- Quietness(Fashion Model)
- Jail Bolsonaro(38th generationBrazilian President）
- Jackson brown(Singer-songwriter)
- Charles Leclerc(F1 driver <Scuderia Ferrari〉)
- Jumbo Takao (comedian,Rainbow）
- Junior Fernandes(Professional baseball player <St. Louis Cardinals>)
- Tomoharu Shoji(comedian,Shinji Shinagawa）
- John Taylor(Musician,Duran DuranBassist)
- Kumiko Shiratori(Double actDandelionmember)
- Shirahama Ruru(NMB48)
- Sugiura Taiyo(Actor)
- Takakazu Susaki (comedian,Runny nose）
- Suzuki(Gravure idol)
- Steve Cutler(Pro Wrestler)
- (Musicians, testamentsbassist）
- Miki Sumiyoshi(Free announcer)
- Zlatan Ibrahimovic(Professional soccer player,AC Milan）
- Seki Toshihiko(Voice actor)
- Sergio Perez(F1driver<Racing point〉)
- Kenaga Chiga(Kis-My-Ft2）
- Takadagawa master(OriginalSumo wrestler, OriginalSekiwaki-Akinoshima）
- Shutori Takatori(Politician, member of the House of Representatives) 
- Kayoko Tabata(AKB48)
- Shinji Takeda(Actor)
- Kojima Tajima(Japan Football AssociationChairman)
- Yuji Tanaka(comedian,LOL problem）
- Daniele Rugani(Professional soccer player,Italy national football team）
- (Pro Wrestler)
- Charlie Blackmon(Pro baseball player<Colorado Rockies>)
- Charles (Prince of Wales)(British Royal Family）
- Chuei(Comedian,shooting star）
- Naoki Tsukahara(OriginalTrack and field athletes,Beijing Olympics,4 x 100m relaySilver medalist)
- Tsuru no Tsuyoshi(Actor)
- David bryan(Musician,Bon JoviKeyboardist)
- Donald Trump,Melania Trump(45th generationPresident of the United States,Mrs. President）
- Yuta Bucheon(TV Asahiannouncer)
- Dmitry Peskov(Russian Presidential Press Secretary） 
- Tom Hanks(An actor,Film director）
- Drew McIntyre(Pro Wrestler)
- Nagaishi Takumi(soccer player<Cerezo Osaka〉)
- Nakagawa Taishi(Actor)
- Kenya Nagasaka(Professional baseball player〈Hanshin Tigers〉)
- Masataka Nashida(OriginalProfessional baseball player,Baseball commentator, OriginalTohoku Rakuten Golden Eaglesdirected by)
- Kei Nishikori(Professional tennis player,Rio de Janeiro OlympicsCopper medalist)
- Nursultan Nazarbayev(OriginalPresident of Kazakhstan）
- Novak Djokovic(,Beijing OlympicsCopper medalist)
- Paulo Dybala(Professional soccer player,Argentina national football team）
- Shiratakayama General(Grand sumo wrestler,Ten cars, Takadagawa stable)
- Racecourse ふみか(Model, actress)
- Hayami Kentaro(Original "Singing brother")
- Pierre Guthrie(F1 driver <Scuderia Alpha Tauri〉)
- Victor Espinoza(Jockey）
- Yoshiyuki Hirai(American crayfish）
- Yoshihisa Hirano(Pro baseball player<Seattle Mariners〉)
- Hirose Tin(actress)
- Juan Orlando Hernandez(President Honduras）
- (talent,Johnny's Jr.）
- Juntaro Fujinami(Professional baseball player〈Hanshin Tigers〉)
- Fujiwara "31 years old" Hiroaki(4-member band ・SUPER BEAVERDrum)
- Tetsuya Funatsu(soccer player<The Spa Kusatsu Gunma〉)
- Ryoga Funatsu(Super Express）
- Placido Domingo(Opera singer,The Three Tenors）
- Flavio Briatore(Businessman, exBenetton F1-Renault F1Team representative)
- Freddie Freeman(Pro baseball player<Atlanta Braves>)
- Florent Geroux(Jockey)
- Jeanine Añez(Interim President of Bolivia）
- Baby face(Musician, music producer)
- Petro poroschenko(5th generationPresident of Ukraine）
- Paul DeJong(Professional baseball player <St. Louis Cardinals>)
- Boris Johnson(77th generationBritish Prime Minister）
- Hidekazu Majima(Actor)
- Makiaki(Double actEggs Protrusionmember)
- マ ド ン ナ(singer)
- Marianne Faithfull(Singer/actress)
- Izumi Maruoka(Free announcer)
- Martti Ahtisari(10th generationPresident of the Republic of Finland,Nobel Peace PrizeWinner)
- Miguel Sano(Pro baseball player<Minnesota Twins>)
- Mitchell Langerak(Soccer player <Nagoya Grampus>)
- Ryota Miyadate(Snow Man）
- Miro(Pro Wrestler)
- Masayasu Yagi(ActorTroupe EXILEmember)
- Yadier Molina(Pro baseball player<St. Louis Cardinals〉)
- Yamaguchi Moe(actress)
- Yuta Yamazaki(Actor)
- Kento Yamada (comedian, Runny Nose)
- Erika Yamamoto(TBS announcer)
- Keiichi Yamamoto(Dragonfly）
- Hironori Yamamoto(Actor)
- Rina Yamamoto(TBSannouncer)
- Yokohama meteor(Actor)
- Hiroshi Yokoyama(Kanjani Eight）
- Yoshiaki Yoza(Comedy talent, actor / former comedy combination /Home teammember)
- Hidetaka Yoshioka(Actor)
- Yu Yoshizawa(Actor)
- Jinto Yoshida(M! LK)
- Yuki Yoda(Nogizaka46)
- Yunaku(SUPERNOVAMembers) 
- Rajbhandari Nishii(Talent, former double act,Double dutchmember)
- Lance Stroll(F1 driver <racing point>)
- Lance Archer(Pro Wrestler)
- Land Norris(F1 driver <McLaren〉)
- Land Paul(政治家,United States Senate）
- Rangel Ravelo(Professional baseball player <St. Louis Cardinals>)
- Lucile Randon(Monk,Supercentenarian,FranceAndEuropeThe oldest person in)
- Louis Sessa(Professional baseball player <New York Yankees>)
- Lewis Hamilton(Formula One, Mercedes-AMG Champion)
- (Sports castor）
- Bronx Zoo Of Dora5 heads,Lion3 heads,Cat2 animals
- Received from an infected patient in Japandog2 animals
According to the announcement of the World Health Organization (WHO)New coronavirusThe case fatality rate of pneumonia due to (SARS-CoV-2) is estimated to be about 3%.. this isSARSLess than 9.6% of case fatality rate.. In addition,Spanish cold Pandemic worldwideThe case fatality rate is estimated to be 2.5% or more, albeit inaccurately..
Unlike SARS, this new coronavirus is said to be infected even before pneumonia occurs..
Artificial virus hypothesis
An artificial virus hypothesis has been proposed for the new coronavirus, but a scientifically valid theory has not yet been proposed. January 1thIndian Institute of TechnologyScientists say that there are four sequences inserted in the spike area of the new coronavirus.HIVAn analytical paper that states that it is part of or similar to the AIDS virus sequence is published in the scientific journal "BioRxiv"It is very unlikely that a virus will naturally acquire such a unique insertion in a short period of time.".. However, immediately after that, many researchers said that even if the analysis method itself did not make a big mistake, the interpretation of the result, for example, such insertion is also seen in other SARS-like viruses, or the expression Uncanny is scientific. The authors themselves withdrew the paper on February 2, after receiving criticisms such as being inappropriate or may be taken as suggesting genetic manipulation to the reader... As of February, BioRxiv has posted the following alerts (quoted) on all preprinted web pages..
bioRxiv has received a number of new papers on coronavirus 2019-nCoV.
Notes: These are unpeer-reviewed preliminary reports. They should not be considered conclusive, clinical and hygiene code of conduct, and should not be reported as established information in the news media.— Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag,bioRxiv
Recognized as the center of early infectionWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketIs nominallySeafoodAlthough it is a specialized market,記者According to a survey of variousWild animalsWas also traded and processed in the same area.Zhong Nanshan,Chinese Academy of SciencesAccording to the research group ofSARSSame asSource of infectionIs a bat,Bamboo rat-Badger-ヘ ビ-PangolinIt is said that it was transmitted to humans through wild animals such as.Transmission routeIs like any other coronavirusSplash infection(conjunctivaIn some cases infected through)WhenContact infectionIn Although,aerosolThere seems to be a possibility of infection.
But on February 2020, 2Chinese Academy of Sciencesなど中国政府系の研究機関が、発生源が武漢市の海鮮市場ではない可能性を示す研究結果を公表した。12カ国から集められたウイルスの遺伝子データの解析の結果、複数のタイプが見つかり、それぞれの拡散状況などから、ウイルスは他の地域で発生し、その後、武漢市の海鮮市場で拡散した可能性があるとし、2019年12月8日と2020年1月6日の2回、大きな拡散があり、2019年11月下旬か12月の初めには、すでにヒトからヒトへの感染が起きていた可能性を指摘した.. In addition, Hubei Wuhan officials said that the patient who had the earliest onset (December 2019, 12) wasWuchang DistrictIt was revealed that he lived in and did not go to the seafood market, which was pointed out as the source of infection..
XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,EpidemicWuhan Jinyintan Clinic, which accommodates patients in China, and a research group centered on clinical medical research on respiratory diseases in ChinaLancetPublished a paper studying the first 41 infected individuals. According to the paper, the pathogen virusHuman capitalInfection from human to human (human-human infection) is obvious, and there are cases where there are no symptoms of fever in the early stage of onset... In addition, 27 of them had been to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market, but the first patient who developed the disease on December 12 had never been to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market... The mortality rate of the first 41 infected people was 15%.SARSIs at the same level as.
According to a paper by Professor Yuen Kwok-Hwan of the University of Hong Kong on the same dateShenzhen City, Guangdong ProvinceAfter going to Wuhan City with 6 people living in the city, 5 people were confirmed to be infected. One of them further infected one of the locals in Shenzhen. In addition, one of these five infected children did not develop the disease while being infected, so it is highly possible that they unknowingly infected the people around them..
Examples of outbreaks includeSapporo Snow FestivalAtA stall, Housing equipment exhibition (Hokkaido)Kitami), Hospital (Tokyo,Sagamihara CityIn Yuasa Town, Wakayama PrefectureNosocomial infection, Of Osakalive house, Live Bar (Hokkaido), Nagoya has clusters in sports clubs (36 infected) and welfare facilities (45 infected).
In the case of the behavior history of infected people in Korea,Christian churchA mass infection occurred in one of the five people, one of whom had a meal at the cafeteria of a welfare facility for the elderly and five were infected. Furthermore, the infection of the welfare facility member was confirmed at the hospital, and nosocomial infection occurred at that hospital..
Patients who became the source of the spread of infection to more than 10 peopleSuper spreaderTo say. KoreanMERSSome people in the epidemic were superspreaders, with 1 to 86 infected in some cases..
Although 8% of people infected with the new coronavirus in Japan have not infected other people, the remaining 2% have infected more than one person, and cases of infecting 1 to 1 people (houseboat) and , There is also a case (sports gym) of infecting 9 to 1 people.InfectionSpecialistKenshi KennaSaid they should avoid crowded spaces to avoid becoming a super spreader.
Nosocomial infection and others
XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wuhan University Hospital4% of the infected people detected inNosocomial infectionIt was announced that.. Of the 138 patients, 41% (57) were hospital-acquired, 17 were hospitalized, and 40 were medical staff..
Makita General Hospital (Ota-ku, Tokyo),,Sagamihara Kyodo Hospital,Saiseikai Arita Hospital(Wakayama PrefectureYuasa Town）,National Cardiovascular Research Center(Osaka PrefectureSuita City)EtcNosocomial infectionThere was an emergency and she was temporarily closed.
Chinese government response
In the followingChinese governmentIt also deals with the correspondence and related events of.
Discovery and information regulation
- December 12-26, Dr. Zhang Jixian, chief of the Department of Respiratory and Severe Medicine, Hubei Hospital of Integrated Traditional Medicine, discovered and reported pneumonia of unknown cause..
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wuhan City Central HospitalDr. Ai Fen, the chief of the emergency department, reports the virus test of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause.Social MediaPosted to chat group.. Of the hospital's ophthalmologyLi WenliangThe doctorpatientからSARS coronavirusI happened to see the test result that was detected, and at 5:43 pm on the same day, my classmateWeChat(WaverBoth) In the groupSouth China Seafood MarketOf 7 peopleSARSAn infected person has been confirmed. "lung OfCT examinationI also sent a photo of.. At 6:42 pm on the same day, "CoronavirusInfection has been confirmed and we are still investigating what type it is. ".
- On December 12, the Chinese side reported to the WHO China office for the first time about the outbreak of new pneumonia..
- On January 2020, 1, the Wuhan Police Association saidインターネットI posted false information above, "said eight doctors... Dr. Lee was also called by the authorities before dawn on the 31st.False rumorWas forced to sign a "self-criticism".. Dr. Ai Fen said from the Wuhan government via the hospital where he works.パ ニ ッ クInformation should not be disclosed to the outside to avoid the problem, "and then hospital executives were informed that"False rumorI was accused of "shedding" and was strictly ordered not to say anything in the future.. After that, Moxa was convinced of "human-to-human transmission" in early January, but could not speak... It wasn't until January 1th that the Chinese government recognized human-to-human transmission... Dr. Ai Fen later regrettably said, "If everyone was on the alert on January 1st (if the information was publicly available), there wouldn't have been many such tragedy.".
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WuhanThe Public Security Bureau "disrupted social order" "False rumorAs one of the "propagators"Li WenliangToAdmonitionDefeated.. According to some media, Chinese authorities first notified the United States of the new virus on the same day, and then provided information a total of 2 times by February..
- January 1-January 6, Wuhan CityBoth sessions("People's Congress", "Political Consultative Assembly"). There is also a view that the Wuhan government did not disclose infected persons during the two sessions from January 1th to 6th, because "successful peace" is the highest proposition during the two sessions and no negative information is reported... In addition, on January 1, Hubei Xinhua Clinic in Wuhan instructed the hospital not to leak information on the new pneumonia to the outside.[Reliability required verification].
- On January 1, Chinese researchers reported that the pathogen of this infection was a new type of coronavirus, five days later.May 1The entire gene sequence of the virus was released worldwide.
- From around January 1th to January 10thChinese New YearGolden Week holidays (Spring luck) Has begun, and a total of 14.76 billion people have begun to move..
- January 1-11, Hubei Provincial Two Sessions. No infected persons were announced during the two sessions in Hubei Province from January 17th to 1th..
- On January 1, 18 people live in Wuhan's residential area "Hyakka-tei," where more than 18 households brought food to the party... Wuhan government left.. This event seems to have spurred the spread of the infection.
Official Announcement and City Blockade: January-February
- January 1, morning,Prime Minister OfLee Keqiang TheState CouncilToNational Health Commission of China (National Health Commission) OfZhong NanshanCalled the chairman to hear the report and instructed to strengthen risk awareness.. Afternoon, 習近 TairaSo secretary was instructed to "prevent the infection spread", "prompt information disclosure.".. At night, Zhong Nanshan was on national television in Wuhan.Human capitalInfected humans from Wuhan. ".Lunar New YearLarge-scale migration of people due toSpring luck: January 1th-January 10th), so the health agency was wary.. Until then had been told in the funny and the Internet is there no infection information from regions outside of Wuhan, but 習近 TairaSo instruction and later secretary, began to information from each local government is disclosed.. It is also said that the local government was afraid of being punished for defeat and dismissal by reporting negative information (infection information) to the center.[Reliability required verification].
- January 1 Hubei ProvinceJiang ChaoliangThe public criticized the clerk for participating in the production of the Chinese New Year celebration..
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Standing Committee, Central Political Bureau, Communist Party of ChinaWith instructions fromWuhan City blockadeDeclared, and stopped buses, subways, ferries, airports and railroads.. At the Chinese New Year celebration held on the same day, General Secretary Xi only gave a congratulatory speech and did not mention the new pneumonia at all..
- On January 1, "Hubei Daily" reporter Zhang Yua said at Weibo that "Wuhan executives should be replaced" and was immediately deleted..
- August 1(Chinese New Year), The government held a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Party PolitburoTravelingDecided to ban (from 27th).
- On January 1th, Wuhan writers (Mioyoshi)WeiboIn the form of recording the epidemic prevention situation of WuhanWuhan DiaryI started posting. Controversy was caused on SNS over the truth of the record.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,State Council TheChinese New Year3 days extension, variousDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularThe opening of the school was also extended.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Zhejiang Province,ShanghaiHas decided to resume operations of the company after February 2th and to start school after February 10th. Hubei has postponed the resumption of operations to February 2.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC)In a paper published in a U.S. medical journal, the first infected person probably appeared on December 12, reporting that "human-to-human transmission" had already occurred since mid-December 8..
- January 1, Hubei ProvinceHuangokaTwenty-four people, including the Chief of the Health and Health Commission, Karashi Hong, were dismissed or punished due to poor epidemics..
As of January 2020, China's measures are 1SARSAcclaimed by some foreign leaders compared to the epidemic.Playing cardsUS President And in GermanyThe Minister of Health praised China's hard work and its transparency as making a big difference from the time of SARS... SingaporeHarima JacobPresident,Lee Shen LongPrime Minister of RussiaPutinPresidents praised "quick and decisive response".
- February 2th, the Chinese governmentWeibo(Weibo)WeChat(WeChat),ByteDance(Byte jump)Vibrato(Doh-in) etc.Social mediaAnnounced enhanced censorship.
- February 2th night, ChinaMediaReported the death of Dr. Li Wenliang (34 years old).
- February 2th, Fang Bin for Wuhan citizensForced deportationHas stopped since posting a video of a group rushing into the room.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WHO TheNew coronavirus The official name of the disease caused by (SARS-CoV-2) is "COVID-19Has been decided.. WHO is a new human in 2015Infection-ウ イ ル スThe policy stipulates that the name should not include geographical location, personal name, animal or food name, or name for a particular culture or industry... In deciding the name, a WHO official said, "Media reports use Wuhan and China, but we want to keep them from being stigmatized.".. Associate Professor Crystal Watson of the Johns Hopkins Health Crisis Management Center also said, "People are'China virusIf you start using names such as ”, there is a risk of causing dissatisfaction with certain people.”.. However, after that, there was an opinion that the name "Wuhan" should be included in the virus name in order to clarify the origin of the outbreak in the United States and Japan... The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the state media are running to extinguish the fire every time a word like "Wuhan virus" appears..
- On June 2,Association to protect Japan's dignity and national interestsIs the representative secretaryAoyama ShigeharuA member of the House of Councilors said, "It is difficult to remember the" COVID-19 "decided by WHO, and it is difficult to understand the essence of the disease."Wuhan feverShould be called. ".. On February 2th, House of Councilors Aoyama said in a blog that there was a decisive problem that a reliable international research team could not enter the source Wuhan.CDCSaid that he tried to enter many times but was blocked by the Chinese government, and it was also China that WHO announced a policy of "not including place names in infectious diseases"Chen Feng Fu Chin Argued that it was after sending (Margaret Chan) to the Executive Secretary.
- On the 14th, Somasu ShinNational Health CommissionIt is,Asymptomatic pathogen carrierabout,Information disclosureAnnounced that it will not be covered by.If the PCR test is positive and there are no symptoms such as fever or cough, isolation is performed for 14 days, and if no infectious symptoms appear during that period, the person will not be announced as an infected person.Change to the standard.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Hubei ProvinceBlocked the entire ministry, banned vehicles other than emergency vehicles, and took compulsory measures against unnecessary outings and gatherings... Collectively purchase and deliver daily necessitiesDistribution systemBecame.. Of the ministryXiaogan CityProhibits going out and notifies that violations will be detained for up to XNUMX days,MachengSaid to pay a subsidy of 7,800 yuan (about XNUMX yen) to the person who reported the symptoms of others.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,People's networkBut in JapanTV AsahiBut,CDCBelieves that out of 1 US patients who died of influenza in the past few months, it may have included pneumonia due to coronavirus infection, which is already significant in big cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Reported that the review of the inspection system has begun.. This news isSina WeiboPublished in, among Chinese net users, the military athlete competition held in Wuhan in October 2019 ``Military world gamesIt was also pointed out that U.S. military personnel who participated in the event may have brought it to China..
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,China Central TelevisionFormer newscaster Li Zehua arrested live on Youtube.. I was released the next day,Red zoneHe explained that he was quarantined because he entered the area..
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Central Communist Party of the Chinese Communist PartyPublished the editorial "Great Power War" Epidemic "" and praised the "decision of the territory"Supreme leaderEmphasized the role of.. State media praised the book as demonstrating the outstanding advantages of the Chinese Communist Party leaders and the socialist system.. But,Opposition spreads on the Internet, such as "Do children say victory (against infectious diseases) even though children cannot go to school and Wuhan cannot go out?"[Source required], Can no longer be purchased on March 3st.
- On the 27th, the National Health Commission of Zhong Nanshan said, "The source of the virus is not necessarily China.".. Also in China, "Infection is almost suppressed by the end of April"The forecast was stated..
- March 3, 習近 TairaSo secretary said, "should make clear whether the virus came from somewhere.".
- March 3, state-ownedXinhua News AgencyInsisted that "the world should thank China".. In this article, when the pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan, the United States treated China negatively, banned Chinese from entering the country, and isolated China from the world... The United States would be in trouble if China banned the export of masks and medicines to the United States, but China did not ban it due to human love... The epidemic of new pneumonia occurred in China, but the source may be outside of China.. China has no reason to apologize for the infection, even in countries that have no contact with China. China has succeeded in suppressing the virus. The world is grateful to China. The United States insisted that it should apologize to China but did not apologize.. In addition, Chinese media emphasized "the superiority of the Chinese system" by making the measures of the United States, Japan, South Korea, etc. incomplete..
- March 3, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of ChinaMa Zhaoxu"China's contribution to global public health has been recognized worldwide," he said..
- Same day,Zhao LijianDeputy Press DirectorFOX TV"There is no established theory about where the virus is occurring, and both China and other countries are victims." "China's infectious disease control is a responsible powerhouse." It was what it should be. "Influenza that prevailed mainly in the United States in 2009No one demanded an apology from the United States.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wang ZhonglinWuhan Municipal Party Committee secretary is "Wuhan citizens should be grateful to 習近 TairaSo secretary and the Chinese Communist Party," "Thanksgiving educationWas expanded.. However, this "gratitude education" caused dissatisfaction among the Chinese people, was criticized on the Internet, and changed its policy to "thank the citizens of Wuhan.".
- On March 3, "Nagae Daily" reported on gratitude education, but it was deleted due to public criticism..
- March 3, Hubei Provincial Party Committee SecretaryCouragePraised the Wuhan people for "actively supporting and cooperating with the party's control measures.".. Authorities issued a gag order banning the media from mentioning the "gratitude education" case.. On the same day, "Nagae Daily" reported that the Wuhan government is sincerely grateful to the citizens of Wuhan... Journalist Sochoshin said the authorities are public servants of the people, but the people they serve are dead and sick.conscienceHe criticized that he would not force gratitude to Wuhan people if there was.. Died after whistle-blowing information hiding at Wuhan HospitalLi WenliangIn the case of doctors, Chinese social media also showed anger at the authorities.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,習近 TairaSo secretary (Jintao) visited for the first time in Wuhan City official.. General Secretary Xi said, "Wuhan citizens are heroes," and said, "I understand that waiting at home is long and I want to complain about it.".Ring and ball newsReported on his visit to Wuhan, "I felt optimistic and the spring atmosphere was lively.".
- On the 10th, WHOTedros AdanomThe secretary is state-owned in ChinaCCTVIn an interview, he praised the leadership of the Chinese government and the cooperation of the people, saying that "the international community should take full advantage of the opportunities that China has won.".
- On the 10th, he was in charge of virus testing at the beginning of the Wuhan epidemic.Wuhan City Central HospitalAn article published on the Internet by Dr. Ai Fen, the chief of the emergency department, in the Chinese magazine "Person" of the Communist Party.The person who blows the whistleAnnounced that there was a seal by the Wuhan government.. Ai Fen's article was deleted by the authorities two hours after posting, andSocial MediaThe article isEnglish-Japanese-GermanTranslated to, but also deleted. But,AI(Artificial intelligence) Was usedcensorshipNot to be removed from写真-Typeface,Shell character,Mao ZedongTypeface etc.calligraphy-DNA sequence-Braille-Musical score-Upside down reading-QR code-barcode-Morse code-絵 文字It was reprinted in 33 different formats.. Reprinted articles are no longer deleted after the night of March 3th.. On the Internet, "Don't repeat the same tragedy (with Dr. Lee)" "No moreFreedom of speechCriticism continued, such as "I will not forgive".People's DailySister paper "Ring and ball news"This is a kind of online art that expresses dissatisfaction. It's not a big deal.".. Hu Xijin, editor-in-chief of the newspaper, said on SNS on March 3 that "in China, opinions gathered online will be reflected in the policy even if they are deleted.".
- March 3, party newspaper "People's Daily"The name of Wuhan will be re-recorded in history as a hero," said General Secretary Xi in the headline on the first page..
- On the same day, WHO Executive Secretary Tedros announced that "it can be said to be a pandemic." "In the past two weeks, the number of infected people outside China has increased 13 times, and the number of countries has tripled.".
- 11th,Robert O'BrienThe White House Chief of Staff argues that the Chinese government hid information during the initial infection stage and refused to send WHO or CDCs, delaying global response..
- On March 3, Chinese health officials said, "China has crossed the peak of infectionDeclared.
- 12th,O'BrienFollowing a statement by the White House Chief of Staff that the Chinese government has delayed global response due to concealment of infection information in Wuhan, Press Secretary Zhao saidThe US military may have brought the infection to Wuhan. (US) Be transparent! The data should be published! Explain America to China!Posted on Twitter.. He also introduced an article that speculates that the source of the virus is a US military research facility... Same day,Director of Press, Ministry of Foreign Affairs OfKaharu"It is absolutely wrong and inappropriate to call it the new Chinese coronavirus," he argued on Twitter.[Reliability required verification].Assistant Secretary of State OfDavid StilwellIt is,Cui TiankaiTo the Ambassador to the United StatesConspiracy theory"China is looking for a way out of the accusations that it didn't inform the world after it caused the pandemic," he said..
- 12th,イタリアA team of experts from a university in Sichuan Province and the Chinese Red Cross has set out to support. Chinese mediaOne belt one roadThe bond has become stronger, and there are many voices of gratitude for China... ItalyG7The only Chinese giant economic zone conceptOne belt one roadParticipating in.
- March 3, 13, November 2019, 11Hubei ProvinceChinese data suggest that a 55-year-old man from China may have been the first case of the new coronavirus, but Chinese officials did not release the data.South China Morning PostReports[Reliability required verification].
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WHO OfTedrosThe secretary said, "Europe is now the center of the pandemicThe main battlefield for infection control has moved from China to Europe..
- On the 13th, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of ChinaGeng ShuangDeputy press director accused senior U.S. government officials of linking China to the virus as an attack on China.
- 13th,Zhao LijianA spokesman said, "Japan's conspiracy theory is based on the US military conspiracy theory.TV AsahiIntroduced an article by Larry Romanov, who reported that "the outbreak of the new coronavirus is in the United States, not China.".
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Nobel Prize for LiteratureOf the award-winning authorMario Vargas RyosaSaid that China was a free and democratic country, not a dictatorship, and that the world would not have faced such an outbreak without hiding information at the beginning of the outbreak... Chinese officials replied that it was "malicious".. Aug. 3,Deputy Press Director OfGeng ShuangRebelled as "irresponsible speech".
- On the morning of March 3, the number of infected people in various parts of Europe and other regions exceeded mainland China for the first time..
- On the 16th, China's diplomatic directorYang KiyoshiChichiTalked to US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on the phone and protested each other.. Yang warned, "The scheme to smear China is not what you want, and any act that undermines China's interests will inevitably result in a resolute counterattack," said US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.False rumorIt's not the time to disseminate strange rumors, but the time when all nations unite to fight common threats. ".
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,US President Donald TrumpOn TwitterChinese VirusPosted.
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,South China Morning PostReported that as of the end of February, more than 2 infected people in China had been excluded from statistics because they were "asymptomatic.".. Asymptomatic people are estimated to be one-third of all infected people, and more than 3 people including symptomatic people are included in the official announcement in China at the end of February... Asymptomatic patients are said to have been placed under medical surveillance.
- 3 month 25 dayG7At the Foreign Ministers' meeting, the US State Department insisted that it should be labeled as "Wuhan virus," but countries did not accept it and the adoption of the joint statement was postponed... US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo criticized China for failing to share information early, even though China was aware of the risks the virus poses to the world..
- March 3, is Xi Jinping JintaoG20"The virus has no borders and the spread of infection is a common enemy," he said at an emergency video summit.The G20 issued a joint statement stating, "The virus is borderless. We are strongly committed to establishing a joint front against this common threat.".. The South China Morning Post reported that the United States and China agreed to shelve the conflict and prioritize the establishment of infection control mechanisms..
- March 3, Trump president who finished the telephone talks with Xi Jinping Jintao "has deepened a thorough understanding about China is the virus. We are working closely" on Twitter and posted, conventional "China Called "corona virus" instead of "virus".
Correspondence of each country
Travel restrictions around the world as the infection spreads,quarantine,CurfewPublic health measures such as were taken. Areas such as Wuhan, which became the source of infectionLockdown(City blockade), various outing bans have been taken in various places, and a British-flagged cruise liner carrying passengers including infected peopleDiamond Princess"ButQuarantine in the waters near JapanReceived or even in ItalyMovement restrictions throughout the countryWas taken.. At some airports and train stations, screening methods such as checking body temperature and requiring the submission of a health report are beginning to be implemented... In addition, the issuance of cautionary / warning information (including self-restraint requests / cancellation recommendations) regarding travel to areas where community infection is ongoing, and the actual restriction / suspension of travel from infected areas, etc.Tightening travel regulations,furtherEUEtc国境TheBlockadeSome countries are doing.
DutchDelft University of TechnologyAnnouncement on the TV screen of the program asking students to refrain from traveling to China (February 2020, 2)
Discuss how to respond to the epidemic of the new coronavirusGiuseppe ContePrime Minister I and Countermeasures Headquarters
Social distance expansion strategy
Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs), also called Community Mitigation, include the following measures and prevention:.
- Spaces such as schools, workplaces, events, meetings, etc., where groups are close together on a daily basis, are spaced from each other.
- Closure of places where people gather, such as schools, workplaces, events, sports, religious gatherings, festivals and conferences.
- quarantineStrengthening and measures at the waterfront
- Preventive measures at the individual level
- (From the example of infection in Japan in 2020,Due to clusters occurring in dense spaces, it was recommended to improve ventilation, keep a distance of 1-2 m from each other, and avoid short-distance conversations and singing.)
Infection spreads because humans do not have immunity to the new virus, but when vaccines cannot be used, NPIs are an effective method to control infection. According to the epidemiological analysis so far, the damage can be suppressed to a considerable extent by implementing the most effective combination of measures at the optimum timing..
Guidelines for infection prevention in Japan
Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareMarch 2020, 3, Japan's past outbreak (cluster) In caseス ポ ー ツ ジ ム,Houseboat,buffetstyle'sDinner,Sparrow,Ski Ofguest house, There was a sealed temporary tent,ventilationIs bad, avoids going to a place where many people are in contact with each other or where a large number of unspecified people come into contact.Advised to.
New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts Meeting TheMay 3The places where outbreaks have been confirmed so far are 1.Closed space with poor ventilation[Note 2]、 2.Many people are crowded、 3.Conversations at short distances (the distance you can reach if you reach out to each other)VocalizationIt is a place where the three overlap, and I recommended avoiding such a place. The council strongly recommended the following to prevent outbreaks:.
May 3,First-class infectious disease designated medical institutionIsMetropolitan Komagome HospitalDr. Kenji Imamura, Director of Infectious Diseases, said that the most important measure to control the epidemic in the current situation in Japan is cluster (infectious population) measures.. If you find someone in a cluster that has spread to more than one person, you should thoroughly investigate the contact person (dense contact person).. There were cases where the number of positive contacts who went to the gym increased to about 1400 people..
May 3The expert council is holding up at the moment, but at one time there is a sudden explosion of patients (“Overshoot)) Then, if medical care can no longer be provided,Lockdown measures (city blockade, store closures, refraining from going out, etc.)I was worried that I would have to take it. On top of that, we will continue to detect cluster infections (clusters) at an early stage, enhance intensive care for severely ill persons, and maintain a medical supply system.In addition, each region will have events and meetings ( While thoroughly avoiding those with a high infection risk such as places where the three conditions overlap), in areas where the infection has not spread, it is possible to gradually release from activities with a low infection risk..
Based on the above views, the New Coronavirus Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Countermeasures Headquarters, in order to improve "a poorly-ventilated enclosed space" that is one of the risk factors, what kind of ventilation should be used in commercial facilities that are used by many people. While listening to the opinions of experts about what to do, consider literature, standards of international organizations, standards of domestic laws, etc., and as a recommended ventilation method,Ventilation method to improve "closed space with poor ventilation"Was compiled.
May 3, The New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Headquarters announced the "Basic Policy for Countermeasures against New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases", in which it is important to control the number of infected persons and to maintain the medical provision system and social function. ,Avoid "three dense" (closed space, dense place, close scene), Containment of cluster outbreak promoted by epidemiological survey..In addition, these three dense spaces are expressed as "three dense".Has been publicized.
Discussion on herd immunity
JapaneseNew Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts MeetingOn March 3, "Infectious diseases, when the majority of people are infected, break the chain of infection, and a mechanism to protect uninfected people can function"Collective immunityMentioned the idea of.
Collective immunity is seen as a sequestration policy before the spread of community-acquired infections and as a countermeasure in the absence of vaccines.
It is the same coronavirus as the new coronavirus,Human coronavirus OC43There is a theory that collective immunity may be established. The virus could be the source of a pandemic that killed 19 million people at the end of the 100th century, Now it's just a seasonal cold.
A discussion about population immunity in the UK
On March 3, the British government announced that it would counteract with collective immunity.
On March 3, British scientists announced the "Immediate Implementation Recommendations for Social Distance Strategy", and the government's response was inadequate. Dramatically delayed and claimed to save tens of thousands of lives (14 signed by 3 March). Also at the momentCollective immunityIt was not effective to pursue.University of BirminghamProfessor Willem van Schaik (microbiology) says that in order to achieve the effect of collective immunity, 3600 million people must be infected and recover in Japan alone, but the human cost is unpredictable, He said that tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands will die, saying, "To prevent the NHS from puncturing, we have to extend the epidemic period so that millions of infections are sporadic over a long period of time.".
UK Department of Health“Outbreaks are not part of our action plan, they are a natural by-product of an epidemic. We can save lives, protect the most vulnerable and reduce the burden on the NHS. ``It's a goal,'' he said, "the infection countermeasures have already passed the containment phase, and it is at the stage of delaying the spread of infection." did.
In response to the outbreakSchengen areaMost countries and regions within,andアルメニア,Australia,India,(I.e.,Indonesia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,クウェート,Malaysia,Maldives,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,New Zealand,フィリピン,Singapore,Sri Lanka,Taiwan,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,andThe United States of America Is temporarily banning Chinese citizens and those who have recently visited China, suspending the issuance of visas for Chinese citizens, and strengthening the requirements for issuing visas..
Samoa has begun to refuse even the entry of its own citizens who have stayed in China, and has been widely criticized for the legality of its decision..
As of March 2020, 3, the number of countries that have immigration restrictions on travelers from Japan is 27 countries / regions, which is equivalent to about 176% of the world, which is 9 times the number of 2 countries as of February 25. Ta.. In addition, as of March 3, Japan has decided to designate the United States, Europe, China, and South Korea as countries subject to travel suspension recommendations and entry denials..
On March 3, the Japanese government issued a two-week quarantine and visa exemption for travelers from South Korea, including nationals of third countries, due to a large-scale infection in Daegu, South Korea. Announced suspension. The next day, the South Korean government took diplomatic retaliation against the Japanese government's decision. In addition to suspending the visa exemption for Japanese only, the visa already issued has been invalidated..
The United States enforced a 3-day immigration ban on 13 Schengen countries on March 26, and extended the restrictions to Ireland and the United Kingdom on March 30... On the 19th, it issued a recommendation to all Americans to stop traveling abroad..
North Korea stopped accepting tourists from China on January 1 (Wuhan's city closure was on the 21rd) and virtually closed the border..
Evacuation of foreigners
Due to the blockade of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, some countries have obtained takeoff and landing permits from Chinese authorities.Charter flightsIt was planned to evacuate its own citizens and diplomatic staff from the area to their home countries. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, France, Australia, Sri Lanka, Germany, and Thailand had early plans to evacuate their citizens... Meanwhile, Pakistan has stated that it will not evacuate its citizens from China... On February 2020, 2, Brazil evacuated 7 Brazilians and their families, as well as four Poles, one Chinese and one Indian. The Poles, Chinese, and Indians disembarked in Poland, where the Brazilian plane landed on its way home. Brazilians who have returned to their home countriesBrasiliaQuarantine at a nearby military base.. On the same day, 215 Canadians from Wuhan, ChinaへEvacuation（176名は第1便、39名は米国政府がチャーターした第2便）し、2週間検疫された。2月11日、別の便で185名のカナダ人が武漢からカナダ軍基地トレントンに到着した。オーストラリア当局は2月3日と4日に277名の国民を検疫施設に転用したCamp on Christmas IslandEvacuated to and waited there for 14 days.. A flight carrying New Zealand evacuees (including citizens of Australia and the Pacific) arrived in Auckland on February 2 and was quarantined at a naval base in Whangaparaoa, north of Auckland... The United States announced that it will evacuate Americans aboard the cruise ship "Diamond Princess".. On February 2, an aircraft carrying 21 Canadians evacuated from the "Diamond Princess" arrived in Trenton, Ontario... The Indian government has announced that it will send the Air Force to evacuate its people from Iran..
- August 2020, 1,Gates FoundationAnnounced a $ 500 Million Donation, Announced on February 2th that it will donate an additional $ 5 million to WHO. Donations will be used to fund vaccine research and treatment efforts, as well as to protect "people in endangered Africa and South Asia.".
- In the process of coordinating charter flights to rescue the Japanese people in Wuhan, Japan will first be unmanned outbound flights, with a large number of masks and for the Chinese people as well as the Japanese people. Promising to transport relief supplies consisting of protective clothing to WuhanToshimitsu MogiForeign Minister announced.. On January 1, a charter flight arrived in Wuhan and donated 26 million face masks to Wuhan... The relief supplies included 2 medical protective clothing donated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government... Aug. 1,MitoIs a friendly exchange city with 5 masksChongqingDonated to. February 2thOkayama CityHas 22,000 masks in sister citiesLuoyangSent to. Of the ruling partyLDPIs February 2th, for March of all members of parliament belonging to the partyAnnual feeThe party showed a symbolic action of deducting 5,000 yen from (salary) and donating the collected 200 million yen to China.Toshihiro NikaiThe secretary-general said, "For our country, when we see a virus pandemic in China, it seems that we are seeing our relatives and neighbors suffering. Japanese people are willing to help China, and this pandemic I hope it will end as soon as possible. ".Peace Winds JapanAnnounced that it will send staff to China to help distribute face masks and other supplies to the country..
- Humanitarian organization "Direct Relief"FedexWhile receiving transportation and logistics support in cooperation with, along with other personal protective equipment including gloves and patient gowns, 1 face masks requested for support by January 30 were urgently airlifted.Delivered to.
- On January 1, some Chinese students studying at an American university joined a joint group in the Greater Chicago area for 30 copies.N95 maskAnd sent 1,500 protective suits to a hospital in Hubei province.
- On February 2, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that 5 countries, including Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Egypt, and Iran, had sent relief supplies to China..
- XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,United States Department of StateIn China, about 18 tons of masks and protective clothing, etc.Infection controlAirlifted relief supplies and announced that it would also provide up to $ 1 million in financial assistance.Pittsburgh CityAnnounces that it will send medical supplies to its sister city, Wuhan, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) also announced support plan.
- Malaysia announced that it will donate medical gloves for 1800 million people to China.
- Also donated a face mask made in the Philippines worth $ 140 million and shipped it to Wuhan... Turkey ships medical equipment, Germany has 10,000Chemical protective clothingDelivered various medical supplies including.
- On February 2, the Singapore Red Cross announced that it would send $ 19 million worth of relief supplies to China..
School closure (closed all at once)
In addition,United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) fears that education will be interrupted due to school closures around the worldDistance learning programIs recommended.
City blockade (lockdown)
- Chugoku: November 2020, 1,WuhanでCity blockadeDeclare.German Federal Ministry of Health, Health Minister Sparn,Robert Koch InstituteOn March 3, Wuhan's forced quarantine could be expected to prevent and slow the number of infected people, but it did not reduce the number of new infections and did not mean the disappearance of the virus. He said he couldn't expect too much.Charite Medical UniversityChristian Drosten said data from Chinese authorities were deliberately manipulated and unreliable, and predicted a re-emergence if Chinese social activity was restored... Wuhan roads and railroads began to be unblocked from March 3.University of London Graduate School of Hygiene and Tropical MedicineKeisha Prem emphasized, "We should avoid the hasty relaxation of movement restrictions in Wuhan. The infection'second wave'may be accelerated.".
- Japan: Requested event organizer to consider necessity on February 2020, 2.. On February 2, we requested the cancellation, postponement, and reduction of the scale of meetings such as sports and events for two weeks.Requested a simultaneous closure from March 3nd.. On March 3th, an expert meeting said that the number of infections exploded ("Overshoot”) If so, it was suggested that strong lockdown measures (city blockade, store closure, refraining from going out, etc.) should be taken...However, the amendment passed on March 3New influenza measures special measures lawBecause there are no penalties forPenaltiesTo specifylegislationOrExtra-legal measuresUnless you do政府And eachPrefectural governmentby