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⚽ | "If I criticized Ozil, I was treated as a Nazi."


"If I criticized Ozil, I was treated as a Nazi."

If you write the contents roughly
Blondes, blue eyes ... everything was affordable (to be considered Nazi) for many.

Toni Kroos and Mesut Özil, who once played for Germany together, have opinions about Özil's retirement ... → Continue reading


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Human iris color

Human iris color(Human human color) is so-calledEye color(Menoiro),Eye color(Hitomi no Iro)HeredityIt is a physical feature of sexuality.Mainly on the surfacepigmentDerived from humans and other animals虹彩About the color ofPhenotypeShows a mutation in.

Human capitalThe variation of eye color is in the irisMelanocytesCreatesMelanin pigmentIt is determined by the ratio of.Epithelial cellsPigment, irisStromaThe density of melanin and its cells attached to the color is three factors that make up the color.The melanin pigment is basically black, and black is included regardless of the color of the individual's eyes, but what we generally recognize as "eye color" is in the stroma. It is a melanin pigment of.The cell density of the stroma determines how much light can be absorbed.Exceptionally bright eye color varieties(I.e.Eye color such as is not determined by melaninPudding,Carotenoid,PteridineDepends on the amount of.

Principle of "color development"

Two eye colorsgeneIs one of the hereditary physical characteristics that appear as a result of. There are two major genes and other minor genes that produce different colors[1][2]..Currently, there are two genes that determine the color of the human iris, "EYCL1" and "EYCL3", and these genes determine the phenotypic eye color of brown, green, and blue.Eye color is determined about 6 months after birth.

In 2006, the location of EYCL3 was discovered at the molecular level, and researchers surveyed 3839 samples, with 74% of eye colors near OCA2.Single nucleotide polymorphismAnnounced that it depends on the number of genes (OCA2 has long beenalbinoWas known as the onset factor of).The latest announcement shows that the number of single nucleotide polymorphism genes has a strong effect on blue and green eyes, and more.Sparrow egg spot(Commonly known as freckles)mole,hair,Skin colorIt is said that it will have a great impact on.Scholars follow these genes and believe that they are in the form of genetic information.[3].. In the 2008 announcement, certain of the HERC2 genes that regulate the form of OCA2mutationTurned out to be the cause of blue eyes[4]..Blue eyes with brown spots and green eyes were completely different from gray eyesgenomeAccording to scholar Aberg, "The gene SNP rs12913832 was found to be related to blue and brown eyes, but this DNA ranges from blue eyes with brown spots to hazel and dark brown. We haven't been able to explain all the inclusive relevance. "[5].

Color classification

Eye color contains various information about an individual, and its classification isPathology,PharmacyIt's a very effective way to see the changes.There are two classification methods, "bright" and "dark".写真There are various kinds of detailed color classification using, but since the eye color changes depending on the surrounding environment (light intensity and its color), it is usual that no absolute standard is set.

Eye colors range from the darkest dark brown to the very bright light blue, and it's easy to set simple criteria.For research, scholar Seddon set criteria based on iris color dominance and brown and yellow pigments.According to it, the pigments that make up the eye color can be classified into three types, "brown", "yellow", and "blue", and the mixing ratio of each color determines the eye color of an individual.For example, green eyes are based on yellow and blue is added to form green.Blue eyes form blue with a very small amount of brown (depending on the individual) in addition to some yellow, and a small amount of yellow with no brown forms gray eyes.JapaneseBrown, which makes up the majority of the eyes, is a single brown eye with almost no other colors mixed in.these areHomo sapiensThis is the correct theory regarding the color of the (human) eye.

Other animals also have a wide variety of eye colors.In humans, bright colors such as blue eyes are genetically recessive,Omaki lizardIn such cases, black is inferior and yellow and green are dominant.

Brown (Brown / dark brown)

BrownThe eye is the most abundant color in the human iris and contains a large amount of melanin pigment in the iris stroma.Brown eyes are very common in Europe, especially in Southern Europe.

Dark brown generally looks black and is the most common iridescent color in Africa and Asia.Most Japanese also have eye color that belongs to dark brown, which is described as black.

Incidentally,Baltic SeaCoastal country (フィンランド,エストニア) Etc. are the fewest colors.

Hazel (light brown)

HazelEyesRayleigh scatteringAnd a moderate amount of melanin pigment. Studies with three color classifications show that hazel is somewhere between light brown and dark green, so it can sometimes appear in multiple colors.Sun lightWhen exposed to, the area near the pupil may turn light brown and the area around it may turn light green (and vice versa).米 国,EuropeMany people, basicallyAfrica,Middle East,AsiaAlthough rarely seen in the sphere, it exists in Kyushu and Sanyo regions in Japan.It is also the color most often found in children's eyes when dark brown and blue individuals are crossed.

Hazel is often referred to as dark green, yellow brown, light brown, or amber because it is a color that is difficult to classify as light brown and may be gold or dark green depending on the individual. It is synonymous with "changing eye color".

Amber (amber)

amberIs a mixture of yellow, gold, russet and copper.It is brought about by the precipitation of a yellow pigment called lipochrome, commonly known as "Wolf eyesIs called.is thisThis is because there are many amber eyes.

PteridineThe yellow pigment calledpigeonSeen inGreat horned owlYellow eyesChromatophoreIt is attributed to the existence () in.For humansLipofuscinBy the action of (commonly known as).

Because it shines golden depending on the amount of lightGolden eyeAlso called.


グ リ ー ンThe eyes are formed by a moderate amount of melanin pigment.Some are found in Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia, but most are concentrated in Northern Europe.アイス ランド88% of the population has green or blue eyes.Other,ハンガリー,スウェーデン,デンマーク,ノルウェー,アイルランド,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Northern Italy, Netherlands,GermanyThere are many people who have green eyes.アフガニスタン OfPashtunIs domestically called "Hurry Ankehian Wallay".

Gray (Gray, Gray)

グ レ ーEyes have a higher proportion of melanin pigment than blue eyes and are sometimes called dark blue.ロシア, Finland, Baltic coast (egリトアニア,エストニア,ラトビア) Is often found in countries.Individuals with gray eyes often have marked lack of pigment, their skin is very white, and their hair isblondeAnd redheads are very common.Gray eyesUveitisMay be a sign of (individuals with gray eyesUveitisThat is not the case).Gray eyes change to similar colors to blue and green depending on the environment.Greek Of女神AthenaIs famous for having eyes of the color "sea gray" (or "owl gray").


blueThe eyes (also called blue eyes) are formed by the amount of melanin in the stroma.Light of short wavelengthRayleigh scatteringIs reflected by.The melanin pigments that are presentEumelaninIt is a kind of thing.

Since melanin pigments are formed all at once in the first few years of life, infants with blue eyes may darken with age depending on the environment.The blue eye is genetically recessive, and scholar Aberg and his researchers published a paper in Human Genetics, the eighth of the HERC2 gene, which is thought to catalyze the OCA2 gene.IntronSuppresses the action of the OCA2 gene and reduces the formation of melanin pigment.In addition, Aberg was 6,000 to 10,000 years agoBlack SeaIt is said that the mutation of one individual in the vicinity gave birth to blue eyes (blue eyes with brown spots do not belong to this).

Blue eyesNordic OfCaucasian(White), Also present in Southern Europe,India,Central Asia,Middle EastAlso seen in small numbers.

According to the 2002 announcement, 1936% of people born between 1951 and 33.8 in the United States were blue, a dramatic decrease compared to 1899% of people born between 1905 and 57.4 with blue eyes. ..Also, non-Western EurasiansWaardenburg Syndrome,AlbinismBlue eyes may occur due to diseases such as.

Red (Red) and Violet (Violet)

Flash photographyThen,Red-eye effectMay occur.In this phenomenon, the flash is brightLight Blood vesselA lot ofretinaReached directly topupilAppears in red.This phenomenon is severeCongenital leukoderma (albino)When it happens in the eyes of people, the iris may also appear red due to the lack of large amounts of pigment.In the most serious type, the iris and pupil may become completely translucent and appear almost red.actress OfElizabeth TaylorPeople with deep blue eyes, such as, may look purple depending on lighting, makeup, etc., but "real" purple eyes are caused only by albino.

Heterochromia iridis

That the colors of the left and right irises are differentHeterochromia(Heterochromia iridisCall.Human capitalIt is extremely rare, and the color may change due to congenital genetic disorders that are not problematic, as well as visual impairment caused by injury.


  1. ^ "Vol.11 Blue eyes and brown eyes | Eye story | Nidek Co., Ltd.". www.nidek.co.jp. 2018/4/1Browse.
  2. ^ NPO System Pharmacy Research Organization (2011). Genetic power-50 genes that support humans-Ohmsha Co., Ltd. p. 17. ISBN 9784274209864. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=vcI6AgAAQBAJ&pg=PT26&dq=目の色 
  3. ^ Duffy, David L .; Montgomery, Grant W .; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Le, Lien; James, Michael R .; Hayward, Nicholas K .; Martin, Nicholas G. et al. (February 2007). “A Three–Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Haplotype in Intron 1 of OCA2 Explains Most Human Eye-Color Variation” (English). The American Journal of Human Genetics 80 (2): 241–252. two:10.1086/510885. ISSN 0002-9297. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707626822. 
  4. ^ Sturm, Richard A .; Duffy, David L .; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Leite, Fabio PN; Stark, Mitchell S .; Hayward, Nicholas K .; Martin, Nicholas G .; Montgomery, Grant W. (February 2008). “A Single SNP in an Evolutionary Conserved Region within Intron 86 of the HERC2 Gene Determines Human Blue-Brown Eye Color” (English). The American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (2): 424–431. two:10.1016 / j.ajhg.2007.11.005. ISSN 0002-9297. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707000407. 
  5. ^ Eiberg, Hans; Troelsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Mette; Mikkelsen, Annemette; Mengel-From, Jonas; Kjaer, Klaus W .; Hansen, Lars (1 March 2008). “Blue eye color in humans may be caused by a perfectly associated founder mutation in a regulatory element located within the HERC2 gene inhibiting OCA2 expression” (English) (PDF). Human Genetics 123 (2): 177–187. two:10.1007 / s00439-007-0460-x. ISSN 0340-6717. http://www.greengene.dk/blue-eyes-HE.pdf. 

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