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⚾ | Isn't the absence of a helper an “excuse”?Analyzing with data, offensive and defensive issues faced by the lowest DeNA

Photo DeNA, directed by Daisuke Miura [Photo: Yuji Arakawa]

Isn't the absence of a helper an "excuse"?Analyzing with data, offensive and defensive issues faced by the lowest DeNA

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The contact rate of balls thrown into the strike zone is also 83.7%, which is the lowest among the 12 teams.

Is straight a weak point in both throwing and hitting, or does the batter have a problem with batting eye?In professional baseball, the match against each baseball team went around on the 11th. ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Strike Zone

Strike ZoneIsbaseballAtbatterIs a natural pitcherbatIndicates the range that can be applied to.


Official baseball rulesNow, let's set the strike zone as the upper limit of the horizontal line drawn at the midpoint between the upper part of the batter's shoulder and the upper part of the uniform pants, and the lower limit of the line at the lower part of the kneecap.home plateRefers to the upper space.This strike zone should be determined by the batter's attitude to hit the pitch. "[1].

This space can be thought of as a pentagonal prism with the shape of the home plate as the bottom.If the batter does not hit a pitch that the umpire has determined to have passed through this space (even a part of it can be grabbed)strikeIf it is determined that it has not passedballTo declare.

The upper part of the strike zone and above the strike zone are called "higher", and the lower part of the strike zone and below the strike zone are called "lower".In addition, the part of the strike zone that is closer to the batter (on the right side for a right-handed batter and the left side for a left-handed batter when viewed from the pitcher), and the one closer to the batter than the strike zone is called the "in-course", which is the strike zone. The part far from the batter (on the left side for a right-handed batter and the right side for a left-handed batter when viewed from the pitcher) and the part farther from the batter than the strike zone are called the "out course".
  • JapaneseAmateur baseballThen,Amateur baseball internal rulesTherefore, it was decided that the lower ball would not be a strike unless all the balls passed through the strike zone (in short, the lower ball has a higher strike zone for one ball).2009This rule has been abolished, and even amateur baseball will be judged as a strike as stipulated in the official baseball rules..

Actual pitching judgment

In the actual game, the pitch is judgedBall refereeIt is decided at the discretion of.Of course, since the strike zone frame and line are not actually provided, there may be an error between the standard shown in the official baseball rules and the judgment of the ball umpire, or between the persons in charge of the ball umpire. There may be individual differences.

In the Official Baseball Rules, which is the original document of the official baseball rules, it is written as "The STRIKE ZONE is that area over home plate". the year of 2000Sydney Olympics,IBAF World Cup,World University Baseball ChampionshipAccording to the experience of serving as a referee, the area means "generally around this area", that is, it is a fairly about idea that "the range that the batter can hit naturally is a strike", and the referee "You can hit it, hit it."judgeIf you do, you can make a strike call[2].

HirabayashiAccording to them2000Previously, the batter preferred the style of hitting hardMLBThen,Japanese professional baseballIt was said that the strike zone was wider than (NPB) by one ball at the outer corner.2001From degreeQuesTec systemHas been introduced,2008Currently, it is said that it applies the strike zone according to the rule book.It is said that this is because the system has made it possible to assess the correctness of judges one by one, and therefore it cannot be taken so widely, in fact.1990 eraIt is much narrower than[2][3]..However, it is not completely standardized, and it is also true that there are still ball umpires who take good care of the outside.In particular, they have a wide strike zone and are widely known as pitcher-friendly (batter-unfavorable) ball umpires.[4]. Also,PITCH f/xWas introduced2006Since then, the strike zone has continued to expand, and it has been reported that the lower zones have become wider.[5]..On the other hand, minors (especially low-level rookies and 1A), which are also places for education and training, tend to take strikes fairly broadly.[3](One and a half balls wide on the outside corner).

Even in Nippon Professional Baseball, the strike zone, which was previously limited to the vicinity of the belt,2002I changed it according to the official baseball rules[Annotation 1]Will be reviewed the following year[7].Pacific LeagueThen,2007We have adopted a new strike zone that extends one and a half balls from the degree to the outside angle.In many cases, the referees of different leagues are judged by the interleague game, and the playersCentral LeagueThis is because there was an opinion that the strike zone was narrower than that.Also,OlympicFrom the judgment of the Japan Baseball Rules Committee that "Japan's unique methods and interpretations are no longer valid, and it is necessary to think and act while keeping in mind international standards" at international competitions such as[8], The interpretation of baseball rules application has been revised in various aspects, including the strike zone.

However, according to Katsuhito Koyama mentioned above, "I don't think that the zone of foreign judges is wide, and I even feel that it is narrow. In the first place, it is unlikely that the size of the zone will be talked about only in Japan." Say.He also said that if he looks at Japanese players from a foreign judge from a different perspective, his honest reputation is not good.The reason is "JapanesecatcherTrying to make the ball look like a strikeMittIt is often seen that the ball does not move for a while as a silent protest when the ball is judged to be a ball on a terrible course, but such an act is interpreted as an insult to the referee overseas. There is no merit just to make it worse, and in Japan the match time is too long (the batterAt-batIt's late to enterpitcherThe time is long,Check ballThat is also a bottleneck. "He added that NPB is probably the best in terms of judge accuracy.[2].

Randy BathAfter retiring, "ActuallyMLBBut there is such "discrimination".Even in the majors, the strike zone of the first year players is wide, but as you gradually gain achievements and become a star player, the zone will become narrower.If you're a newcomer, it's a strike, but thatTed Williams"If you miss it, it's a ball," he said about the discriminatory judgment. "The first and second years were wide, but after launching in 1, the strike zone gradually became more compact. "I also have a track record and have been able to receive favorable judgments," he said.[9].

Batter's physique, batting posture and strike zone

The ball umpire determines the strike zone based on the "posture for the batter to hit the pitch".The Japan Baseball Rules Committee added the definition of terms in this rule to the official baseball rules 74 STRIKE "Strike". Even if he bends down, the ball umpire ignores this and determines the strike zone according to the batter's attitude toward throwing. "That is, no matter how much you bend down or hold the bunt in a low position, the ball umpire makes a pitching judgment based on the position when the batter holds in the normal batting position. The strike zone does not grow or shrink depending on the person.

However, since the strike zone is based on the batter's physique, there are individual differences depending on the batter's height and physique. In 1951, in Major League BaseballDwarfism OfEddie GaedelA 109 cm player said that he participated as a pinch hitter.The catcher put his knees on the ground and held them as low as possible, but the pitch did not pass through Godel's strike zone.Godel is straightFour ballsI got on base at, and immediately after that, I was replaced by a pinch runner.

Uniforms and strike zones

As mentioned above, the strike zone is based on the upper part of the uniform pants.

As a general rule, some columnists and referees think that dressing is free but long pants are prone to misjudgment as long as they do not violate the rules.[10].In the 1950s, there was a case in which a referee named Bill Stewart issued a request, "Would you like me to raise my stockings to below my knees?"[Source required][11][12].

Taking such an example, Taishi Kimoto said that by wearing short pants like Ichiro, misjudgment is reduced, which makes it easier for pitchers to throw low pants, and short pants. Concludes that the players are at a disadvantage.


From the above meaning, it is also used to refer to a range of tastes such as the opposite sex and hobbies.[13]..Recently, it is sometimes used in the range of "laughing points" such as comics and gag.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ at that timeOsaka Kintetsu BuffaloesWas the first team to win the team's ERA league bottom (4.98), and it was done from the reflection that the pitcher was hit and the number of shifts increased and the match time became longer.[6]..Perhaps because of the zone change, the ERA has improved significantly in both the Central League and the Pacific League in 2002.


  1. ^ Official Baseball Rules Definition of terms in this rule 74 STRIKE "Strike"
  2. ^ a b c Minoru Otoshi, "Experienced referee of the Sydney Olympics, Mr. Katsuhito Koyama explains" world standards "", "Baseball Boy August 2008", Byakuya Shobo, pp. 8-190.
  3. ^ a b "MLB column US strike zone, its reality and background <Takeshi Hirabayashi>". MAJOR.JP (September 2007, 4). 2008th of February 8Browse.[Broken link]
  4. ^ "MLB Umpire Frontline" "Welcome Major League 2008" Byakuya Shobo <Byakuya Mook 315>, pp. 56-57.ISBN 978-4861913983.
  5. ^ Baseball's strike zone is getting bigger every year: Will someone shrink it back down to size? Slate Retrieved August 2020, 8
  6. ^ "Strike zone change ——Think about Japanese referees again.”. Number Web. As of December 2002, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014th of February 2Browse.
  7. ^ "Matsuzaka Riseball I got”. Notification Baseball Park. As of April 2003, 4オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014th of February 5Browse.
  8. ^ Foreword of the Japan Baseball Rules Committee "Official Baseball Rules 2006".
  9. ^ How did Bath in 1985 deal with the problems that still plague foreigners? (1/3 page) Number Web 2015/09/17 10:45 (viewed August 2020, 7)
  10. ^ Taishi Kimoto "ICHIRO STYLE 2006"
  11. ^ Taishi Kimoto "ICHIRO STYLE 2006"
  12. ^ Is Ichiro's stockings disadvantageous to batters?[Broken link]
  13. ^ Source: Akihiko Yonekawa, "Japanese Folklore Dictionary (3rd Edition)", Tokyodo Publishing, 2006, p. 312

Related item

Japanese professional baseball

Japanese professional baseball(Japanese professionals)JapanDone inProfessional baseballGeneral description.


Of the following, those that have not been specified since the establishment of the Japan Baseball Organization (NPB) in 1949 refer to NPB events.

Japan Baseball Organization (NPB)

Japan Baseball Organization (NPB) As an official gameJERACentral LeaguePacific League,Nippon LifeSep-pa Exchange Battle,My naviAll star games,Climax series,SMBCJapan series, And the official farm game (Eastern LeagueWestern league) Is being held. In Japan, the term "professional baseball" usually refers to these.

NPB league/baseball team

Under the umbrella of Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), there are two leagues, the JERA Central League (Se League) and the Pacific League (Pacific League).

Each league has 6 teams, and the total number of 12 teams is as follows ("Professional baseball 12 teams")[22] Called).

leagueTeam nameProtected area(population)HeadquartersAccommodationof people(Man)averageNumber of spectators(People/match)image
Yomiuri giants insignia.png Yomiuri Giants
(Yomiuri giants)
13105-9Tokyo Dome
(Bunkyo ku,位置
Tokyo Dome 2007-12.jpg
Tokyo Yakult Swallows insignia.jpg Tokyo Yakult Swallows
(Tokyo Yakult Swallows)
13104-1Meiji Jingu Stadium
(Shinjuku ward,位置
Meiji Jingu Stadium-4.jpg
DeNA Baystars insignia.png Yokohama DeNA Baystars
(Yokohama DeNA BayStars)
14100-3Yokohama Stadium
(横 浜 市Naka-ku,位置
Yokohama stadium 2020 wing.jpg
Chunichi Dragons insignia.png Chunichi Dragons
(Chunichi Dragons)
23100-2Nagoya Dome
(Vantelin Dome Nagoya)
(Nagoya cityHigashi Ward,位置
Nagoya Dome-panoramio (2).jpg
Hanshin tigers insignia.PNG Hanshin Tigers
(Hanshin tigers)
28204-9Hanshin Koshien Stadium
Hanshin Koshien Stadium 2.JPG
Hiroshima carp insignia.png Hiroshima Toyo Carp
(Hiroshima Toyo Carp)
34100-2Hiroshima City Stadium
(MAZDA Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima
(Hiroshima citySouth ward,位置
MAZDA Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima facade (2014).jpg
PaNippon Fighters insignia.PNG Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters
(Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters)
01100-2Sapporo Dome
(SapporoToyohira Ward,位置
Sapporo Dome.jpg
Rakuten eagles insignia.png Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles
(Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles)
04100-9Miyagi Stadium
(Rakuten Seimei Park Miyagi)
(Sendai cityMiyagino Ward,位置
Kleenex Stadium Miyagi2.JPG
Seibu lions insignia.png Saitama Seibu Lions
(Saitama Seibu Lions)
11208-9Seibu Dome
(Met Life Dome)
Seibu Dome baseball stadium-01.jpg
Lotte marines insignia.png Chiba Lotte Marines
(Chiba Lotte Marines)
12100-2Chiba Marine Stadium
(ZOZO Marine Stadium)
QVC Marine Field, front.jpg
Buffaloesinsignia.png Orix Buffaloes
(ORIX Buffaloes)
27100-4Osaka Dome
(Kyocera Dome Osaka)
Kyocera Dome Osaka1.jpg
SoftBank Hawks insignia.png Fukuoka Softbank Hawks
(Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks)
40130-7Fukuoka Dome
(Fukuoka PayPay Dome)
(Fukuoka CityChuo-ku,位置
Fukuoka Dome20130811.jpg
  • "Seating capacity":Fire Service ActThe above capacity, or the capacity when holding professional baseball.
  • "Average number of spectators": Average number of spectators per home game at home (1)[23].Climax series,Japan seriesDoes not include the number of spectators. According to SoftBank, all baseball teams are based on the full-occupancy rate and have announced the number of unissued tickets.[24].. However, other than Softbank, only Nippon Ham announced the same number when the tickets were sold out in the 2017 season (Softbank 38,585: 24 games, Nippon Ham 41,138: 9 games).
  • Before 2004, the number of spectators was an approximate number, and it was customary to announce in units of 1000, or at most 100. Also, 55,000 people at Tokyo Dome (Approximately 46,000 people were delivered to the fire department.[*1]), 48,000 people at Fukuoka Dome[25](The number of seats up to 2005 was 35,157)[*2].
  • From 2005, the number of spectators will be announced based on the number of issued tickets[26][27].. In 2017, he recorded a total of 2513 people. Over 9463 million people are the first in NPB history[28].
  • As a general rule, a protected area is permitted to one prefecture per team. However, as a provisional measure considering the effect of the merger of ORIX and Kintetsu, only for the three years from 1 to 1, protected areas of two prefectures (Osaka and Hyogo) were recognized by Hanshin and Orix. ..
  • In the history of professional baseball,By regionLooking atKeno,Koshin,Hokuriku,Shikoku region,OkinawaThere is no team that joined NPB from. However, since 2005 the Shikoku Island League (currentlyShikoku Island League plus) Was launched in these regionsIndependent LeagueThere are professional baseball teams.

Home game venue

Number of spectators

Below, after 2005Pennant race(League match +Sep-pa Exchange Battle) Shows the changes in the average number of spectators (person/match) per match in the sponsored match (home game)[29].. After the same year, the description was limited to2004 seasonOccurred inProfessional baseball reorganization problemAs a result,2005 seasonThis is because the announcement of the number of spectators has been switched to the real number, and the interleague play has started.

From the 2005 season, in the league,Orix Blue Wave(HyogoKobe City)WhenOsaka Kintetsu Buffaloes(OsakaOsaka) Merged,Orix BuffaloesThey are competing in one team called (with a double franchise period as a transitional measure). Also from the same season,Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles(MiyagiSendai city) Joined by the new entry. As a result, the league is still maintained with 6 teams.

With the acquisition, Fukuoka Daiei Hawks will start in the 2005 seasonFukuoka Softbank HawksTo2012 seasonMore Yokohama Bay StarsYokohama DeNA BaystarsIt became (there is no change to the home ground of both).

Hiroshima Toyo Carp, as an example of the change of the headquarters earth field,2009 seasonToHiroshima City Stadium(Capacity: 31,686)MAZDA Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima(Capacity: 33,000)HiroshimaHiroshima city). By the way, from the 2004 season, the currentHokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters Tokyo Dome(TokyoBunkyo kuFrom)Sapporo Dome(HokkaidoSapporo) Has moved its headquarters to the earth field, but there are plans for further relocation (reference). Even if there is no change in the home earth field,Field sheetSince the number of seats has been increased by installation and renovation, it affects the average number of spectators.

The 12 teams of the NPB8 teamThree major metropolitan areasIs located inHirofukuIt is in each city (★) of (local central city).

Army organization (farm)

Baseball industry

At the time of the Sepa-Pan separation in 1950, seven railroad teams (Se for Hanshin/JNR, Pa for Nishitetsu/Hankyu/Kintetsu/Nankai/Tokyu), four newspaper-based teams (Se for Yomiuri/Chunichi/West Japan, PA daily) ),moviesThere were two affiliated teams (Shochiku in SE, Daiei in Pa), one team in food (Ocean of SE), and one independent team (Hiroshima in Hiroshima).

In addition to the above-mentioned movie-related industries, the withdrawn industries arebroadcastSystem (Yokohama:TBSHD),distributionSystem (Daiei:Daiei) Etc. can be mentioned.

Transition of baseball team

Changes in the baseball leagues of the Japan Baseball Federation and the Japan Baseball Organization until 2008 (dates are written only for changes during the season).

Npb history.png

Since 2012, Yokohama Bay Stars has become Yokohama DeNA Bay Stars.

When entering a new market
  • For many years, the Japan Baseball Organization had to pay a "membership fee" of 60 billion yen for newly forming a new team and 30 billion yen for joining a share of an existing baseball team.
  • 2004 OfReorganization problemIn response, this system was reviewed and 30 billion yen would be paid as a "deposit security deposit" regardless of whether the system was newly formed or transferred. Of these, 25 billion yen are deposits, which will be refunded if they are not transferred for 10 years. The remaining 5 million yen will be paid to the Japanese professional baseball organization, of which 1 million yen will be the administrative processing fee when joining, and the remaining 4 million yen will be donated to the baseball promotion fund.

Team coach

Central League
OUR TEAMdirected byDate of birth (age)Inaugurationdirected by
Yomiuri Giants17Tatsunori Hara (1958-07-22) 1958May 7(62 years old)2019Year 15
Hanshin Tigers34Yano (1968-12-06) 1968May 12(52 years old)2019Year 3
Chunichi Dragons37Go Yoda (1965-12-04) 1965May 12(55 years old)2018Year 3
Yokohama DeNA Baystars31Daisuke Miura (1973-12-25) 1973May 12(47 years old)2021Year 1
Hiroshima Toyo Carp19Shinji Sasaoka (1967-08-26) 1967May 8(53 years old)2020Year 2
Tokyo Yakult Swallows24Shingo Takatsu (1968-11-25) 1968May 11(52 years old)2020Year 2
Pacific League
OUR TEAMdirected byDate of birth (age)Inaugurationdirected by
Fukuoka Softbank Hawks21Kimiyasu Kudo (1963-05-05) 1963May 5(58 years old)2015Year 6
Chiba Lotte Marines26Shigeru Iguchi (1974-12-04) 1974May 12(46 years old)2018Year 4
Saitama Seibu Lions18Hajime Tsuji (1958-10-24) 1958May 10(62 years old)2017Year 5
Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles9Kazuhisa Ishii (1973-09-09) 1973May 9(47 years old)2021Year 1
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters25Hideki Kuriyama (1961-04-26) 1961May 4(60 years old)2012Year 10
Orix Buffaloes28Satoshi Nakajima (1969-03-27) 1969May 3(52 years old)2021Year 1


Annual calendar

*This is only an approximate guide and does not mean that you will go to this street.

Match start time

  • The match start time isNight gameThen.18:00(Only ZOZO Marine Stadium is due to the location of the stadium18:15) But rarely18:20Start18:30Exceptionally, but almost now19:00There is also. Although it depends on the stadium in the day game,13:00,13:30[*8],14:00,15:00[*9] Will be held in any of the15:30There was one game[30](The P. League is13:00Start14:00There are many starts, but the Se League14:00Many start). Also, rarely16:00Start17:00You can also see the case of the dusk game.
  • In 200918:30[*10] Had 4 matches.
  • Naha OfOkinawa Cellular Stadium NahaThe two official games that have been held every year since 2010 have been held until 2 according to the lifestyle of the region.19:00It was said to have started, but after 201418:30It has been started.
  • In 2018, DeNA17:30or17:45There is a match[31].
  • The start time of the post-season game held in autumn is often influenced by live TV.Climax seriesIs often followed during the season of the hosting team.Japan series The18:00,18:10,18:15,18:30[*11]Is set to.
  • 2011Was hit just before the openingGreat East Japan EarthquakeDue to the power shortage due toTohoku,KantoThe night game was refrained from playing in Japan, and a special rule was set up stating that "new innings will not start more than 3 hours and 30 minutes after the start of the game (however, it will be applied after 9 times)". Special rules continued to be set for the official game in 2012,2013After the season, the special rules have been abolished, and the extension can be extended up to 12 times and the time is unlimited as before. There will be only 2020 times in 10.

NPB partner (supporting company)

Supporting company/group nameRemarks
Taisho Pharmaceutical
Nippon Life Insurance
My navi
Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation
  • Appointed in October 2014[34]
  • Special sponsorship of the Japan Championship Series (“SMBC Japan Series”) since 2014
Past partner companies/organizations
Supporting company/group nameRemarks
Gulliver International
  • 2007 All-Star Game Special Sponsor
Sanyo Electric
  • The current brand name is "Panasonic'
  • 1987-2006 Special Sponsor of All-Star Game
Nippon Oil
Japan Coca-Cola
マ ツ ダ

Independent League


Happened in 2004Professional baseball reorganization problemAnd Shikoku Island League (currentlyShikoku Island League plus) Partly because of the birthIndependent LeagueThe idea came up.Route Inn BC LeagueAlthough there are independent leagues that have been realized like this, there are several that have not been realized due to problems such as financial aspects.

Adult baseballSuperviseJapan Baseball FederationIs a member of the league from 2005 to 2008amateurWas treated the same as. But,2009The Japan Baseball Federation has established the "Handling Guidelines for Domestic Independent Leagues" and will be treated as a professional player as well as NPB (the number of members who have left the society as baseball players is 1 or less).[35].. Starting in 2010, a restriction has been added that the members who left the Independent League cannot register as adult baseball players the following year. After that, in November 2014, the number of registrants will not be applied to all players leaving the Independent League,Japan Independent League Baseball OrganizationAffiliated league (Shikoku Island League plus and Baseball Challenge League) and supporting member teams (Ryukyu Blue OceansThe registration period limit is no longer applicable to those who leave the group.[36].. Joined the Organization in 2021Kyushu Asia LeagueThe same applies to the players of.

On the other hand, the Japan Baseball Organization (NPB) allows foreigners (excluding Japanese school graduates) and independent league players who have previous experience in NPB to make a "transfer" contract with the NPB baseball team. However, for players who do not fall under thoseProfessional baseball draft conferenceYou will not be able to contract unless you are nominated in. In this regard, it is reported that the Independent League (Island League and BC League) side wants to be able to transfer regardless of the career of the player.[37].

Players in the Independent League also receive a reward from the team by signing a professional contract like NPB, but the amount is extremely smaller than NPB. At the time of dissolutionKANDOKIs completely unpaid[38], BASEBALL FIRST LEAGUE founded by a team that left the league →Sawakami Kansai Independent LeagueIs also the same. Therefore, some leagues allow side jobs during the off season. It also started in 2020Hokkaido Baseball LeagueWill employ athletes at local companies and farmers during the season.

Shikoku Island League plus

Shikoku Island League plusIs composed of the following 4 teams.

The original name in 2004 was "Shikoku Island League",ShikokuOne team from each of the four prefectures joined in the 4 season. December 1 in Fukuoka and NagasakiKyusyuRenamed to "Shikoku/Kyushu Island League" as two teams newly joined. Since the 2 season, they have been in the official game with 2008 teams. Fukuoka(Fukuoka Red Warblers), due to management difficulties, once suspended participation in league games in 2009, 2010 was held in five teams. Fukuoka's office was still in existence, and it was looking for a new sponsor as a "quasi-member team" and was aiming for a return in 5, but the return in 2011 was postponed. Also,Nagasaki SaintsWas withdrawn and disbanded for the 2010 season only. On the other hand, from the Japan Future Baseball League, which was decided to stopMie Three ArrowsThe name was changed to "Shikoku Island League plus" as a result of joining the group since 2011. However, Mie withdrew from the league only in 2011 and disbanded. Since 2012, four teams in Shikoku have held official games, and the return of Fukuoka has not been realized. Funding is about 4 million yen[Source required].

Baseball Challenge League (Route in BC League)

Baseball Challenge League(Commonly known as Route-in BC League) is composed of the following 12 teams.

Originally established in 2006, the name was Kita Shin-Etsu Baseball Challenge League, and the 4 season was held with the participation of four teams, Niigata, Shinano, Toyama, and Ishikawa. In November 2007, two teams, Gunma and Fukui, newly joined and changed their names. From the 2007 season, 11 teams (2 districts) have played in official games. From the 2008 season, two teams from Fukushima and Musashi joined to form an eight team (two-district system), and from FY6, two teams from Tochigi and Shiga joined and ten teams (two-district system). Ibaraki will join in 2, forming 2015 teams (2 districts). From the 8 season, Kanagawa has participated in league games, forming 2 teams. It was planned to be held in two areas in 2017,[39]Changed to a three-district system due to the spread of new coronavirus infection[40].. It will be held in 2021 with a three-district system[41].

In addition,ShizuokaHamamatsu city"Shizuoka Prefectural Baseball Team" (official name undecided), which has an office in Japan, has been approved by the "Associate Member Baseball Team", which conducts baseball group establishment activities on the premise of future membership.[42]

Former Kansai Independent League (KANDOK)

Former Kansai Independent League (KANDOK)Started in the 2009 season.Osaka Expo Seventies,Mie Three ArrowsThere were plans to join, but both changed to a policy of forming their own league (Osaka Expo Seventies did not reach the league). In addition, of the first year participationOsaka Gold BillicanesHas withdrawn from the end of the 2009 season and has been based on Korean players since the 2010 season.Soul Haechi(Former Korea Haechi → Korean Haechi) has joined. From 2011Osaka Hawks DreamBesides, it was suspended for 2010Kobe 9 CruiseTook over the playerHyogo Blue ThundersBy establishing Forest Home, which takes over the rights of the teamKobe SandsParticipated. on the other hand,Akashi Red SoldiersHas been suspended since 2011 due to the death of the representative. In 201206BULLSYamato Samurai Reds, While Osaka Hawks Dream and Seoul Haetchi stopped participating in the league match. After the end of fiscal 2, Osaka Hawks Dream left the league and changed to a club team, and Kobe Sands and Yamato Samurai Reds stopped their activities. For this reason, Kishu Rangers was the only remaining baseball team since the league was established. In 2012, there were three teams of Kishu, Hyogo and 2013BULLS. After the end of the season, Kishu and the other two teams clashed over the management policy, and all the teams withdrew, so the league virtually stopped. Hyogo and 06BULLS are the new BASEBALL FIRST LEAGUE (baseball first league, currentSawakami Kansai Independent League) Founded[43].

Japan Future Baseball League

Japan Future Baseball LeagueWas composed of the following two teams.

2010Start from the season. Mie Three Arrows was originally planned to join the Kansai Independent League, but it is said that there was a difference in opinion and philosophy regarding the salary level of the players and the league management policy from the existing team of the Kansai Independent League, and for that reason 2009 In October, it was decided to leave the Kansai Independent League, and it was decided to form its own independent league. On October 10, the name of the new league was announced as "Japan Future League". It was renamed to "Japan Future Baseball League" on December 10st of the same year. Osaka Gold Billicanes, the first champion of the Kansai Independent League, also decided to withdraw from the Kansai Independent League in October 13 and announced their participation in the Japan Future Baseball League, just like Mie Three Arrows. In 12, we played a league match with an exchange match with the Shikoku/Kyushu Island League. However, management problems emerged, such as the sponsor withdrawing due to the scandal of a player of the Osaka team, and in September 1, it was decided to suspend the league in 2009. As mentioned above, Mie participated in the Shikoku Island League plus in 10.

Sawakami Kansai Independent League

Sawakami Kansai Independent LeagueIs composed of the following 4 teams. The league name from the establishment to December 2018, 12 is ``BASEBALL FIRST LEAGUE"was. From December 2018, 12 ``Kansai Independent LeagueThe league name was changed to. After the start of the 2020 season, it was announced that the same year season (until the end of December) will use the name of "Sawakami Kansai Independent League" by selling the naming rights.The name "Sawakami Kansai Independent League" was used on the league website after January 12 without any announcement, but it was announced that the naming rights contract was renewed in April of the same year.[44].

As mentioned in the section of the former Kansai Independent League (KANDOK), in December 2013, there was a conflict with Kishu over the league management policy.Hyogo Blue Thunders06BULLSEstablished by the company and established in 2014Himeji GoToWORLDIn addition, it started in April 2014.Basically, the players are unpaid, which is the same as KANDOK at the time of dissolution.

Himeji suspends its activities for the rest of 2016, while from 2017Wakayama Fighting BirdsSince it joined, it was operated by 2018 teams until 3. From 2019Sakai CityAs a franchiseSakai shrikeWill join and will be managed by 4 teams.

Hokkaido Baseball League

Hokkaido Baseball LeagueIs operated by the following 4 teams. A league match was held from 2020, and in the first year, two teams, Furano and Bibai, held an official match. From the 2 season, two teams, Shibetsu and Ishikari, have joined.Players have adopted a policy different from the past independent leagues, such as practicing and playing games while working locally in the team during the season and not placing a manager on the team.[45].

  • ("Rera Hanks Furano BC" for the 2020 season)

Kyushu Asia League

Kyushu Asia League The2021More league games will be held, and the first year will be run by the following two teams.

Independent league non-member team

2020Start more oftenRyukyu Blue OceansAims to join the above independent league when NPB expands its participation quota. In the game, in addition to NPB's farm and the above independent league teams, the team intends to engage in exchange games with professional baseball league teams in Asia.

In addition, Ryukyu remains a non-member of the leagueJapan Independent League Baseball OrganizationHas joined as a supporting member.

Professional Baseball Masters League

It is a league of retired players who have finished their active career in NPB.Professional Baseball Masters LeagueIs composed of the following 5 teams.

A league game was held mainly in the winter season, which is the off season of professional baseball, by players who have finished their active career in NPB since 2001 (2001-2002 season), but the league game was paused with the 2008-2009 season (after that). , All-star match only). After that, we are aiming to restart the league game, but as of 2019 it has not yet been restarted.

Women's professional baseball

As a professional baseball league by women,1950 - 1951OverJapan Women's Baseball FederationExisted.

Since 2010Japan Women's Professional Baseball OrganizationThe league was started by, and the women's professional baseball league is back for the first time in 59 years.

Founded in 2010

Founded in 2012

  • Osaka Brave Honeys (currentlyLeia

Founded in 2013

On the other hand, in the Kansai Independent League that was established in 2009,Eri Yoshida Kobe 9 CruiseBecame the first female professional baseball player to play in the men's league (resigned in the same year). Yoshida in 2013Ishikawa Million StarsTransferred to. In 2010,Rie Masuda Akashi Red SoldiersJoined the team and became the second person. As of 2, female players are allowed to play in the NPB and Shikoku Island League plus, but no female player has belonged to this time. ).


Anti-doping measures

dopingForHeisei 19(2007) has conducted its own inspection, and has penalized it.[46].Japan Anti-Doping AgencyIt is not a member of (JADA). From the 2017 seasonBlood testIs also implemented[47][48].

Gang exclusion activity

2003 “Declaration of exclusion of gangs”. Established "Professional Baseball Gangsters Exclusion Measures Council" at 12 teams and stadiums[49][50][51].. 2016, the previous yearBaseball gambling problemTherefore, it is necessary to block the antisocial forces once again, so we requested each team to strengthen their identification. The revision of the baseball agreement was also reported as an issue to be considered[52].

Consideration for international competitions

1964 Tokyo Olympics
  • 1964, The first time in Japan after the warModern olympicThe Tokyo Olympic Games was held.May 10By the opening ceremony of the Olympic GamesJapan seriesThe schedule will be adjusted so that all official matches including the first ever match night game will be held, and regular open games will be held.3MidMay 3,May 3) Opened.
  • However, in the Japanese seriesHanshin vs.南海The battle was initiallyMay 9The opening schedule isCentral LeagueThe day after Hanshin won the championshipMay 10Opened at. In addition, the cancellation of rainy weather caused the seventh round of the final round to be held on October 7, the opening day of the Tokyo Olympics.
Sydney Olympics
  • 2000At the Sydney Olympic Games held inbaseball Summer olympicFor the first time, a professional player was allowed to participate. This year's competition isPacific LeagueThe main player of the team (one each team) was dispatched as a representative. Therefore, among the official matches of the Pa League that will be held during the period,Tokyo DomeTo be the home stadiumNippon HamConsideration was given not to play weekday games as much as possible except the sponsored games (the schedule could not be changed due to other events).
2002 FIFA World Cup
  • 2002At the Soccer World Cup Japan-Korea Tournament held in, the schedule was adjusted so that the match would not be played on the day of the Japanese national team or the day of the final match.
Athens Olympics,Beijing Olympics
  • 2004Athens Olympic Games,2008At the Beijing Olympic Games held in Japan, two Japanese national teams were selected from each of the 12 teams and dispatched. Although there was no schedule adjustment like at the time of the Sydney Olympics, players who participated in the national team (including players who participated in national teams other than Japan) were given the number of games held during the official schedule of the national team.Regular turn at bat-Regular pitch timeSpecial measures were taken to exclude it from the calculation.
2020 Tokyo Olympics
  • 2020に行われる予定だった東京オリンピックでは、12球団から選抜された日本代表チームの派遣、また開催期間にあたる7月21日から8月13日までのシーズン中断が予定されていた。それに伴って開幕は例年より1週間早い3月20日、閉幕は例年より遅い10月17日、そしてClimax seriesJapan Championship SeriesWas scheduled to be three weeks later than usual.In addition, the baseball stadium cannot be used during the period around the Olympics because it is the venue for the Olympic games.DeNA,Yakult,Nippon HamConsidered the schedule, such as reducing the number of games hosted during the period and holding alternatives at the baseball stadiums of other baseball stadiums and local stadiums.However, as mentioned above, worldwideNew coronavirusDue to the spread of the infection and the postponement of the Tokyo Olympics, professional baseball was not held on the originally planned schedule.

Official Battle Overseas Expedition

In the old days, the Japan Sports Association and the Tenkatsu baseball teamSeoulAre playing overseas games between professional teams.

After the start of the professional baseball league game, the first official match overseas expedition will be held,1940Made inManchurian league match.Manchuria(CurrentPeople's Republic of China・All 9 teams participating in the (Tohoku area) had a total expedition, and held a summer league match (including practice matches and open matches in advance) from July to August. Next day1941Was also planned to be heldSino-Japanese warIt was canceled due to the deterioration of the war situation.

After the war1961May 5At that timeAmericaOccupiedOkinawa-Ouyama baseball fieldNishitetsu LionsversusToei FlyersThe first overseas expedition was held during the war (19626 May 13,14 DayAlsoHankyu BravesversusDaigo Orion'sThe war also carries out an Okinawa expedition).

20025 May 14,15 DayToTaiwan(Republic of China)ofTaipei City-Tianmu stick stadiumFukuoka Daiei HawksversusOrix Blue WaveThe war was held.

Also in 2005 year South KoreaIn SeoulJamsil StadiumBusan OfSajik StadiumChiba Lotte MarinesversusFukuoka Softbank HawksThe battle6 May 28,29 DayWas planned forKorean professional baseball OfLG TwinsDoosan BearsUses the Jamsil stadium as its headquarters, so there is no free day and the game becomes impossible.Incheon OfMunaku StadiumI decided to play in the game, but decided that it would not be profitable, and announced that it will be held on March 3, the same year (actually, Lotte's hometownChiba Marine StadiumHeld in).

other than this,2014Commemorating the opening game "Giant vs. Hanshin" in commemoration of the 80th anniversary of the establishment of Japanese professional baseballThe United States of AmericaThere was also a plan to hold it in, but due to budget etc.[53]..The NPB Commissioner at the time, who was originally from the Ministry of Foreign AffairsRyozo KatoIs said to have been eager for it.

Relay program

By NPBプロ野球中継Is against the GiantsNight gameMainly from the dawnradio,tv setIt has been broadcast nationwide on terrestrial broadcasting (NHK, commercial broadcasters).However, although the number of broadcasts is decreasing due to the low audience rating during the golden time, the ratio of professional baseball is very high in the top-ranked competitions, and the amount of coverage is large for the low audience rating.Especially from 2007 to 2009, the amount of coverage was about twice that of 2nd and 3rd place.[54]..In recent years, there are only a few national broadcasts such as the opening game, weekend day games, and the Japan Series, but local broadcasts at local stations are broadcast at any time in baseball teams with bases other than the Kanto region, and the audience rating is also high in various places. doing[55][56][57][58][59].. furtherSatellite broadcastingWith the increased number of channels, commercial BS stations andJ SPORTS,TwelbyBroadcasting is increasing, especially in Pacific League-sponsored games, and since the latter half of the 2000sDAZNThere are many cases of distribution on the Internet.

In 2007Radio OsakaHas withdrawn from the first professional baseball broadcast in Japan as a medium-wave radio station.Also, in 2012, due to the low audience rating of terrestrial broadcasting, despite the fact that the Yomiuri Giants entered the Japan Series, it was affiliated with the Japan TV series.Radio JapanDid not broadcast the Japan Series.In addition, in 2017TBS RadioHowever, the Kanto key station has completely withdrawn from the first professional baseball broadcast. Until the 1980sRadio NIKKEI(Radio protein at that time) also organized a professional baseball broadcast.Of satellite broadcasting stationJapan BS broadcasting(BS11) was also relaying some official games by the Shikoku/Kyushu Island League and the Baseball Challenge League (BC League) (currently, including NPB, BS11's professional and semi-pro baseball broadcasts are Not). The game of NPB is basicallyBroadcast rightIs managed by each baseball team.

Related item

Organization related

Games related

Baseball related


Personal titles and awards

Fielder title
Pitcher title
Awards from sponsors outside the organization
Awards from outside the organization
List of past winners

Records related




News related



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ At the time of opening, the capacity of the Koishikawa Fire Department was 46,314 (of which 2,976 were standing) (1988(Showa 63) January 10Asahi Shimbun22 sides. ), but the current capacity has not been disclosed.
  2. ^ According to the new stadium construction data prepared by Hiroshima City in 2004, other stadiums may differ from the capacity announced at that time and the current capacity. (http://www.city.hiroshima.lg.jp/toshikei/toshika/shinkyuzyo/siryo/041126/shiryo.pdf Explanatory material 2. Facility conditions at other stadiums)
  3. ^ Seibu HoldingsSubsidiary. 1979-2005Seibu Group OfDeveloperNational land plan (laterKokudo) Had a team, but in theSeibu Railway Securities Trading Law Violation CaseAs a result, Kokudo will be dissolved in 2006.Prince HotelWas owned from 2007 to 2008, and from 2009 became owned by Seibu Railway.
  4. ^ Hankyu Hanshin HoldingsSubsidiary of.Hankyu-Hanshin management integrationAt that time, it was considered that the actual management was changed from NPB to Hankyu Hanshin HD, and the former Hankyu Railway, the predecessor of the corporation, owned the baseball team (Hankyu Braves) in the past and transferred it to ORIX. Due to the circumstances, he was asked to pay 30 billion yen for deposits and fees, but after reexamination, he was only paid 1 million yen.
  5. ^ As of 2018, Nippon Ham Co., Ltd. has named itself General Partner, and a leading company in Hokkaido has invested as a Grand Partner, but as with Hiroshima, there are plans to shift to an independent profit system.
  6. ^ In Hiroshima, the Matsuda family, the founder of Mazda, is the largest shareholder and holds a little over 40% of the shares of the baseball team.In addition, Mazda also owns about 35%.From December 1955 to 12, the above business (newspaper =Chinese newspaper, Railroad =Hiroshima Electric Railway, Finance =Hiroshima Bank,Hiroshima Mutual Bank), A group-owner-type management of local business companies, and after the capital consolidation in 1968, when both Mazda (then Toyo Kogyo) and the baseball team were family-owned by the Matsuda family.Manufacturing industryIt could be interpreted as a system.
  7. ^ recently2010Is applicable (March 3th in the Pa League, March 20th in the Se League). This year, both Hanshin and Orix had the right to open their bases, but the Hanshin Koshien Stadium couldn't be used during the period of high school baseball, so in consideration of Hanshin who wanted the opening match at Kyocera Dome Osaka The opening card was held ahead of schedule. In addition,2017Similarly, both Hanshin and Orix had the opening right, but this year, Hanshin returned the opening right. By the way, including 2010, in all cases where the opening day was different after at least 1953, the Pa League all started before the Se League.
  8. ^ It can be seen on Sundays and public holidays of Hiroshima-sponsored games at Mazda Stadium except in summer.
  9. ^ It can be seen on Saturdays of games held at Sapporo Dome and Nagoya Dome, but at Saturdays after 2017, all Saturdays after 14 are set at 00:XNUMX.
  10. ^ Of 201318:30The starting match巨人Seven games including sponsored games.17:00The number of starting games increased to 16 games.
  11. ^ Depending on the stadium18:20or18:40In some cases.


  1. ^ Twenty-five years of Korakuen
  2. ^ "March 3, the first day of the ban, Giants VS Chudai! Director Hara is also welcome". Sports report(November 2011, 2). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2011, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20110220161515/http://hochi.yomiuri.co.jp/giants/news/20110218-OHT1T00030.htm 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  3. ^ "Notice to Japan Baseball Organization”. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (March 2011, 3). As of March 18, 2011オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019th of February 5Browse.
  4. ^ "The Central League broke! Final adjustment to the simultaneous opening of April 4". SANSPO.COM (Sankei Digital). (September 2011, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2011, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20110326180400/http://www.sanspo.com/baseball/news/110324/bsr1103240506000-n1.htm 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  5. ^ "Saito & Tanaka, love tag ... one donation box for two people". Sponichi Annex (Sports Nippon Shimbun). (February 2011, 4). http://www.sponichi.co.jp/baseball/news/2011/04/03/kiji/K20110403000555200.html 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  6. ^ "The trigger is Hara... Introducing the starter notice.". Daily Sports(November 2012, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20120309123406/https://www.daily.co.jp/baseball/2012/03/09/0004869421.shtml 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  7. ^ Fuji Television Network, Inc"Sport!(Broadcast on March 2013, 3)
  8. ^ "NPB 80th Anniversary Best Nine". 2014 Award Player.Nippon Professional Baseball. 2019th of February 5Browse.
  9. ^ "[Professional Baseball] King, Nagashima et al. Best Nine NPB 80th Anniversary". Sankei News (Sankei Digital). (June 2014, 11). https://www.sankei.com/sports/news/141126/spo1411260023-n1.html 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  10. ^ "Nagashima, Wang, Nomura, etc. 80th Anniversary Best Nine". nikkansports.com (Nikkan Sports Newspaper). (June 2014, 11). https://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/f-bb-tp0-20141126-1401263.html 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  11. ^ "Giant accused Fukuda pitcher of Kumazaki Commissioner". Nikkan Sports(July 2015, 10). http://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/1549585.html 2017th of February 2Browse. 
  12. ^ "DeNA" High school baseball lottery does not violate the agreement "is sweet to relatives? No disposal". Tokyo Sports(July 2016, 3). http://www.tokyo-sports.co.jp/sports/baseball/520493/ 2017th of February 2Browse. 
  13. ^ "Hanshin also revealed high school baseball lottery, announced that less than 1 players of the 2st and 20nd army are involved". Sankei sports(July 2016, 3). http://www.sanspo.com/baseball/news/20160322/tig16032217540016-n1.html 2017th of February 2Browse. 
  14. ^ "Professional baseball will change with new rules on "no collision, video expansion"". Yomiuri Shimbun(November 2016, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20160325031331/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/fukayomi/ichiran/20160325-OYT8T50001.html 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  15. ^ "Double play sliding, immediate double play ... NPB new rule". Sports report (Junichi Shimbun). (January 2017, 1). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2017, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20170227071016/http://www.hochi.co.jp/baseball/npb/20170130-OHT1T50250.html 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  16. ^ “Introduced next season “Request” can be exercised twice per game until failure”. Nikkan Sports (Nikkan Sotsupo Shimbun). (November 2017, 11). https://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/201711140000083.html 2018th of February 4Browse. 
  17. ^ a b Official announcement of the opening of professional baseball on June 6! No spectators for the time being
  18. ^ "Professional baseball, cheering is a major league style? Audience match from today". Asahi Shimbun(July 2020, 7). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASN7975XXN79UTQP007.html 
  19. ^ "On the first day of the spectator game, the third time in history, three goodbye home runs, all of which are one point behind, and 3 people get drunk.". Daily Sports(July 2020, 7). https://www.daily.co.jp/baseball/2020/07/10/0013498792.shtml 
  20. ^ “This season, 9 times will be discontinued, and night games will be 30 minutes ahead of schedule.”. Nikkan Sports(July 2021, 3). https://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/202103220000577.html 2021th of February 3Browse. 
  21. ^ “Selected as the new commissioner Atsushi Saito at the former Japan Exchange Group CEO Owners Meeting”. Sankei NewsSangyo Keizai Shimbun. (November 2017, 11). http://www.sankei.com/sports/news/171127/spo1711270041-n1.html 2017th of February 11Browse. 
  22. ^ Daily Sports (November 2015, 10)
  23. ^ Statistical data(Japan Baseball Organization)
  24. ^ Fukuoka Softbank Hawks (Official) September 12, 9
  25. ^ "All records for Matsuzaka this season". Asahi Shimbun. http://www.asahi.com/paper/sports/baseball/matsuzaka/matsu.html 
  26. ^ "Hanshin keeps 1st place NPB crowd mobilization, will it exceed 2500 million people for the first time after real number announcement”. Full count (January 2017, 9). 2017th of February 11Browse.
  27. ^ "Professional baseball that has been successfully reformed, spectators steadily increased The number of visitors before was the Dombri account! ?”. Investment Trust 1 (November 2017, 11). 2017th of February 11Browse.
  28. ^ "First in NPB history to exceed 2500 million visitors! Over 300 million Hanshin, Rakuten increased by 10.7% year-on-year”. Baseball King (July 2017, 10). 2017th of February 11Browse.
  29. ^ 2017 Se Pa official game(Japan Baseball Organization)
  30. ^ 2017 Pacific League All Match Schedule PDF Version (PDF) - Japan Baseball OrganizationHome Page
  31. ^ 2018 Central League Match Schedule PDF Version (PDF) - Japan Baseball OrganizationHome Page
  32. ^ Calbee Co., Ltd. signs "NPB Partner" contract NPB.jp Japan Baseball Organization March 2019, 3
  33. ^ Announcement of the date of 2016 new player selection conference and decision of special sponsor (Japan Baseball Organization NPB News August 2016, 8, November 19, 2016)
  34. ^ Sumitomo Mitsui Banking as NPB partner(Japan Baseball Organization NPB News October 2014, 10, viewed October 1, 10)
  35. ^ Handling Guidelines for Domestic Independent League (February 2009, 2) -Japan Baseball Federation
  36. ^ Revision of the Japan Independent League handling guidelines in the Japan Baseball Federation (JABA) -Shikoku Island League plus news release (April 2014, 11)
  37. ^ Clarifying the existence as an independent leaguer and a professional-Japan Association of Independent League baseball organization establishment interview- -Sports Communications (September 2014, 9)
  38. ^ (5) Unpaid professional baseball "Critique is prepared" Re-starting after death or death Sankei News January 2011, 1
  39. ^ About the system for the 2020 season -Baseball Challenge League (March 2019, 11)
  40. ^ 2020 route-in BC league management system (PDF) -Baseball Challenge League (March 2020, 6)
  41. ^ 2021 Season District Allocation / Opening Date / Camp-in Lifting Date Notice -Baseball Challenge League (March 2020, 12)
  42. ^ Notice of approval of Associate member team of Route Inn BC League -Baseball Challenge League (March 2018, 4)
  43. ^ New Independence League Launched = Kansai Hyogo and Bulls-Baseball[Broken link] -Jiji Press December 2013, 12
  44. ^ [Concluded a naming rights contract with the Sawakami Foundation (continued)] --Kansai Independent League (April 2021, 4) Retrieved April 1, 2021.
  45. ^ "Starting with 2 teams next spring" Hokkaido Baseball League, which has a different concept from the existing independent L. Full-Count(July 2019, 5). https://full-count.jp/2019/05/03/post359643/ 2019th of February 11Browse. 
  46. ^ NPB Anti-Doping Guide 2016
  47. ^ Introducing blood doping test from next season... Professional baseball
  48. ^ NPB executive committee introduces blood doping test from next season
  49. ^ Watching games/excluding activities such as gangsters
  50. ^ Declaration of exclusion of gangsters by players was made.
  51. ^ Gang exclusion declaration
  52. ^ Requested 12 teams to strengthen identification to thoroughly eliminate NPB gangsters
  53. ^ Giants-Hanshin Abandon US Opening Game "Difficult"(Nikkan Sports, July 2013, 7, viewed April 5, 2014)
  54. ^ WBC/Liao Kung Effect Raises Coverage-2009 Sports TV News Survey-(Nihon Monitor Co., Ltd. March 2010, 3)
  55. ^ [Professional baseball] The average audience rating is 30% in Hiroshima and 20% in Hokkaido. --"Sankei News" dated October 2016, 10
  56. ^ Professional baseball 2020 season Hiroshima Telecasting's carp game has a high audience rating this year as well! --Hiroshima Telecasting Press Release Dated November 2020, 11
  57. ^ Amazing numbers! TV Shinhiroshima Carp V Instant audience rating 68% -"Nikkan Sports" dated September 2018, 9
  58. ^ Ryu Yoda Makotoshiyaka? Double-digit barrage due to rapid recovery of audience rating "All teams out" LiSA's MV is also very popular! --"East Sports web" dated August 2020, 8
  59. ^ 5 consecutive wins in China and Japan! Both team and audience rating enter "good mode" --"East Sports web" dated August 2020, 10

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