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[MLB] "That's unavoidable" The words of "legendary pitcher" Nomo, who saved Darvish

 
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Twenty-six years ago, Nomo crossed the sea from Japan, where skepticism flew over major challenges.
 

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Skepticism

Skepticism(Kaigishugi,Rice: skepticism,British: scepticism) Is basicprinciple-recognitionOn the other hand, examine its universal validity, objectivity or probability,根 拠Everything withoutDoxaTry to eliminate ()Principle.SkepticismAlso called (Kaigiron).On the other hand, the position is to clarify the structure of the world from the basic principle (dogma) that is said to have absolute demonstrability.Dogmatism(alone: Dogmatismus) OrDogmatismThat.

Skepticism or skepticismAncient timesからThe early modern periodDoes not bring true recognition, oratheismDestructive leading tothoughtIt was often argued as.This means that skepticism will be suspended if skepticism fails to obtain universal validity and new principles / recognitions that are objective or probable.AgnosticismIn connection with traditionalmetaphysicsThis is because he has come to doubt the certainty of the god and existence that he holds.HoweverModernLater,natural ScienceIt has become a source of ideological energy for the development of the country, and is often spoken positively.

Lack of empirical evidence The truth, accuracy, epistemological position of doubting universal validity, and scientific and everyday attitudesScientific skepticismCalled.

Ancient skepticism

Pyrrho

SkepticismIt is,Western EuropeInEllis PyrrhoIt started from the idea (around 365/360 BC-275/70 BC)[1].PyrrhoHe has not left a work, andDisciple OfTimon(Around 325/320 BC-235/230 BC) Since his words and deeds are only fragmented,PyrrhoIt is unclear what the idea was and to what extent it was consistent with the subsequent Pyrrhoism.[2]..The only surviving work of the PyrrhoistsSextus EmpiricusSkepticism is also called Pyrrhoism, according to one of his works (active around 200), "Overview of Pyrrhoism Philosophy".PyrrhoNot because of the idea of, but among the ancient skepticsPyrrhoWas most devoted to skepticism[3].

Pyrrhoism

Diogenes LaërtiusReportedly, Pyrrhoism after Timon was due to Timon's lack of disciples.PtolemyThe theory that it was cut off until it was rebuiltSextusThere is a theory that it continued until[4]..However, this that Diogenes reportsGenealogyNo one in the world has revealed the details today.[5]..Also, DiogenesPtolemyStates that Pyrrhoism was revived, but it was actually revived.AenesidemusThe theory that (active around the 1st century BC) is influential today.[6][7].

Aenesidemus

AenesidemusWrote all eight volumes of "The Discussion of Pyrrhoism", but this work does not remain,SextusIs only known to mention him in "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy" etc.[8].

[HeraclitusIt is self-evident that [philosophy] is different from our skepticism.BecauseHeraclitusMakes dogmatic statements about many obscure things, as we have already said, because we do not.However,AenesidemusFor those who focus on skepticismHeraclitusHe said it was a path leading to philosophy. (Additional notes of the quoter in [])

— Sextus "Overview of Pyrrhoism Philosophy", translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama "Overview of Pyrrhoism Philosophy" Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.104.

For this reason,AenesidemusIs not really a PyrrhoistHeraclitusThere is also suspicion that he was not a scholar[9].

Empiricist Sextus

PyrrhoistdoctorWas alsoSextus Empiricus(Empiricus is a nickname of an empiricist, not a name)[10], Tells the difference between Pyrrhoism and other schools as follows.

When people explore something, the likely consequence is to discover what they are exploring, or to refuse to discover and agree to be incomprehensible, or to continue exploring. Either to do.Perhaps because of this, some also claimed to have found the truth about what was sought in philosophy, others stated that they could not grasp the truth, and others continued to explore it. Let's go.And of these, the one who thinks he has discovered the truthAristotelian School,Epicurean school,Store school, And others, who are called dogmatists in a unique sense, and who have stated that they are incomprehensible.CarneadesFaction, and othersAcademiaAnd it is the skeptics who continue their quest.

— Sextus "Overview of Pyrrhoism Philosophy", translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama "Overview of Pyrrhoism Philosophy" Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.6.

hereSextusIs PyrrhoismDogmatismandAgnosticismIt is presented as a conflict with.However, there is a view that such classification is a little too divisible, especially in the early days.AcademiaTheAgnosticismQuestions have been raised today as to whether it is okay to belong to[11].SextusAccording to skepticism, the purpose of skepticism is "immobility in things that are unintentional and modest in things that are inevitable."[12].

Because skeptics originally aimed to judge the representations, figure out which is true and which is false, and as a result reach immobility. ,哲学However, after all, he fell into a conflict of forces and could not make a judgment on this, so he withheld the judgment.However, when he withheld his judgment, it was his unwavering [calmness] in what he thought of that he came after him by chance.

— Sextus "Overview of Pyrrhoism Philosophy", translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama "Overview of Pyrrhoism Philosophy" Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.20.

However, instead of reserving judgment on everything,RepresentationApprove this for situations that are inevitably received as (as-is manifestations in the senses)[13]. That is,SextusAccording to the explanation, in the sense that knowledge is related to something obscure.dogmaIn the sense that it does not havedogmaDoes not have[14]..Similarly, Pyrrhoists do not say "everything is false" or "nothing is the truth", but "it seems to me that nothing seems to be graspable at the moment" or " I don't affirm or deny this for now, "uses the cautious phrase.[15].

Such PyrrhoismSextusAccording to the report, there are a total of 17 ways of discussion, including old and new dissent.The 10 traditional methods are:[16].

  1. Method based on differences between animals: For exampledogFishLocustMay look differently[17].
  2. Method based on differences between humans: For example, the body structure differs from person to person[18].
  3. Methods based on different structures of sensory organs: for example TheVisualAccording to it seems to be deepTactile senseAccording to it is flat[19].
  4. Situation-based method: For example, ordinary people and people who are godly are differentRepresentationTo have[20].
  5. Method based on placement, separation and location: For exampleboatSeems to move slowly when viewed from a distance, but appears to move fast when viewed from a close distance[21].
  6. Method based on mixing: (Note: This part is quite difficult to understand from modern knowledge. For example, it is said that the body becomes lighter in water and heavier in air, but this is so-called weight around It is understood that it was thought to have changed due to mixing with the substance of[22].
  7. Method based on quantity and formulation of things: for exampleliqueurIf you drink too much, it will be harmful, but if you drink it moderately, you will be healthy.[23].
  8. Relativity-based method: That is, things differ depending on the subject.
  9. Frequency-based method: For examplecometI'm surprised that it appears only occasionally, but I'm not surprised if comets appear frequently.[24].
  10. Method by confrontation of various theories:Custom,law,mythandtheoryBe disjointed[25].

Academia skepticism

TimonからAenesidemusIt was the major contribution to skepticism during the period of severance.PlatoFounded byAcademiaMet[26]. However,PlatoHe was not a skeptic himself, but later a scholarchArcesilaus(316/315 BC-241/240 BC)Store schoolBecause he turned to skepticism to refute[27]..An important term of Pyrrhoism, "reservation of judgment" (Epoché)AlsoArcesilausIt is said that it is a device of[28]..EarlyAcademiaThe characteristic of skepticism was in the form of the argument[29].. this is,Platoの師SocratesThis is a method of exploring what kind of conclusions can be drawn from the assumption of the other party's claim, as was done by.ArcesilausAnd alsoAcademia OfCarneades(Around 214 BC-129 BC) The conclusions drawn by others are tentativelyStore schoolIf their premise is approved, theyAgnosticismWas to fall into[30].

Arcesilaus,CarneadesAfter that, it became obsolete, and under the later scholarchs (around 159/58 BC-around 84/83 BC).AcademiaIt is,AgnosticismHas come to take the position of gradually approaching the truth from a reliable representation.[31]..However, in the end, such a position is to gradually explore the goal of an ideal non-existent scholar.Store schoolThere is no difference from the view ofAenesidemusFinallyAcademiaIt was decided to revive Pyrrhoism by breaking up with[32].

Skepticism in ancient medicine

Some of the positions regarding ancient medicineEmpiricismThere is an idea thatSextusAccording to, both are compatible with skepticism, but the formerAgnosticismIt is analyzed that it is compatible as long as it does not fall into, and the latter is more compatible.[33]..However, in reality, many doctors were Pyrrho and empiricists,SextusThe person who balances Pyrrhoism and methodism as he says is hardly known in historical sources.[34]..Empiricism here is a position that emphasizes experience and skill in medical practice and respects past medical records.[35]..On the other hand, with methodism, six months is enough to study the whole medical technique.HippocratesThose who overturned "life is short, medical technique is long" and thought "medical technique is short, life is long".[36].SextusFormer prominent doctorGalenAlso discusses these positions in detail in "Overview of Experienced Schools" etc.[37].

Academia skepticism and the true theory of Christianity

Skepticism, which was already well-developed academically in ancient Greece, actually spread only in a fairly popular form.[38]..Pyrrhoism, in particular, was spurred by the fact that its major writings were written in Greek, in 1562.SextusUntil the Latin translation of "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy", it will be forgotten academically.On the contrary,AcademiaSkepticism isキ ケ ロBy writing all four volumes of "Academia School" as its supporter[39], While being the subject of criticismキ リ ス ト 教It had an influence on philosophy.fact,ア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ スIs for a period of timeキ ケ ロIt is now accepted that he was familiar with the "Academia" and took a skeptical position.[40].ア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ ス Theキ リ ス ト 教After converting to, he wrote a book called "Academia Refutation," where heAcademiaSkepticism is evaluated as follows.

I think our task of exploring the truth with all our might is not trivial and unnecessary, but rather extremely necessary and most important.On this point, I and Aripius [citer note: advocate of academia skepticism] agree.For all philosophers also think that their thoughts have found the truth, andAcademiaPeople also admit that the wise man should do his best to discover the truth, and in fact the wise man does so carefully.But the truth is either covered or hidden, or intricate and unclear, so it follows what appears to be probable or imitative in real life. , They are saying.

— Augustine's "Academia Refutation" Volume 3, Chapter 1, Translated by Masateru Shimizu, "Augustine Works" Volume 1, Kyobunkwan, 1979, p.87-88.

initialア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ スThe truth ofLaw of noncontradiction,Law of excluded middleDepart from[41].

If there are four in the worldelementIf there is only, there are no five elements.If there is only one sun, there are no two suns.It is impossible for the same soul to die at the same time and be immortal.

— "Academia School Theory," Vol. 3, 13:29, K. Risenhuber, "History of Western Ancient and Medieval Philosophy," Heibonsha, 2000, p.206.

But such a truth theory does not bring knowledge about what the reality is.[42]..from hereア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ スComes to a more fundamental question: the certainty of self-awareness[43].

Who doubts that he will live, recall, understand, will, think, know, and judge.He is alive even if he doubts, and if he doubts, he remembers why he doubts, if he doubts, he knows that he is doubting, and if he doubts, he wants to be certain.If you doubt, you are thinking, if you doubt, you know that you do not know.If in doubt, he has decided that he should not be careless.

— Augustine, The Trinity Theory, Vol. 10, Chapter 10, K. Risenhuber, History of Western Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Heibonsha, 2000, p.208.

Rediscovery of Pyrrhoism in the early modern period

1562 years,SextusThe Latin translation of "Overview of Pyrrhoist Philosophy" led to the academic rediscovery of Pyrrhoism.This rediscoveryMontaigne,Cartesian,Hume,CantIn modern philosophy such as, "What can you know?"EpistemologyFormed a modern skepticism centered on[44].

Descartes skepticism and "I think, therefore I am'

Opposed to the rediscovered Pyrrhoism and sought new certaintyCartesianIt is,ア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ スDeveloped the certainty of self in the early modern period.He states that he has discovered certainty, starting with doubting various sensory things and finally:

I admit that this truth, "I think, therefore I am," is so solid and certain that it cannot be shaken by any exorbitant assumptions of skeptics. I decided that I could accept this truth with confidence as the first principle of the philosophy I was looking for.

— Descartes “Discourse on Method”, translated by Matao Noda, “World Famous Books 22 Descartes [3rd Edition]” Chuokoron-sha, 42, p.198.

Hume's skepticism and psychologism

David HumeApproves the existence of sensory things as in ancient skepticism[45]I took an approach that was completely opposite to the position of first doubting the senses, as seen in.Hume suspects that it is set there, not empirical factsCausal relationshipInductionThat is justification by.According to Hume, "It is a general basic principle in philosophy that everything that exists for the first time must have a cause of existence," but "if you look closely, the necessity of cause is inevitable." All the arguments that have been submitted to prove that are wrong and awkward. "[46].

Thus, the idea that all new generations need a cause is not drawn from knowledge, nor from any scholarly reasoning, so it must inevitably arise from observation and experience.So, of course, the next question is how experience gives rise to such a principle.However, I find it more convenient to fit this problem into the following problem, so let's make it the subject of my research.It is a question of why we conclude that a particular cause of sculpin must inevitably be accompanied by a particular result of sculpin, and why we make inferences from one to the other.

— Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Volume 1, Part 3, Section 3, Translated by Haruhiko Otsuki, "World Famous Books 27 Rock Hume [3rd Edition]," Chuokoron-sha, 45, p.433.

The simplest and most common-sense answer to such a problem is causal reasoning.InductionBecause it is justified by.However, according to Hume's idea, there is a causal relationship from observation and experience.InductionIt cannot be justified by.BecauseInductionBe the basis ofPrinciple of uniformity of natureIs neither actually observed nor experienced, nor is it demonstrated.[47]..Thus, Hume's thoroughnessEmpiricismComes to the following conclusion.

In this way, not only cannot we find the ultimate combination of cause and effect by reason, but even after the experience has signaled their constant companionship, why are we already observing that experience? Depending on the reason, it is not convincing as to whether it will be expanded beyond the individual examples.Therefore, when the mind shifts from the idea or impression of one object to the idea or belief of another object, the mind is not defined by reason, but unites and unites the ideas of these objects in the imagination. It is defined by a certain principle.

— Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Volume 1, Part 3, Section 6, Translated by Haruhiko Otsuki, "World Famous Books 27 Rock Hume [3rd Edition]," Chuokoron-sha, 45, p.438.

Then, the targetIdeaWhat is the principle of associating and connecting them?In response to such a question, Hume is about the truthPsychologismThat is, we adopt the rule of subjective plausibility instead of objective truth.

That is why my intention to show the hypothetical faction's argument so elaborately is that the truth of my hypothesis, that is, all reasoning about cause and effect is solely due to habits, and Belief is the work of the emotional part rather than the work of the intellectual part of our nature, and it is nothing more than reminding the reader of these truths.

— Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Volume 1, Part 4, Section 2, Translated by Haruhiko Otsuki, "World Famous Books 27 Rock Hume [3rd Edition]," Chuokoron-sha, 45, p.460.

Scientific skepticism

In modern times, the common-sense way of thinking that we usually use unconsciously is sophisticated.Scientific method,Critical thinkingThe attitude of using is more thoroughly on a daily basis is sometimes called skepticism.This distinguishes it from philosophical skepticismScientific skepticismSometimes called.A modern science enlightenerKarl Sagan,Martin GardnerAs a concrete skeptical attitude, whether it is common sense or outlandish claims, do not immediately believe the proposed theory or claim, consider the validity of the grounds and theories, and determine the background of the claimant. It encourages an attitude of trying.Many people basically have the attitude of doubting events that go against common sense and their own experiences.But at the same time, humans tend to accept theories and phenomena that are in line with their beliefs without criticism.Sagan and Gardner recommend that you "suspect first if you want to believe" that your beliefs are not always correct and that you do not want to match your beliefs.

occult,Psychic phenomenon,HoroscopeClaims with little scientific basis such asPseudo scienceAlthough criticism of skepticism is sometimes equated with skepticism, occult and pseudoscientific criticism and skepticism are not the same, although they are closely related.It's not that skepticism is well rooted.For areas outside of his area of ​​expertise, it is reasonable to accept the advice and claims of the experts on the road, but he says, "Everything that is labeled as scientific is surely correct."common senseIt is thought that many people are blindly following.Pseudo scienceIs in such a societyStereotypeIt is thought that it is attached to.

footnote

  1. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.446.
  2. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.446-447.
  3. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.8.
  4. ^ Tanaka Tatsuyama "Sextus Empiricus Skeptical Thought"Tokai University Press, 2004, p.5.
  5. ^ Tanaka Tatsuyama, "Sextus Empiricus's Skeptical Thought," Tokai University Press, 2004, p.5-6.
  6. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.6.
  7. ^ Tanaka Tatsuyama, "Sextus Empiricus's Skeptical Thought," Tokai University Press, 2004, p.7-8.
  8. ^ Tanaka Tatsuyama, "Sextus Empiricus's Skeptical Thought," Tokai University Press, 2004, p.5.
  9. ^ Tanaka Tatsuyama, "Sextus Empiricus's Skeptical Thought," Tokai University Press, 2004, p.8.
  10. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.433.
  11. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.450.
  12. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.20.
  13. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.13.
  14. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.13.
  15. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.96 .; p.98.
  16. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.25-26.
  17. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.30.
  18. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.42.
  19. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.48.
  20. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.52.
  21. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.58.
  22. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.62.
  23. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.64.
  24. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.69.
  25. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.70.
  26. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.448.
  27. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.449.
  28. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.449.
  29. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.450.
  30. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.450.
  31. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.450-451.
  32. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.451.
  33. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.120-121.
  34. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.434.
  35. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.434.
  36. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.434.
  37. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.435.
  38. ^ Written by Bertrand Russell, translated by Saburo Ichii, "History of Western Philosophy", Misuzu Shobo, 36, p.234-235.
  39. ^ AA Long, Translated by Yahei Kanayama, "Hellenistic Philosophy-Store School, Epicurean School, Skeptic School", Kyoto University Press, 2003, p.347.
  40. ^ Yuki Okabe, Criticism of Augustine's Skepticism, Soubunsha, 1999, p.8-9.
  41. ^ K. Risen Huber, History of Western Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Heibonsha, 2000, p.206.
  42. ^ K. Risen Huber, History of Western Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Heibonsha, 2000, p.206-207.
  43. ^ K. Risen Huber, History of Western Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Heibonsha, 2000, p.207.
  44. ^ Translated by Yahei Kanayama = Mariko Kanayama, "Overview of Pyrrho Philosophy," Kyoto University Press, 1998, p.435.
  45. ^ Shigeo Saito [etc.], "British Thought Research Book 6 David Hume Study" Ochanomizu Shobo, 1987, p.22.
  46. ^ Translated by Haruhiko Otsuki, "World Famous Books 27 Rock Hume [3rd Edition]" Chuokoron-sha, 45, p.433.
  47. ^ Translated by Haruhiko Otsuki, "World Famous Books 27 Rock Hume [3rd Edition]" Chuokoron-sha, 45, p.437.

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