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⚽ | 12 countries to participate in the Tokyo Olympics and women's soccer will be decided!Chile's first appearance explodes with delight


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12 countries to participate in the Tokyo Olympics and women's soccer will be decided!Chile's first appearance explodes with delight

 
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The 16 countries participating in men's soccer are Japan, Australia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Argentina, Brazil, France, Germany, Romania, Spain, New Zealand, Egypt, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, Honduras and Mexico.
 

The Tokyo Olympics have been postponed for one year due to the effects of the new coronavirus.Twelve countries participating in the women's soccer tournament ... → Continue reading

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16 participating countries

サ ッ カ ー

サ ッ カ ー(Rice: Friendly,British: Beach football) IsRound sphere1 team has 11 people, total 2OUR TEAMDone betweenSportsCompetitionone of.Association football(British: association football; Associationformulafootball(Meaning) orAssociation football[Annotation 1]Also called.otherfootballCompared to the codeHandExtreme use ofRestrictionTo be doneFeaturesThere is.Kick ballAlso say.

Soccer is played in many countries and regions over 210playerPlayed by us and takes place once every four yearsFIFA World CupTV viewers exceed 310 billion worldwide[1], The most popular sport in the world[2]It can be said.The match is played on a rectangular field with a goal in the center of each shorter side.The purpose of the match is to put the ball in the opponent's goal and score.

SportscultureAs for football asFootball cultureSee.

Overview

One team is basically 1 people.You can play a match if you have at least 11 people.There are also rules for small groups such as the eight-player system for youth soccer in Japan. Two teams become enemies and allies, and oneballMainlylegUse to move (do not use your arms or hands), protect your team's goal, carry it to the opponent's goal, and when the ball enters the opponent's goal, your team's score will be added by 1 point (goal) Type).The match ends with a time-limited whistle, and the team that scores more points in time wins.Basically, you use your feet, but you can use any part other than your hands and arms.For example, thighs, chest, head, shoulders, knees and the like.If you intentionally handle the ball with your hand or armFoulWill be.Only one person per team,GoalkeeperIt is stipulated to have a player with a special role to protect the goal.Only the goalkeeper is allowed to handle the ball with his whole body, including his hands, only within a certain area (penalty area) in front of his goal.

Name

Name by language
言语Designationpronunciation
EnglishBeach footballEnglish pronunciation: [ˈFʊtbɔːl] OffToe ball
AmericanFriendlyAmerican pronunciation: [ˈSɑːkər] Service-Car
English pronunciation: [ˈSɒkə (r)] SoMosquitoes
FrenchBeach football[futbol] Futubol
Spanishfootball[fudβ̞ol] Off(To) Bol
Portuguesefootball[futəˈbɔɫ] HoochBoU (le)
JapaneseKicking ball (soccer)
Korean축구 (soccer)
Chinesefootballpinyin: zúqiú Zucho
RussianФутбол[fʊdˈbol] HuhBoLe
Italianfootball[ˈKaltʃo] Mosquitoes(-) Rucho
GermanFootball[ˈFuːsˌbal] OffSubaru
Dutchfootball[ˈVudbɑl] Off-Tubo (-) Le
Finnishjalkapallo
ArabicFootball

The birthplaceThe United KingdomOfficially, association football, usually football, is used.[3].

America,AustraliaThen.Rugby football,American FootballUse soccer to avoid mixing with.American football uses football in the United States and American football in the United Kingdom.

soccer is assocIt is said that it was made by adding the suffix cer to the abbreviation system soc of iation.[4].

In Japan, it has been called football, A-style kick ball, kick ball, etc., but it came to be called soccer from around 1960 to distinguish it from rugby football and American football and to clarify the name.[4]..The traditional Japan Football Association was in 1974Japan Football AssociationRenamed to[4].

International Football FederationApproximately 9% of the member countries use the word "football" translated into their own language, and few countries call it "soccer".[5].

World wideEnglish: Beach football Foreign wordsIt is widely used next to it.French: Beach footballFirst,Spanish,Portuguese,RomanianSuch asRomanceIt is typical of the strain of.またAlsoSlavic OfRussian,Ukrainian,Belarusian,Serbian,BulgarianThen.CyrillicThe notation by is also the sameФутболIs used.これをthisLatin lettersWhen written infootballIs the same as the Spanish one.

nextBritish: Beach footballThefoot(Foot) andballThere is a way of naming by breaking it down into (balls, balls) and applying the translations in their own language.German: FootballIs typicalFoot footToball ballCorresponds to.ヨーロッパの言語ではIn European languagesGermanic languageAlthough it is a characteristic notation method, these languages ​​are lexically close to English (English is Germanic).German: ballEnglish: ballThere is no vocabulary difference (pronunciation is different) likeFootfootIn many cases, the difference is not so noticeable.Dutch,Danish,Norwegian,Swedish,IcelandicEtc. correspond to this.この方法を踏襲するのはTo follow this methodGermanic languageNot limited to, it also affects neighboring languages.Finnish,Greek language,ArabicAnd so on.The vocabulary of these languages ​​is quite different from that of English, so the impression is very different from Germanic languages.Also,Beach footballIs often used as a loan word in the Romance languagesItalianHowever, it has a surface close to this notation.footballIs a variation of the word that originally meant "kick".イタリア語でカルチョと呼ぶのはWhat is called Calcio in ItalianHistorical reasonBecause there is.Also,Spanish: balompiéThere is a word.これはthis isball(Ball) andfootAlthough it is a combination of (foot) and is used as the name of some clubs, it is a loan word from English.football) Is more common.

Kanji culture areaEven in the kanji notation in Chinese: "football'(Zuchiu) is applied (Example:Chow ShinchiMovie ofShaolin soccer= Original title "Shobayashi Football").This is the same case as Germanic languages.On the other hand, even in the same Kanji cultural sphereJapaneseThen "Kick ballThe kanji "(shukyu)" is applied.This is an ancient game "CujuIt is said that it was named after "Kemari", and it is thought that it was created after 1905 when soccer began to spread in earnest in Japan when considering historical documents.これ以前の文献には、フートボール、アッソシエーションフットボール、フットボールが散見され、「蹴球」が現れるのはIn earlier literature, footballs, association football, and football are scattered, and "kickballs" appear.TaishoIt's been an era.Although the kanji notation itself is not common,KoreanThe kanji notation in is also "Kicking ball (Football, Chukku, Tukku) ”is used.これは、1945年まで続いた日本統治の結果として、同一の協会(大日本蹴球協会、現在の財団法人This is the result of the Japanese rule that lasted until XNUMX, the same association (Dainippon Football Association, now a foundation).Japan Football AssociationThe influence that was under (predecessor of) is great.Even if the kanji notation is no longer used, the name has not changed.

In Japanese, the cases so farfoot(Foot) andballWhile it was a combination of (ball, ball), it can be seen that it is a translation that dynamically captures this sport by making it "kick" and "ball".The combination of "kicking" and "ball" in this way is not limited to Japanese.The Italian word Calcio is equivalent to this,Hungarian: Football,Vietnamese: SoccerEtc. correspond to this.

Football (FriendlyThe name) is "(association ceremony)" (Association Football) Is a conversion.EnglandIt is derived from the popular name of adding "-er" to the end of the word, which was popular in the latter half of the 19th century.rugbyIs a lager in Englandrugger) Is also common.

The name "soccer" is anotherfootballIt is easy to use when it is necessary to distinguish from.In countries where football other than soccer is more popular and recognized, there is a strong tendency for "soccer" to be used for distinction. 「フットボール」という呼称は、例えばThe name "football" is, for example,AmericaThen exclusivelyAmerican FootballIn Japan, it is difficult to recall only soccer by using the word "football", so it is necessary to use "soccer" to make a simple distinction.In addition, the name of the association is "FriendlyIn FIFA member countries, the word "" is used in the United States, Canada, etc.US VirginOnly in 3 countries / regions[Annotation 2]So, the Japan Association uses it only in Japan for convenience (Japanese notation is "Japan"サ ッ カ ー"Association", but in English notation Japan Football Association)[6].

match

SoccerLaws of the gamePlayed according to a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game.試合はThe match issoccer ballSpherical known asball(In FIFA games, the circumference is 71 cm (28 in)).Two teams, each consisting of 11 players, compete to score by putting the ball into the goal of the other team (between the posts and under the bar).The team that scores more goals at the end of the match wins.If the goals are tied, the match is a draw. (If you win or lose, you will have overtime.) Each team has one person.captainLed by (Captain).競技規則で定められているキャプテンの唯一の公式な責務は、キックオフあるいはペナルティーキックの前のコイントスに参加することであるThe only official responsibility of the captain as stipulated in the Laws of the Game is to participate in a coin toss before a kick-off or penalty kick.[7].

The main rules in the game areGoalkeeperThis means that no player other than the player must intentionally handle the ball with his or her hand or arm during play.Slow inYou may use your hands when resuming with.Athletes usually use their feet to move the ball, but may use any part of the body other than the hands or arms (especially forehead headings).[8][9]..During normal play, all players may move the ball in any direction or move throughout the pitch,OffsideYou cannot receive the ball in position[10].

In a typical match, players try to create scoring opportunities by dribbling to control the ball, passing to teammates, and shooting towards goals protected by the opponent's goalkeeper.The opponent player tries to regain control of the ball by catching the pass in the middle or tackling the player who holds the ball.However, physical contact with the other party is limited.Soccer is generally a fluid game, and play only stops when the ball leaves the field or is stopped by the referee due to a rule violation.停止後、規定の方法によってプレーを再開するAfter stopping, resume play by the prescribed method[11].

professionalAt the level, most games score only a few goals.For example2005-06 seasonEnglandPremier LeagueThe average number of goals per game was 2.48[12]..競技規則では、ゴールキーパー以外のポジションは規定されていないがAlthough the Laws of the Game does not specify positions other than the goalkeeper[13],manySpecialized roleHas happened so far.These include three main categories.得点が主な役割であるScore is the main roleforwardSpecialized in preventing the opponent team from scoringDefender, Steal and hold the ball from the opponent to pass the ball forwardMidfielderIs.Players in these positions are called field players to distinguish them from goalkeepers.These positions are further subdivided according to the area on the field where the athlete is located most of the time.For example, center back, left (left) midfielder, right (right) midfielder, etc. There are various combinations of 10 field players.The number of players in each position determines the playing style of the team.Teams with more forwards and fewer defenders are more aggressive, but vice versa.選手は通常特定のポジションで試合のほとんどを過ごすが、選手の移動に関する制限はほとんどなく、いつでもポジションを入れ替えることができるAthletes usually spend most of their match in a particular position, but there are few restrictions on player movement and they can switch positions at any time.[14]..The placement of the players is "formationIs known as.チームのフォーメーションおよび戦術の決定は大抵、チームの監督の権限であるTeam formation and tactical decisions are usually the authority of the team's manager.[15].

History

起源

It seems that human beings have been playing some kind of football since the beginning of human history.[Source required].新石器時代The present (about 1 BC)ChugokuA stone ball was found in the strata of the area, and Chinese media reported it as the origin of football, but no evidence of kicking was found.In South America, natural rubber could be collected from the Amazon rainforest, so a ball-kicking competition was held early on.Patagonia,AndesEvidence of various balls (or similar) and ball-kicking competitions has been found in the Indio civilization of1500 BCChilean Pirimatam, Patagonia Choeka,800 BCPok Ta Pok of the Maya Civilization of Mexico)[16].

Archaeologically, the game of kicking the ball with your foot isAncient egypt,Ancient greece,Ancient romeA relief of a person kicking the ball with his foot has been found from200 BCEpiskiros of Ancient Greece, Palpatum of Ancient Rome, 200 BC)[16].. In ChinaSengoku periodKick the Temari with your feetCujuThe existence of a game called (Shukiku)Former HanEnd (1th century BC) Looks like "Sengoku Strategy".

The FIFA homepage lists Chinese Kemari as the oldest form of soccer.[17].. FIFA in 2014Zepp BlatterIt was controversial when the chairman sent a certificate to a Chinese museum stating that "China is the birthplace of football."[18][19].

イタリア

Even in Italy in the 15th century, "Calcio''(Football) Was there.The decisive difference between this play and England and France is that it was played in a square, which is a limited space in the city, rather than in a large space in a rural area.As a result, the field was naturally limited, the number of participants was limited, and it seems that simple roles and strategies were decided, which can be said to have been quite close to the current football.

Establishing football

Plays like football and calcioThe early modern periodIt was held all over Europe until the end.EnglandWhat was being done in 1314 was played in a variety of ways, with no set rules, so it was extremely violent, using all means except murder, and sometimes even killing. ToMayor of London Edward VIISince the ban was issued under the name of, in the 1847 years until 533, the ban has been issued 42 times just by knowing it. 16世紀にIn the XNUMXth centuryReformationWas a little more liberated from the ascetic life, and the match was played under the patronage of the king.[20].

However18st centuryFrom the middle19st centuryRise upIndustrial revolutionIt gradually disappeared when the rural community was destroyed to produce a large number of factory workers.

In England, football was accepted as recreation instead of rural areas and established as a modern "sport".Public schoolIs.Initially, public schools were held in a form similar to playing in rural areas. When public schools became educational institutions for upper-class children in the second half of the 18th century, students stopped following the guidance of principals and teachers in lower classes.Public schools during this period (late 18th century to early 19th century) "have a violent atmosphere, and football is played in that atmosphere."[21], "Football was a way for seniors to wield power over juniors."[21]..When the newly emerging entrepreneurs became involved in the operation of public schools due to the Industrial Revolution, senior students did not control junior students, but teacher authority was established and school discipline was maintained.こうしたパブリックスクール自体の改革によって、フットボールもまたルールに基づき人格形成に役立つような「スポーツ」を目指すようになったThrough these reforms of the public school itself, football has also become a "sport" that helps to build a personality based on rules.[22][20].

At this point, the rules for football differed from school to school, and there were discussions to adjust the rules each time a match was played with another school.However, this is time-consuming and inconsistent in understanding the rules, so discussions were often held with the aim of unifying the rules.Therefore, a common rule was drafted at the University of Cambridge in 1846 (Cambridge rules).これが現在のサッカーのルールの基になったThis was the basis of the current soccer rules[16]..One of the characteristics of Cambridge rules is that rugby school rules were hardly adopted.upper classThere are many people fromEaton School,Harrow SchoolAlumniMiddle classIt has been pointed out that class discrimination, which regarded rugby graduates with a relatively large number of children as subordinates, was also a factor in this.[23].

Thus by the 1850sEaton School"Rules that restrict the use of hands" centered onRugby schoolAlthough it converged on the two major powers, "rules that allow the use of hands" centered on, there was still a large gap between the two. In 1863, some clubs carried the ball by hand (carrying) and kicked the shin of the opponent carrying the ball (carrying).hacking) Was adopted, and both other clubs were banned. On October 1863, 10The United Kingdom OfUKAt the tavern Freemasons Tavern inUKTwelve clubs (some materials refer to 12) held a meeting aimed at "creating a unified rule and establishing an association involved in the operation of the rule in the game."The clubs I participated in were Burns,Blackheath(Later withdrawal), Blackheath School, Crusader's, Crystal Palace, Forest, Kensington School, No Names, Percival House, Serpiton and more.この日がThis day isFootball AssociationThe official date of establishment of (FA).There was a fierce gap between hackers and opponents at the meeting that day.At the meeting on November 11, the same year, the hackers had the upper hand and discussed this issue. The first draft of the FA rules, drafted by the FA director, reflects this preference and contains many elements that would today be considered closer to rugby than football.

At the November 11 meeting, "hackers" again barely made up the majority.However, at this meeting, Morley drew attendees' attention to the Cambridge University football rules, which were published in October of that year and banned carrying and hacking.ケンブリッジルールの議論とこの問題に関してケンブリッジと意思疎通をはかることを勧める提案によって、規則の最終的な「調停」は24月10日の会合に先延ばしとなったThe final "arbitration" of the rules was postponed to the December 12st meeting due to the discussion of the Cambridge rules and a proposal to encourage communication with Cambridge on this issue.[24]..ラグビー式フットボールを支持する多くの代表者はこの追加会合に出席せずMany representatives of rugby football did not attend this additional meeting[25][26]As a result, carrying and hacking were banned[26]..最も顕著なハッキング派であったブラックヒースのフランシス・キャンベルは、「ハッキングに賛成する」規則が採用されるのを防ぐために11月24日の会合を不適切に運営したとしてFA会長Blackheath's Francis Campbell, the most prominent hacker, said he improperly managed the November XNUMX meeting to prevent the "in favor of hacking" rule from being adopted.(English edition, Morley, and their companions[27]..Pember denied such "complaints of non-gentlemanship."Blackheath and other "hacking supporters" clubs have left the FA as a result of this controversy.

In December of the same year, the final version of the FA rules was officially adopted and published, and a unified rule consisting of 12 articles was born (Laws of the Game # 1863[28]..This can be seen as the beginning of modern football. FA football is association football (Association Football) Has come to be called.The abbreviation soc with -er meaning "person" is the etymology of soccer, and it is said that it has been used since the 1880s. The major differences between the 1863 rule and the current rule are as follows.

  • There is no crossbar and goals can be scored at any height (today'sAustralian footballSame as)
  • Most handling was prohibited, but the ball was allowed to be caught (it was not possible to run or throw while holding it).Fair catchWas given a free kick (Today's Australian Rules football,Rugby union,American FootballRemains in).
  • Strict offside rules.Allies in front of the ball are offside (similar to today's rugby union offside).The only exception is when the ball is kicked from behind the goal line.
  • A throw-in was given to the player who first touched the ball after it went out of touch.ボールはタッチラインから直角に投げ入れなければならなかった(今日のラグビーユニオンのThe ball had to be thrown at a right angle from the touchline (of today's rugby union)LineoutSame as).
  • There was no corner kick.When the ball came out behind the goal line, the situation was somewhat similar to rugby.When the attacker first touches the ball, he gets a free kick to the goal from 15 yards behind the point where the attacker touches the ball (somewhat similar to a rugby conversion), and the defender touches the ball first. The time was a kickout from behind the goal line (corresponding to the current goal kick).
  • The end was exchanged every time a goal was scored.
  • There were no rules regarding goalkeepers, referees, penalties for foul play, match times, half-time, number of players, and pitch markings (only flags that mark the boundaries of the play area).

The first match under this FA rule (that is, the world's first "soccer" match) was a 1863-12 draw against Richmond vs. Burns in England on December 19, 0.[16].

In the 1850s, many clubs were established in the English-speaking world that had no connection to public schools or universities, and played football according to various rules.その内の1つの北部のクラブであるOne of them is the northern clubSheffield FCWas in 1858Sheffield RuleThis rule was more popular than soccer in the northern region.シェフィールド・ルールではSheffield RulesCorner kick,Slow in, The crossbar was devised, andFair catchBy abolishingheadingTechnology has developed.Soccer incorporated these elements, and in 1877 the FA rules and Sheffield Rules were finally unified.The goalkeeper position was introduced in 1871.

The hacking group (rugby group) who left FA was in 1871.Rugby football unionWas established.

Soccer propagation

Soccer started at a public school in England from an early stage, centered on alumni of the public school.The United KingdomEach region(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Wales,アイルランド) Spread. March 1870, 3,UKThe world's first international match, "unofficial" at Kennington OvalEnglandEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt took place between and ended in a 1-1 draw[16]..Since then, both sides have played five informal international matches, including this one (England won 5-1870 at Kennington Oval on November 11, 19, in the same district on February 1, 0. 1871-2 draw. England won 25-1 in London on November 1, 1871, England won 11-18 in London on February 2, 1).一連の非公式国際試合は、それらの試合を企画したA series of informal international matches planned those matchesEngland Football Association (FA) It is called Alcock's international match after the 4th Secretary-General Charles William Alcock. On November 1872, 11, the world's first "official" international match was held between England and Scotland at Hamilton Crescent Ground in the Partick district of Glasgow.The score was a 30-0 draw[16]..Then by the 1880sEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Wales,アイルランドThen the Football Association was formed. 19世紀後半のイギリスは世界中のあらゆる場所に進出するBritain in the second half of the XNUMXth century expands everywhere in the worldBritish EmpireSo it was very convenient for football to be spread all over the world.Soccer was first reported by an Englishman who went abroad to play at his place of residence. By the end of the 1880sベルギー,スイス,France,GermanyIt spread to Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe and South America by the end of the 1890s, and to the Asian region at the beginning of the 20th century.

England has been around since the birth of modern football (modern football) in England in 1863.Long ballIt was a tactic.Scotland, unable to beat England, devised a short-pass tactic in 1867.In the 1872 years from 1882 to 10, Scotland had a big win over England with 7 wins, 2 losses, 2 draws, 39 goals, 31 games average score 3.55 average goal 1.91.These two tactics were spread to each country at the same time as the introduction of modern soccer (modern soccer) or over time, and became the source of soccer tactics in each country.

See the History section of each country's football section for when and how football was propagated and accepted in each country.

Start of soccer tournament

England will be the first football tournament in 1872FA cupHas started.It has become a model for cup competitions in many other countries and regions. At first, amateur clubs and university teams were active in the FA Cup, but in the 1880s, professional players who received livelihood security were born, and clubs that mainly consisted of them came to occupy the top ranks.It started in 1888 by gathering these domestic strong clubs.Football leagueIs.This is the first league match in soccer, and many countries and regions use it as a model for their own league match.

Birth and industrialization of professionals

By the beginning of the 20th century, England was completely professional-dominated, followed by other countries and territories.Although there are some conflicts between amateurs and professionals, and there are differences in time, most of the countries and regions that were called powerhouses at the time had made the transition to professionals by the 1920s.

Initially, the salary paid to them as professionals is negligible, which isPubIt was possible to make ends meet with the money exchanged within the group.As salaries to players gradually increase and clubs that collect players with high transfer fees begin to appear, it becomes difficult to operate clubs with a small amount of capital, and club management is in the hands of those with larger capital. It came to be entrusted to.At first, local celebrities such as entrepreneurs, merchants, and doctors made their name, but after the 1920s, more and more capital began to run the club.FiatReceived capital support fromJuventusAndPhillipsSponsoredPSV EindhovenIs an example.

International competition

The first international tournament in soccerOlympic soccer competitionMet.Open competitionIt has been held since the first Athens Olympics,1908 London OlympicsIt was adopted as an official competition in.

There were some conflicting points between the Olympic system and that of soccer.前述の通り1920年代までに強豪国のほとんどがAs mentioned above, by the XNUMXs most of the powerhousesprofessionalWas making the transition toOlympic CharteramateurClause was stipulatedOlympic soccer competitionIt was impossible to form the strongest national team. Formed in 1904International Football Federation(FIFA) since 1930amateurAlsoprofessionalAs a tournament to decide the true soccer representative world champion who can also participateFIFA World CupStarted.Soccer was the first to use the name "World Cup".Since then, the amateur Olympics have rapidly lost interest.After that, the Olympic soccer competition1984 Los Angeles OlympicsAcceptance of professional participation byOlympic Charter OfamateurThe clause itself is the 10th in 1974, 75 years before the Los Angeles Olympics.IOC General AssemblyDelete with[29]) And other changes in the system1992 Barcelona GamesSince then, boys have gained the character of "a tournament for athletes under the age of 23" (for details).Olympic soccer competitionSee the article).なお、女子はIn addition, girls1996 Atlanta OlympicsIt has been adopted for the Olympic Games since then, and has been the tournament for the Women's A National Team (the strongest national team in the country with no age restrictions) from the time of hiring to the present.同じく女子A代表のSimilarly, the women's A representativeFIFA Women's World CupHas been held since 1991.

In addition,Each developmental stage of a soccer player in the upbringing age, separated from the developmental curve of Scammon[30]With the purpose of promoting further growth by gaining international experience[Source required]World competitions by age group are held for both men and women.男子は1977年に開始されたFIFAワールドユース選手権(現Men's FIFA World Youth Championship (now XNUMX) started in XNUMXFIFA U-20 World Cup), Girls started in 2002FIFA U-20 Women's World CupIs the first FIFA era world tournament to start.

Second World WarLater, continental federations were established, under which continental championships (eg in Asia).AFC Asian Cup) Has come to be held.また同時に、各大陸連盟はクラブチームによる大陸別選手権(例:アジアではアジアクラブ選手権〔現At the same time, each continental federation is a continental championship by club teams (eg Asian club championships in Asia [currently]AFC Champions League]) Was also carried out.However, the world championship by the club team,FIFA Club World CupHad to wait for the 21st century to be founded.

Now

Soccer does not require any special tools other than the ball, and the rules are simple, soDeveloped countryNot only that, it is widespread even in countries with low economic and educational standards. In addition to the form of forming a team of 11 people and playing on the ground, it has been transformed into various forms.Latin America,EuropeIt is played in all regions of the world, regardless of age or gender.One of the manifestations is that national teams are organized in most countries around the world.Due to the large population parameter, it is difficult to examine pure statistics, but it can be said that it is one of the sports with the highest competitive population and international recognition. FIFAには2016年5月13日時点で全世界211の国と地域のサッカー協会が加盟しており(国だけでなく地域が加盟の理由はAs of May XNUMX, XNUMX, FIFA has XNUMX national and regional football associations worldwide (why not only the country but also the region is a member).FIFAreference)[31], There are several other football associations that are not members of FIFA (NF-Boardreference).競技人口は2006年時点で2億6500万人以上(FIFA加盟の各国サッカー協会に登録料を支払い登録している選手の合計)で、競技人口に審判や競技役員も合わせたサッカー競技活動従事者は2億7千万人以上とAs of XNUMX, the competition population was more than XNUMX million (the total number of athletes who have paid registration fees to FIFA member national soccer associations and registered), and the competition population is combined with referees and competition officials. With over XNUMX million peopleFederation of International Football Associations (FIFA)Has announced[32].. The competition population ranking by country as of 2006 can also be viewed on the official FIFA website (however, only FIFA member associations as of 2006. All Players is the competition population including unregistered players of each association, Registered players Is the registered athlete population of each association, Unregistered Players is the unregistered athlete population of each association, Clubs is the number of clubs, Officials is the total number of athletes)[32][33].

Types

Except for the restriction that "gather 11 people to form a team and play on the ground", modern soccer is also played in the following forms.

See each item above for these.Of these, FIFA is hosting world championships for futsal and beach soccer.

In addition, efforts in a new form called Sosaichi are increasing.

Until the middle of the 20th century, the majority of athletes were men, but in recent years women's competitions have been recognized, and on the other hand, efforts have been made to play not only healthy people but also people with disabilities.

Women's football

Until the beginning of the 20th century, soccer was seen as a "man's sport".It was recognized that women do not play sports with their hair disturbed like men, and in particular, soccer is a nasty act of exposing their thighs.However, in reality, women's competitions have been held for a very short time.World War IIn women tooTotal warAlthough mobilized by the system, the status of women improved after the war, andWomen's suffrageThe rights were expanded, such as the establishment of.In parallel, women are now allowed to play sports, and women's soccer reached a peak in the 1920s.

However, for various reasons, women's soccer continued to be treated unfairly, and not only the match but also the practice venue remained unresolved.After that, when competition opportunities were opened to women from around the 1970s, women's soccer developed mainly in the United States and Scandinavia. 1991年にはIn XNUMXFIFA Women's World CupIs started,1996 Atlanta OlympicsAdopted as an official event of the Olympic Games (1996 Atlanta Olympics soccer competition(See also), gradually gaining citizenship.

Disabled soccer

Since the end of the 20th century, soccer for people with physical and developmental disabilities has been widely played, and the World Cup tournament has been held.Paralympic,Special OlympicsIt has been adopted in competitions such as.

Soccer nameTargetConvention
Electric wheelchair soccerPersons with physical disabilitiesElectric Wheelchair Soccer World Cup
Blind soccer(Blind soccer)Visually impairedParalympic
Deaf soccer (def soccer)Deaf personDeaflympics[34]
Intellectually disabled soccerIntellectually Handicapped IndividualSpecial Olympics
World championship
Cerebral palsy 7-person soccer(CP soccer)Cerebral palsyA personParalympic
Ampty soccerPersons with physical disabilitiesAmputee football world cup

In Japan, the "2002 INAS-FID Soccer World Championship" was held with the International Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in August 8 after the FIFA World Cup was held.Japan Football AssociationWas held in Tokyo and Kanagawa.

Rules

Soccer rules are all 17 itemsSoccer lawAnd otherInternational Football Council (IFAB) CircularGuidelinesIt is composed of etc.Soccer rules of the game are not FIFAInternational Football Council Established by (IFAB). Until 2015/2, the Laws of the Game revised around February 2015, FIFA published the rules (laws of the game, etc.) established by IFAB as a booklet, but at the IFAB Annual Meeting (AGM) in March 2016. After the revised Laws of the Game 2016/3, IFAB will issue direct rules (laws of the game, etc.) in English (formal original), French, German and Spanish editions (laws of the game). Is issued.If there is any doubt about the text expression or interpretation, it is based on the English version of the Laws of the Game (in Japan,Japan Football AssociationTranslates the English version into Japanese, including the revised part every year, and publishes the Japanese version while reviewing the expressions)[35].

IFAB holds every year around the end of February (February or March)Annual General Meeting (AGM)において、ルール改正を討議し、出席者の3/4以上の賛成を得た場合(IFAB構成メンバー:FIFA4票、英本土4協会各1票計8票中6票以上)、ルールが改正される。つまり、ルール改正にはFIFAの4票、英本土4協会が各1票の計8票のうち6票以上が必要であり、FIFAだけでも英本土4協会だけでも決められないようになっている[36].. 「新競技規則(新ルール)」は5月末までにFIFAからFIFA加盟各国のサッカー協会に通達され、6月1日から全世界で施行される(国際試合は6月1日から有効。ただし、6月1日までにその年のシーズンが終了していない大陸連盟及び加盟協会は、その施行を次のシーズン開始まで延期できる。日本では例年6月1日以降のしかるべき日、遅くとも8月中には施行しているThe "New Laws of the Game (New Rules)" will be notified by FIFA to the soccer associations of FIFA member countries by the end of May, and will come into effect worldwide from June XNUMX (international games are valid from June XNUMX). Continental Federations and affiliates whose season has not ended by June XNUMX may postpone their enforcement until the start of the next season. In Japan, on the appropriate day after June XNUMX each year, at the latest in August. Is in force[36][37].. 6月1日以前に、シーズンを開始する場合は、IFABの改正に関する通達の直後に施行することができるIf the season begins before June XNUMX, it can come into force immediately after the notification of the IFAB amendment.[38]).In other words, the rules of soccer are changed every year.for that reason,RefereeMust take a renewal course every year (if not attended, the referee qualification will be revoked).In recent years, the contents that could not be concluded at the IFAB Annual Meeting have been renewed as other instructions and directions (notices) after the IFAB special meeting in June or July.

Therefore, the following rules may also be changed or deleted (the rules and terms themselves are missing).For example, the foul of keeper charge (prohibiting charging of keeper in the goal area) was deleted by the 1997 rule revision and no longer exists.最新のルールおよび通達についてはFor the latest rules and noticesJapan Football AssociationOfficial website[38]See etc.

Field (Article 1)

  • Size: 105 meters long x 68 meters wide (international competition)
  • Line: Must not exceed 12 cm
  • Goal size: 7.32 x 2.44 meters (inside dimensions), pillars must not exceed 12 cm
  • Corner flag: Height 1.5 meters or more
  • Center Circle: At the beginning of the game (kick off) Also, when a score is scored, play can be started from the center (center mark) here.You cannot kick off when the opponent player is in this area.
  • Touch line: A line drawn on the long side (side) of the field.When the ball goes off the field from this line, a throw-in is given to the team of the last player to touch.
  • Goal line: A line drawn on the short side of the field (the side where the goal touches).When the ball goes out of the field from this line, it is a goal kick if the last player touched is the offensive side and a corner kick if the player is the defensive side.
  • Penalty area: In this area, the defensive goalkeeper can handle the ball by hand.Also, the defensive side is directlyFree kick (FK)If you commit a foul, the attackerPenalty kick (PK) Is given.
  • Corner arc: A quarter circle with a radius of 1 meter drawn from the corner flag
  • Penalty mark: goalAt 11 meters from, the point where the ball is placed during a penalty kick.
Soccer ball.svgreference:Soccer field


Ball (Article 2)

  • Size: Outer circumference is 68 cm or more and 70 cm or less
  • Weight: 410 grams or more and 450 grams or less (at the start of the match)
  • Air pressure: 0.6-1.1 atm
Soccer ball.svgreference:soccer ball


Number of participants (Article 3)

  • 11 people or less.However, one of them must be a goalkeeper.If either team has less than 1 players, no match will be played.Also, if the number of players is less than 7 during the match, the International Football Association Board thinks that if one team has less than 7 players, the match should be canceled, but the actual decision is left to the discretion of the member association. (The member association may determine the minimum number of competitors for a team that can continue the match).
  • Up to three players can be replaced in any match at official competitions by FIFA, FIFA and national associations. (1994 FIFA World CupOr later)
    • International A MatchUp to 6 players can be replaced in a friendly match (even if there is an agreement between the two teams to play against, if 7 or more players are replaced, the international A match certification will be canceled and the record of that match will be all as an international A match. become invalid).For other matches, the maximum number of substitutes can be further increased if the opponents agree and the referee is notified before the match.If the referee is not notified before the match or if they cannot agree, up to 6 people can be replaced.
    • 2018 FIFA World CupFrom now on, the fourth person was allowed to change only in overtime, and it was introduced in other major international competitions.[39].
    • Regarding the transition of the number of replacement slotsSoccer Laws of the Game #Development of RulesSee

Tools (Article 4)

  • Shirt with sleeves
  • shorts
  • socks
  • shoes
  • Shin guard,Shin guard
  • Goalkeepers can wear track suit pants.
  • Non-hazardous protective equipment such as headgear, face masks, and knee and arm protectors, made of soft, lightly padded material, are acceptable, as are goalkeeper hats and sports glasses.[38].


Referee (Articles 5 and 6)

There will be a referee in the field and two assistant referees outside the touchline.In large competitions, 2th and 4th referees will be set up.Recently, VAR (Video Assistant Referee) has also been introduced.


Match time (Article 7)

  • A total of 45 minutes, 90 minutes in the first and second half.
    • It can be changed according to age and gender.
    • So-calledCold gameIs not in principle.
  • Suspension time due to player change or injury on the wayUmpireMeasures independently and the surplus time (Additional time) Is added.
    • For games of a certain size or larger, the fourth referee will clearly indicate the reference time on the touch line.
  • If it is not settled in time, it will be treated as follows.
    1. Draw: In each country's league, it is often a draw as it is.
    2. extra innings : Tournament matchThis is often done when deciding which team to advance to the next round.
    3. PK battle : Performed when the winner is not decided even in overtime.In rare cases, a penalty shootout may be played without overtime.

Start / resume of play (Article 8)

kick off, DirectlyFree kick, IndirectFree kickOrDrop ballThe match starts and resumes at.Kick-off takes place at the start of the first and second halves and after scoring.The team that wins the coin toss before the match chooses the end or kicks off in the first half.In the second half, the ends are replaced, and the team that did not kick off in the first half kicks off.Dropped ball is a method of resuming when the referee stops the game during in-play.The drop ball can be released after the ball touches the ground (after bouncing).If you go in the air, you will start over.

Offside (Article 11)

When there are two players (including goalkeepers) on the other side before the opponent, an ally stands in front of or in between the opponents and kicks the ball to that ally.Or make a move that involves the ball.または、相手選手を邪魔することOr to disturb the opponent player[40].


Fouls and cheating (Article 12)

Yellow card and red card
Soccer ball.svgreference:Foul (soccer)


  • Green card : Cards to show when you play fair or do good things. Used only in games under 12 years old.
  • yellow card : A card presented by the referee when giving a warning.Two cards will be sent off (red card) in the same match.Depending on the tournament and format, the next game will be suspended.
  • Red card : A card presented by the referee when announcing leaving.
    Depending on the tournament and format, the next game will be suspended.
  • Handling: A foul of handling the ball with your hand or arm.However, it is not a foul if the goalkeeper handles a ball within his own penalty area.If it is determined to be intentional or malicious, or if it blocks a decisive scoring opportunity (eg, a field player manually blocks a shot that would otherwise be a goal), it will be a warning or sent off.Although it is intentional according to the rules, only the person knows whether it is intentional or not, so basically, when the enemy team is disadvantaged by hitting it, a foul is taken (when scoring or assisting by handling) Such).
  • Kicking: Kicking an opponent.
  • Tripping: The act of tripping an opponent.The act of defeating or trying to defeat an opponent using the foot or body.
  • Jumping at: The act of jumping on an opponent.
  • Striking: Hitting the opponent.Or the act of trying to hit.
  • Pushing: Pushing an opponent.
  • Foul charge: The act of charging an opponent player in a violent and dangerous manner.Or, the act of charging an opponent player who is not interfering from behind.
  • Foul contact: Touching an opponent before touching the ball.
  • Holding: To hold down an opponent.
  • Spitting: Spitting on an opponent.
  • simulation : The act of deceiving the referee by simulating a fall due to contact with an opponent player.
  • advantage : If the defensive side commits an offense, but it is clearly advantageous for the offensive side not to stop the game there, the offense at that time may not be taken.This is called an advantage, and the referee takes a gesture of raising both hands upward and forward to indicate that play continues.This does not mean that you miss a foul, but you may be warned or sent off the next time play stops.

Free kick (Article 13)

A kick that restarts the match by the opposing team as a punishment for the team that committed the offense.There are direct free kicks that can be scored directly and indirect free kicks that can only be scored after touching another player.In the case of a free kick, the defending player must be separated by a certain distance, but even if the distance is not met, the attacking side can start playing with a kick except in certain cases.


Penalty kick (Article 14)

Penalty areaA kick given to the opponent team as a punishment for the team that committed the foul within.From a position 11m (12yd) from the goal, you can aim for the score directly without being disturbed by anyone other than the goalkeeper.

Soccer ball.svgreference:Penalty kick


Throw-in (Article 15)

Touch lineThe team opposite the player who touched the ball last when the ball broke restarts the game by throwing the ball overhead with both hands at the position where the ball broke.At this time, both feet must be on the ground.You cannot aim for the goal directly.Throw-in balls are not eligible for offside.

Soccer ball.svgreference:Slow in


Goal kick (Article 16)

If the last player to touch when breaking the goal line is the offensive side, the defensive side places the ball in the goal area and restarts with a kick.You may aim at the goal directly.Goal kick balls are not eligible for offside.

Soccer ball.svgreference:Goal kick


Corner kick (Article 17)

If the last player to touch when breaking the goal line is the defensive side, you can kick from the position of the corner post that indicates the corner of the field without being disturbed by the opponent.You may aim at the goal directly.Corner kick balls are not eligible for offside.

Soccer ball.svgreference:Corner kick


the term

position

There are four main positions as follows.

  • Goalkeeper (GK): A player who defends the goal.You can only handle the ball by hand in the penalty area.However, as with other players, the use of hands is prohibited when leaving the penalty area and handling the ball. In contrast to GK, other players are collectively called field players (FP).
  • Defender (DF): A player who mainly defends behind.
  • Midfielder (MF): A player who connects defense and attack mainly in the middle stage.
  • forward (FW): A player who mainly attacks on the front line.

Other

  • DF
    • Center back: A player who protects the center of the defenders.Since he is required to defend, he rarely participates in attacks, but due to his role, he has a strong body and may participate in attacks during set play.
    • Side back: Of the defenders, the player who protects both sides.Looking at the period, it is also required to participate in the attack, so there are many abilities required such as speed, physical strength, ability to raise the cross.
  • MF
    • Volanch: A player who is located at the bottom of the middle stage (in front of the DF) and is the starting point of the attack at the same time as blocking the opponent's attack.Zone pressAn important position in tactics.
    • Side half: Midfielders located on both sides.Responsible for attack and defense on the side.If you get closer to the attack, you become a side attacker, and if you play at a position lower than the midfielder and higher than the DF, you become a wingback.
    • Bottom of the top (shadow): A midfielder who plays behind the forward. Since it is the role of supplying an effective pass to the forward and deciding the shot, it is said to be a flower shape, but many teams do not have it depending on the tactics.
  • FW
    • Wing: Players located on both wings when the forward is 3 top or 4 top.
    • Center forward: A player whose purpose is to shoot and head.
    • Second top: A player who cuts from the side to the center, and who is active near the center and acts like a shadow.
Soccer ball.svgreference:Soccer position


Tactical relations

Technical relations

  • kick : Kicking and moving the ball.
  • heading : Hitting the ball with your head to pass or shoot.
  • shoot : Kick the ball inward of the goal.
  • dribble : To move with the ball while kicking it.
  • Keep: Keeping the ball in soccer in the sense of holding it.
  • Manon: It means "the other person is coming".
  • Turn: To change direction.
  • Run with the ball: Put a pass from an ally into the space with a single touch, run quickly and follow the ball.
  • path : Give the ball to a teammate by kicking it with your foot.
  • centering : Kick a long pass aiming in front of the goal from a deep position (near the penalty area) on the left and right of the field.Also called a cross or a cross ball.
  • Feed: Often used to mean a forward path.It is used by defenders, defensive midfielders, and goalkeepers to send long passes to the front (long feed).
  • trap : To catch the ball and move it to a position where it is easy to make the next move.
  • feint : Action to prevent the opponent player from reading the intention of play.
  • Post play : Turn your back to the goal and get the ball while carrying the opponent player on your back. It is also said to "receive a wedge".
  • Through: A play in which you pass through yourself without touching the ball when there are other players on your side who can receive a pass.
  • Through Pass: A pass that passes between an opponent's player or a fellow player and enters the space in front of a fellow player.
  • Screen: A technique that puts your body between the ball and the opponent when you have the ball to prevent it from being stolen.
  • Chasing: Chasing after the player with the ball. "Forecheck" means chasing from a high position.
  • Body shape: A concept that describes a player's movements and body posture.Regardless of whether you have the ball or not, it is very important to always have a good body shape and a good view for good play.
  • Physical: The physical aspect of a player's abilities.Originally based on English physical.It is a pair of mental "mental".It is said that "physical strength is strong" when it is excellent in endurance, good physique ≒ easy to win the competition.
  • charge : The act of hitting one's body against the opponent's body with the shoulder etc. and pushing it to interfere with the opponent's play.However, if you use the part below the elbow or if you charge too much, it will be a foul.
  • Delay: Instead of going to steal the ball, blocking the opponent's path and slowing down the attack.
  • On the ball: The movement when holding the ball.
  • Off the ball : Movement when you do not have the ball.Making space ・ Important movement to use space.
  • Overlap : The movement of the player behind overtakes the player in front.Or it means the defender's participation in the attack.
  • Clear: In the event of a pinch, kicking or bouncing the ball outside or in front of the touch line or goal line.
  • Covering: The movement to leave your place to help when an ally is pulled out, or to fill a vacant place when an ally player attacks.
  • Mug: To drive an opponent's dribbling player in a certain direction.
Soccer ball.svgDefensive technologyDefense (soccer)See


Play relations

  • hat trick : Achieve 1 individual goals per game.元々はOriginallycricketTerm.
  • assist : The last pass that led to the score.
  • Maricia : Sly wise play.PortugueseIt means "malicious".
  • Free: When receiving the ball, there are no enemies nearby.
  • Space: A space with no players.
  • Gap: The gap between DFs.
  • Side change: Sending a (long) ball from one side to the other.
  • Throw: Skip the midfield and put a long ball in the front to attack.
  • Retreat: When defending, most players go down to their side and lose space in front of the goal to avoid giving them a chance.
  • Buildup: Assembling an attack.The scene where this word is often used is the situation where the last defensive player gradually carries the ball forward while connecting the pass when changing from defensive to offensive.
  • Switch on: A play that brings the ball to the front and speeds up the attack to score a goal.Wedge pass, side change, dribble breakthrough, etc.
  • Pressing: Make the distance from the DF line to the FW compact, and aggressively steal the ball from a high position.
  • Zone: Instead of deciding the opponent to mark for a specific player, the zone to be in charge of each player is decided and the mark is handed over to protect it.
  • One-on-one: Decide which player to mark when defending, and follow the movement of the player to mark.
  • Make a block: When defending, midfield players or FW players also go down to their own side and cooperate with the DF line to erase the space in front of the goal.
  • Transition: Switching between offense and defense.Also called transition.
  • Shave: Body contact that reduces the opponent's physical strength and performance.It is a foul if done intentionally, but the method and degree are not strict, and it includes intense body contact with the upper body, waist and legs to the extent that it does not cause a foul.Please note that the perceptions and views differ between public and individual.Especially behind the spikes, it may be expressed as kicking or putting in the knee.It may include the act of violently struggling.
  • Support: Move to a position where the player with the ball can receive the pass.
  • Hand over: To leave the player who was in charge of the mark to another player.It can be seen in zone defense, but it can also be done one-on-one, depending on the situation.
  • Fall: A player on the front line descends to a place where he can easily receive the ball in order to get a pass."Down" is a synonym.
  • Switch: A player who does not hold the ball runs to the player who holds the ball and hands it over to each other.

Player relationship

  • Kicker: A player who kicks the ball.Unlike the following two cases, it is rare to refer to "a player who kicks the ball well" and "a player who is good at place kick".
  • Dribble: A player who dribbles.In turn, it may refer to "a player who dribbles well".
  • Passer: A player who gives a pass.In turn, it may refer to "a player who gives a good pass".
  • Striker: A forward player who aggressively shoots and scores points.A striker with a particularly high score is called an "ace striker".
  • Fantasista : A player who fascinates the audience with tricky and acrobatic play.
  • Cracki: Master.
  • Hard worker : A player who moves around violently and plays devotedly for his allies.
  • Water carrier: Same as above.
  • Guardian God: An excellent goalkeeper who firmly protects the goal.
  • Polyvalent: A player who can handle multiple positions above a certain level.Utility player,Multirole player(Multiplayer).
  • Ball watcher: A player who is just looking at the ball, looking away from the player to mark.
  • Ace Killer: A player who erases the characteristics of the key player of the opponent team and prevents it from functioning.
  • Card collector: A player who is often given a yellow card or red card by the referee compared to other players.
  • Diver: Play to deceive the referee by pretending to have fallen intentionally and received a foul (DiveA player who makes heavy use of).

Other

  • Goal Celebration: Expressing the joy after scoring a goal.in Japan"Goal performanceAlso called.
  • Supporter : People who support the team that they enthusiastically favor among soccer fans.
  • Hooligan : Among soccer fansviolencePeople who aim for.
  • Derby match : A match between teams based in the same city.
  • Unaided match : Dare to play a match without spectators.Often done as some kind of penalty.
  • Clean sheet: A no-goal match.
  • Points : In a league match, points given to the team according to the outcome of the match.In many league games, it is the highest priority for ranking.Victory = 3 points, defeat = 0 points, draw = 1 point for both teams.
  • Escort kids : A child who leads a player when he / she enters.
  • Hopeiro: Portuguese for "equipment clerk".

Soccer player

Award given to soccer players

Soccer tournament

There are many soccer tournaments around the world.It is possible to experience many international competitions by age, which leads to the growth of young athletes.It is also possible for the host country, which hosts many of the international conventions, to gain international experience and know-how as a host country.

Soccer group

Soccer competition facility

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ JapaneseThen, for short, "A-type kick ball(Ashikishukyu) "is sometimes called.
  2. ^ Other continental federation member countriesニウエ,Sint MaartenAlso used.近年ではin recent yearsAustralia,New ZealandAlso"FriendlyWas used, but the name was changed to "" in 2004 and 2007, respectively.Beach footballWas changed to ".

Source

  1. ^ Over 300 billion World Cup viewers, slightly over 2002(2006.6, Olympic Plus, SourceReutersJoint)
  2. ^ Top 10 sports with the most fans in the world(2010.10,GIGAZINE, Original source10 Most Watched Sports In The World(Same month, Top10 List))
  3. ^ Wisdom English-Japanese Dictionary.Sanseido 
  4. ^ a b c Complete Encyclopedia of Japan.Shogakukan 
  5. ^ Why do you call Japan soccer?世界はフットボールが主流 - 2018ワールドカップFootball is the mainstream in the world-XNUMX World Cup - Asahi Shimbun
  6. ^ JFA Official HP Soccer Q & A-Soccer in general (XNUMX) What is the etymology of soccer?
  7. ^ IFAB. “Procedures to determine the winner of a match or home-and-away” (PDF). Laws of the Game 2010/2011. FIFA. Pp. 51–52. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/generic/81/42/36/lawsofthegame_2010_11_e.pdf 2011/3/4Browse. 
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  9. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 12)”. FIFA. As of October 2007, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007/9/24Browse.
  10. ^ IFAB. “Law 11 – Offside” (PDF). Laws of the Game 2010/2011. FIFA. P. 31. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/generic/81/42/36/lawsofthegame_2010_11_e.pdf 2011/3/4Browse. 
  11. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 8)”. FIFA. As of October 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007/9/24Browse.
  12. ^ “England Premiership (2005/2006)”. Sportpress.com. http://www.sportpress.com/stats/en/738_england_premiership_2005_2006/11_league_summary.html 2007/6/5Browse.  [Broken link]
  13. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 3–Number of Players)”. FIFA. As of October 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007/9/24Browse.
  14. ^ “Positions guide, Who is in a team?”. BBC Sport (BBC). (September 2005, 9). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2007, 10.. http://web.archive.org/web/20071021101352/http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/rules_and_equipment/4196830.stm 2007/9/24Browse. 
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  16. ^ a b c d e f Written by David Goldblood, translated by Keiko Noma, "2002 World Cup 32 Countries, Data Book" Neko Publishing Co., Ltd. Nekoweb
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  18. ^ “FIFA recognizes that football is the birthplace of China”. People's network(July 2014, 6). http://j.people.com.cn/n/2014/0611/c206603-8739942.html 2018/1/3Browse. 
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  24. ^ “The Football Association”. Bell's Life in London: p. 6. (September 1863, 11). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Football_Association_(Bells_Life_in_London)_1863-11-28.png. "The President pointed out that the vote just passed to all intents and purposes annulled the business of the evening, where upon Mr. Alcock said it was too late to proceed further, and moved that the meeting do adjourn till Tuesday next, Dec. 1, and it was so resolved. " 
  25. ^ Harvey (2005), pp. 144-145
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  27. ^ “The Football Association”. Supplement to Bell's Life in London: p. 1. (September 1863, 12). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Football_Association_(Bell%27s_Life_in_London),_1863-12-05.png. "Mr Campbell: [...] When the last meeting was held for the express purpose [...] of settling the proposed laws, they ought to have gone on with the rules as proposed by the association, and not taken the course they did as to the Cambridge rules, but the resolution and amendments had been proposed and passed in the way they had been without being properly put to the meeting, because it was found that the "hacking" party were too strong " 
  28. ^ FP Magoon Jr. "Social History of Football"Iwanami Shoten, 1985.ISBN 978-4004203124.
  29. ^ Olympic Story Part 4 Ama and Pro <2004> Yomiuri Shimbun-January 1, 24[Broken link]
  30. ^ The concept of golden age from the perspective of development
  31. ^ 66th FIFA Congress, Mexico City 2016-FIFA Official HP May 2016, 5
  32. ^ a b FIFA Big Count 2006: 270 million people active in football-FIFA Official HP May 2007, 5
  33. ^ Big Count 2006 Statistical Summary Report by Association-FIFA Official HP July 2007, 7
  34. ^ "JDFA overview”. Japan Deaf Football Association. 2017/2/13Browse.
  35. ^ Laws of the Game 2015/2016 Japanese version, Laws of the Game 2016/2017 Japanese version
  36. ^ a b Role, organization, conference and rule revision procedure, history, etc. of the International Football Association Board (IFAB)
  37. ^ Interpretation of the Laws of the Game and Guidelines for Referees P132-P136 International Football Association Board Covenants-Approved February 1993
  38. ^ a b c Soccer Laws of the Game-Japan Football Association Official Website
  39. ^ "UEFA revise rules to introduce extra time "4th person" replacement frame from next season with CL and EL". French news agency (September 2018, 3). 2019/6/2Browse.
  40. ^ reference:Microsoft PowerPoint --11 Law 11 Offside.ppt (PDF) ,FIFA official website (Offside commentary slide), see September 2010, 9

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