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The people of Japan and Hawaii, who have the same concept of preserving the traditional culture inherited from their ancestors while coexisting with nature and have a deep historical relationship, have cherished ties and ties.
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Wikipedia related words
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What is tradition
Tradition is the transmission of tangible or intangible lines such as ancient traditions, styles, tendencies, and bloodlines., Faith, customs, institutions, ideas, scholarship, art, or the spiritual way that forms the center of them, which have been cultivated and passed down by peoples, societies, and organizations throughout their long history.And so on.
In different fields, there are different traditions of different origins.
- Science / Technology / Academic
What is not originally "tradition" may spread as "tradition", and these are called "invented tradition", "invention of tradition", "fabrication of tradition", etc..Eric HobsbawmとTerence RangerThe concept became widely known by Invented Tradition, edited by 1983.
And someCultural anthropologistThe traditional events created by social and political demands are modern, justifying ethnic groups and classes.nationalismPointed out that it is closely related to, and tried to distinguish between what is truly traditional and what is not..
The argument that the traditional events created by political demands are not authenticCultural anthropologyAs well,First ResidentResonated with activists in the rights restoration movement.. For example,HawaiiOf the indigenous movementCriticizes the Invented Tradition as an attempt to undermine the power of the rights restoration movement, and is robbing cultural anthropologists, including Keezing, of Hawaii's sovereignty as well as the US government. Decided to be.
The following points can be mentioned as examples where tradition is a problem.
Example in Japan
Marital surname problem
Marriage surnameIs not a Japanese "tradition"..The same surname for married couples was stipulated1875(Meiji8 years)Ordinary name for compulsory name for commonersIn the latter half of the Meiji era, well after the establishment of the national surname system by1898(Meiji 31).Prior to that, the married couple's surname was notified to the woman in 1876 (Meiji 9) except when inheriting the husband's house (when inheriting the husband's house, the name of the husband's house is referred to. )..Furthermore, there is a study that before that, there were various name systems that were not limited to the same surname and different surnames of married couples..
- "Edo gestureIs not a "tradition" from the Edo period..It is pointed out that the Edo gesture was created in the 1980s..
- "BushidoIs not the "tradition" of samurai from the Edo period.. The oldest book with the word "bushido" was established in the early Edo period.Koyo ArmyHowever, Bushido here does not express a sense of ethics, such as focusing on favoring the development of the self and the Clan Roh Party by raising the name of the warrior.
- "EnkaIs not a Japanese "traditional" song..The base isWestern musicAnd after the warProgressive intellectualAgainst the criticism of record songsShowa 40'sAnd laterNew LeftIt was praised by nationalism.
- "I willIs a traditional pre-meal挨 拶Rather, it seems that it became a habit after the Showa period..
Folk training related to shrines and Shinto
- New YearNew YearToShotoIt is pointed out that it is not an old tradition in Japan, but a new event established in the middle of the Meiji era..
- Japanese eraIncorporates the Chinese system and is not a tradition unique to Japan.
- Grand SumoThen because of the relationship with ShintoRing TheFemale ProhibitionHowever, it is not an old tradition.Also in the Muromachi period and the Edo periodWoman sumoThe record remains, and women were excluded from sumo wrestling at the end of the Meiji era due to modernization and the establishment of a family system..
It is not the traditional Japanese "tradition" that there is little garbage..It has been pointed out that the fact that there is little garbage in Japan today is due to various efforts after World War II, not "tradition"...The image that the Japanese are mild-mannered has been around since the present age, and until the early modern period, even the non-samurai class wore swords for fighting and self-defense because they could develop into fights from trivial matters..
- In postwar Japan, there are opinions that the "traditional family" was broken, the family ties were weakened, and the educational ability of the family was weakened, but in reality, educational know-how etc. appeared in Japan. Around 1910, a new middle class such as wealthy people, officials and intellectuals began to focus on home education, but it was not popular among the general public, and children were generally left alone..
- It is sometimes said that "family ties are weakening" and "family is collapsing", but in fact, a 1958 government survey cited "family" as the "most important thing". Is only 12%, while in a 2013 survey it rose to 44%.
- It is sometimes said that "large families of three generations were found everywhere in Japan in the past", but in a 3 survey, 1920% of all households had nuclear families, and 54% of households lived together for three or more generations. It wasn't too much.In some regions, it was rather taboo for multiple couples to live together..
- It is sometimes said that "housewives are a Japanese tradition", but until around 1970, the employment rate of Japanese women was higher than in Western countries, and it was during the high-growth period that housewives became popular. Diversity was erased in the process of enforcement and modernization of the Meiji Civil Code of 1898, emphasizing the Confucian and authoritative Chinese-like family image and Western gender division of labor..
Evaluation of classical works
ManyoshuWas not traditionally highly evaluated, but in the Meiji era, the songs from the common people to the emperor were included, so value was created for the formation of a unified national view of "Japan".Yoshikazu ShinadaPoints out.
Imperial Japanese Constitutionas well as the The Constitution of JapanIt has been pointed out that the Constitution of the Empire of Japan is the traditional social norm of Japan from the right wing and the Constitution of Japan is the traditional social norm of Japan from the left wing.Yasukuni ShrineIt begins with the total denial of the Edo period, which can be seen in such cases, and the Constitution of the Japanese Empire begins with the denial before the war.From February 1889, 22 (Meiji 2), respectively1945(Showa 20) 8 years on August 15, 56 (Showa 1946)May 11It has been 75 years since then.EachMeiji constitutionIs in the Meiji era,Showa ConstitutionOften emphasizes high economic miracle and success during the bubble era.
Example in England / Ireland
Tartan check・ SkirtEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euNot the "tradition" of..Originally, tartan check was made in Scotland in the late 17th century.HighlandsIt has been pointed out that the people who lived in the area started as a "tradition".
Example in India
yogaSpeaking of unique poses (Asana) Is associated with the practice scene, but this pose practice is the center.Modern hatha yogaIs not an ancient Indian traditional hatha yoga. Western style developed in the West from the late 19th century to the early 20th centurygymnasticsHowever, it was imported into modern India and completed...Most of the "yoga classes" currently held in Japan belong to this school.
- ^ Japanese Language Dictionary, Shogakukan, 2005.
- ^ Kojien, 2008th edition, Iwanami Shoten, XNUMX.
- ^ a b c d e "It's a real thing? The true identity of" good tradition "",Mainichi Newspapers, August 2016, 1
- ^ a b Eric Bob's Bowum, Terence Ranger (eds.), "Invented Tradition" Kinokuniya Bookstore, 1983.
- ^ a b c "Tradition to be created-an innocent discourse caused by the Supreme Court decision of" married couple's surname "", Yahoo News, December 2015, 12
- ^ a b c d e "Special Feature Wide: The Liberal Democratic Party Aiming to Enact the "Home Education Support Law" The illusion of a "traditional family" Weakened family ties and reduced the educational power of the family. ??”(Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers. 2021/8/17Browse.
- ^ a b c Chihiro Shirakawa National Museum of Ethnology(Edit) "Invented Tradition" "Encyclopedia of World Ethnicities" Maruzen Publishing 2014 ISBN 9784621088234 pp. 56-57.
- ^ Complete list of laws and regulations Meiji 1453 p. XNUMX
- ^ Hirofumi Idota "Thinking about the Couple" World Thought, 2004
- ^ Minoru Harada "A false tradition that undermines the identity education of Edo gestures"Seikaisha, 2014.
- ^ Minoru Harada "The End of Edo Gessa" Star Seas, 2016
- ^ Song Bigen, Others, "What Experts in Each Field Tell You What You Need to Know to Protect Children," 2016.
- ^ Michele M. Mason “Empowering the Would-be Warrior: Bushido and the Gendered Bodies of the Japanese Nation”
- ^ Yusuke Wajima"The history of popular music after the war over the created" Japanese heart "myth" Enka ""Kobunsha new book, 2010.
- ^ Kumakura Isao (1999). "Manners as a culture"Iwanami Shoten. P. 47-49
- ^ Noboru Hirayama "Visit to shrines and temples changed by the railway-Hatsumode was born and raised with the railway" Kotsu Shimbun Shinsho
- ^ Muneo Narusawa-Weekly fridayHen "Nippon Kaigi and the Association of Shinto Shrines" Friday, 2016, page 40.
- ^ "Is sumo's "women's ban" a fiction made after the Meiji era?"Please get off the ring" ripples on a woman who is saving her life"Calicone News", April 2018, 4.2018/4/6Browse.
- ^ Katsuyuki Shimizu, "Establishment of both quarrels and defeats," Kodansha Mechie, p. 14.
- ^ Yoshikazu Kondo, "Yumiya and Sword", Yoshikawa Kobunkan, p. 121.
- ^ Teruyuki Hirota, Japanese discipline has declined, Kodansha, 1999.
- ^ Yoshikazu Shinada, "Invention of Manyoshu", Shinyosha, 2001.
- ^ Mark Singleton, "Yoga Body-The Origin of Pose Practice," translated by Chigusa Kita, Osumi Shoten, 2014.ISBN 978-4-905328-06-3.
- ^ Masayuki Ito, "Genealogy of Contemporary Yoga: Focusing on Fusion with Spirituality Culture," Religious Studies, 84 (4), Japanese Association for Religious Studies, March 2011, 3, pp. 30-417, NOT 110008514008.
- traditional culture
- The argument to appeal to tradition
- Cultural anthropology
- Conservative thought
- Postcolonial theory
- falsified history