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- Northern Ireland
- Northern Ireland(English）
Norlin Airlann(Ulster Scots）
- Regional slogan:God and my right
(French : God and my rights）
- Local song:Londonderry Air (virtually)
Official terminology English,Irish,
Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Inauguration Irish Government Law (1920) currency UK Pound (£) (GBP） Time zone UTCGMT (UTC + 0) (STD: UTC + 1) ISO-3166 1 GB (GB-NIR) ccTLD .ie, . Uk International phone number 353 48, 44 28
national flower : Shamrock
Patron saint : St. Patrick
Northern Ireland(Ireland, cameEnglish: Northern Ireland,Irish: Tuaisceart ÉireannIrish Pronunciation: [ˈT̪ˠuəʃcəɾˠt̪ˠˈeːɾʲən̪ˠ],Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) IsUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland(UK, UK)Ireland islandLocated in the northeastComponentone of.For Northern IrelandBritish country,Province,RegionVarious expressions such as.
Located northeast of IrelandUlsterIt is also called Ulster 9 prefectures because it consists of 6 prefectures out of 6 local prefectures. 20156 prefectures were abolished and 11 new administrative districts were established. On the island of IrelandRepublic of Irelandと国境Is in contact with. The area is 1km2,CapitalIs located on the east bankBelfast.
Established in 1920Irish Government LawByIreland islandWas divided into north and south, and autonomy was granted to each. Occurred after thatIrish War of IndependenceIs a peace treatyBritish love treatyBy the southern 26 prefectures based onFree country of irelandWas foundedUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelandNorthern Ireland was also included within the jurisdiction of the Free State when it was more separated. But in the Irish Free State内 戦Has begun, and under the provisions of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Northern Ireland Assembly has announced its withdrawal from the Free State and will remain in the United Kingdom.
Since Ireland was annexed to Great Britain and the United Kingdom of Ireland in the 19th century, in Ireland (insisting on maintaining a coalition with Great Britain)NationalistThe conflict (claiming independence from Britain) continued. Since the days when the whole of Ireland was dominated by Britain, the Northern Ireland region has beenGreat BritainThe colonists were dominated by the colonists, and the unionists were strong. Also, many were not necessarily Irish or nationalists, and many thought that it would be advantageous to belong to the United Kingdom from an economic point of view... With this in mind, Northern Ireland remained under British rule.
In the late 1960s,The United States of America OfCivil rights movementWas affected by and was socially discriminated againstCatholicThe social movement that demands "one man, one vote" has become active,ProtestantThe Northern Irish government, which was the main body, suppressed this.The situation became tense, and serious divisions and conflicts arose.After that, until the early 1990sIRA ProvisionalBoth nationalists and unionists, includingPrivate soldierOrganizations and government authorities (British Army,) Continues to contend withBloody Sunday IncidentThousands of people were killed due to numerous armed crackdowns and terrorism.Northern Ireland conflictThe turmoil in society and the economy became extremely fierce.Northern Ireland ParliamentCouldn't handle this situation1972May 3"1972 Northern Ireland Provisional Act (en: Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972) ”, The parliament was suspended, and the next1973May 7"The 1973 Northern Ireland Constitution (en: Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973) ”Was officially abolished, the next1974May 7"1974 Northern Ireland Act (XNUMX)en: Northern Ireland Act 1974) ”By the home country of EnglandPrivy CouncilHas come to be directly governed by.
In the 1990s, the path to peace began to be sought, and in 1998 by unionist and nationalist parties, private armies and the British and Irish governments.Belfast AgreementWas formed, and the Irish government abandoned Northern Ireland's sovereignty as a result of a referendum.Based on this, the Northern Ireland Assembly, in which all political parties participate, has been revived.Due to this achievement, he is the leader of a moderate party.David TrimbleとJohn HumeToNobel Peace PrizeHas been awarded.Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are guaranteed free traffic and borderInterrogationWas abolished.
2016 yearsNational referendum asking whether Britain should leave the European UnionWith the majority of secessionists in favor, the border issue with the South resurfaced.About the handling of bordersBritish ParliamentBut the discussion was not settled, and the countryEuropean UnionBrexit was postponed until 2020, avoiding a strict border revival.Northern Ireland remains in the EU Single Market after December 2020, 12, when the withdrawal transition period ends, and is treated differently from other UK regions...instead of,Great BritainBetweenIrish seaIn the UKcustoms clearanceThere is a de facto boundary that requires procedures such as.
Before the Troubles in the 1960s, on the mainlandPolitical partyIn relation toUlster Unionist Party Conservative partyInstead ofLiberal partyInstead of, eachStormont Parliament(The Parliament of Northern Ireland・ It controlled the old parliament). About the mainlandLabor PartyDid not have a strong cooperative relationship with. In addition, if you want to unify IrelandShin FeinWas active.
From the latter half of the 1960s to the 1990s, the so-called "unionist and nationalist private army organizations that started with religious discrimination repeated turmoil and terrorism.Northern Ireland problem”1972The Stormont Parliament was abolished and direct rule by the British government began. Political parties were also strongly influenced by this social turmoil. The Ulster Unionist Party broke off its ties with the Conservative Party by criticizing it. The Ulster Liberal Democratic Party has changed into the Liberal Democratic Party, but has lost support and is now settling in a sister party to the Union Party. The Social Democratic Labor Party was formed by some members of the dismissed Northern Ireland Labor Party.
In recent years, there have been moves by major British political parties to participate in Northern Ireland elections. The Conservative Party has been sending out candidates since the late 1980s, but with little support.LDPIs supporting the Union Party.
From Good Friday Agreement to the present
Currently1998 OfBelfast AgreementWas decided to be established by, but stopped functioning from 2002. Installed at the same timeNorthern Ireland Parliament(The Northern Ireland Assembly), but for the time being, it was forced to stop functioning due to conflicts among the parties.2003In Northern Ireland's general election, hard-line Shin Fein and the Democratic-Unification Party gained more votes than moderates.2007May 3In the same year, a self-governing function was established between Shin Fein and the DPJ.May 5Although the agreement was formed by resuming it more, the conflict over energy policy intensified and it stopped functioning again in January 2017. On January 1, 2020, Shin Fein and the Democratic Unification Party agreed to rebuild the autonomous government, and the parliament resumed on the following day, 1th..
British House of RepresentativesIn the general election, 646 out of 18 seats were allocated to Northern Ireland according to the population ratio.2017 British General ElectionThe current number of seats determined by the Democratic Unification Party is 10 seats, Shin Fein has 7 seats, independent is 1 seat, and the Social Democratic Labor Party and Ulster Unification Party have lost seats. Shin Fein's legislators have not taken part in parliament due to the belief that they refused to take an oath to the Queen and regard Unified Ireland as an orthodox government. As a result of the 2017 general election, no party has a majority (Hang parliament)for,Conservative PartyThe administration isExternal cooperationWe started talks. Shin Fein has also been criticized for fighting against the Democratic Unification Party, and the attention to both parties is growing rapidly.
It consists of the following 11 administrative districts.
- A's And North Down
- Antrim and Newtown Abbey
- Lisburn and Castleley
- Newry Morn and Down
- Armor City Bunbridge and Craigavon
- Mid and East Antrim
- Causeway Coast and Glance
- Mid Ulster
- Delhi City and Stravan
- Farmana and Ommer
Northern Ireland has the smallest economy of the four regions of England. The main industries were shipbuilding, rope and fiber manufacturing, but the ratio of service industry is gradually increasing. Although it has experienced stagnation for many years due to the Northern Ireland conflict, it has been regaining calm since the Heisei Era, with the unemployment rate improving due to the booming economy of both Britain and Ireland.
Per capitaGDP(GDP) is 2005 as of 19,603EuroAnd northwestEnglandRural andWalesMore than.. The unemployment rate, which had reached 1986% in 17.2, decreased to 2001% in 4.5..Workers are characterized by working longer hours than in other UK regions and having less gender differences in income..
A 2001 survey found that 45.5% of Northern Ireland's inhabitants were Protestant. In thisPresbyterian,Anglican Church of Ireland,MethodistEtc. are included. By contrast, Catholics accounted for 40.3%. Other 13.9% do not have a specific sect or religion.
Sense of belonging
According to other surveys, 38% of residents specify themselves as a unionist, as well as 24% say they are nationalists and 35% say they don't fit either... Fifty-nine percent said they would endorse the long-term view of British rule over Northern Ireland, with 59 percent supporting the formation of a unified Ireland... There are layers whose attitude is unclearNorthern Ireland Alliance PartyIs also supported by the fact that it receives a certain level of support. In recent elections, 54% voted for Protestant parties, 42% voted for Catholic parties, and the remaining 4% voted for other parties.
Republic of Ireland Nationality
All residents born before 2005CitizenshipWas automatically given. This is due to the provisions of the Republic of Ireland Nationality Act enacted in 2001 following the Belfast Agreement. The Belfast Agreement states that both Britain and Ireland grant all residents of Northern Ireland the right to be Irish or British. Even now, this applies to the majority of the population.
Due to its historical background, Northern Ireland has a culture of both British and Irish origin. The language isEnglishOthersIrishとUlster Scots (en) Is recognized as an official language. In the Republic of Ireland, many people have acquired Irish knowledge through the Irish revival movement, but in Northern Ireland, the revival movement is scarce. 2011%, and only 11% at the level of reading and writing. Ulster-Scottish is only 3.7% less literate and literate. Currently reflecting the increase in Chinese immigrantsChineseIs the second native language group.
As one of the symbols of this areaFlaxThere are flowers.
As a thriving sportサ ッ カ ー,Rugby unionAmong Catholics,Gaelic Games(Gaelic footballとHarling) Is also very popular.Soccer Northern Ireland National TeamSo farFIFA World Cup3 times,UEFA European ChampionshipA well-known player who played once in the 1s and 60sGeorge BestIs from Northern Ireland. It is an international tournament for soccer boysMilk cupIs also being held.Rugby Ireland National TeamIs a joint team with Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and is one of the world's most powerful teams.
GolfThen,Laurie McIlroyIn 2011US OpenStarting withMajor championshipIn addition to controlling four times,Graham McDowellIs the 2010 US Open,Darren ClarkIn 2011British OpenHave won each.snookerThen, he has produced two world champions, (1972, 1982) and (1985).Motor sportsThen,John Watson(The highest overall ranking is1982No. 3) andEddie Irvine(Also19992nd place)F1I am giving birth to a driver.
- ^ An Roinn Dlí agus Cirt agus Comhionannais: Tuaisceart Éireann. Justice.ie. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- ^ S. Dunn; H. Dawson (2000), An Alphabetical Listing of Word, Name and Place in Northern Ireland and the Living Language of Conflict, Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, "One specific problem --in both general and particular senses --is to know what to call Northern Ireland itself: in the general sense, it is not a country, or a province, or a state -alth some refer to it contemptuously as a statelet: the least controversial word appears to be jurisdiction, but this might change. "
- ^ J. Whyte; G. FitzGerald (1991), Interpreting Northern Ireland, Oxford: Oxford University Press, "One problem must be adverted to in writing about Northern Ireland. This is the question of what name to give to the various geographical entities. These names can be controversial, with the choice often revealing one's political preferences. ... some refer to Northern Ireland as a'province'. That usage can arouse irritation particularly among nationalists, who claim the title'province' should be properly reserved to the four historic provinces of Ireland-Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connacht If I want to a label to apply to Northern Ireland I shall call it a'region'. Unionists should find that title as acceptable as'province': Northern Ireland appears as a region in the regional statistics of the United Kingdom published by the British government. "
- ^ D. Murphy (1979), A Place Apart, London: Penguin Books, "Next --what noun is appropriate to Northern Ireland?'Province' won't do since one-third of the province is on the wrong side of the border.'State' implies more self-determination than Northern Ireland has ever had and'country' or'nation' are blatantly absurd.'Colony' has overtones that would be resented by both communities and'statelet' sounds too patronizing, though outsiders might consider it more precise than anything else; so one is left with the unsatisfactory word'region'. "
- ^ “Why is Northern Ireland part of the United Kingdom?”. The Economist,(November 2013, 11). ISSN 0013-0613 2019/11/1Browse.
- ^ a b Northern Ireland EU tariffs / "boundary" in the UK again fire / customs clearance increases dissatisfaction"Mainichi Newspapers』Morning edition September 2021, 3 (international) Viewed October 3, 2021
- ^ "Circumstances that made the fishery rights problem bigger”. Modern business. 2021/1/2Browse.
- ^ "Brexit completes new era for Britain". with the BBC. 2021/1/2Browse.
- ^ "The self-government government, which had collapsed in British Northern Ireland for three years, has been revived.. Sankei Shimbun(July 2020, 1) 2020/1/12Browse.
- ^ Regional GDP per capita in the EU25. 25 January 2005. Eurostat. URL accessed 10 May 2006.
- ^ "Northern Ireland's economic fears"22 June 2001. Orla Ryan, BBC. URL accessed 10 May 2006.
- ^ Economic Overview2006. Northern Ireland DETI. URL accessed 10 May 2006.
- ^ Population in Northern Ireland: breakdown by religious denomination, Census 2001
- ^ Ark survey, 2003. Answer to the question "Generally speaking, do you think of yourself as a unionist, a nationalist or neither?"
- ^ Ark survey, 2004. Answers to the question "Do you think the long-term policy for Northern Ireland should be for it to [one of the following]"
- ^ "The Ulster fry". www.bbc.co.uk. BBC. 2020/6/9Browse.