Swimming Club Special Feature Part 3: Kazuma Okawa (Medical, XNUMXrd year) Swimming is all about!Immersive "genius" feat
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Okawa participated in the Tokyo Special Swimming Tournament, depending on whether or not he was in the top 40.
The swimming team of the University of Tokyo Swimming Club, a strong sports club that has many members participating in Incare (Japan Student Championship Swimming Tournament).Book… → Continue reading
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2013Current,International Swimming FederationIs a member of 203 countries and regions, and is said to be the international competition with the largest number of participants.World Masters GamesIn, it is one of the competitions with many participants, and in some years it has the largest number of participants.In the sports participation status survey of each country in the world surveyed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, it is ranked high in all the Western countries surveyed such as the United Kingdom, Sweden, Canada, Australia, etc. In "Popular Sports in 14 Asian Cities"Walking,jogging(running),badminton,CyclingIt is the fifth largest competitive population after.In any country, it is ranked 5st to 1rd as a competitive sport with competitions that can be participated by the general public...In Japanswimming school,Sports ClubNo. 1 in the "Lessons Ranking", walking and light gymnastics in the competition population survey by the Sasakawa Sports Foundation (2004) and the Basic Survey on Social Life (2011).BowlingIt is ranked 3rd after the competition, and 2009th after walking, light gymnastics, bowling, and running in the competition census by the Cabinet Office (5). It is the first place.
Considering that most of the earth is covered with water, the reason why swimming is so much is that it is significant for people who are not good at swimming to learn swimming, and there are many opportunities to swim. Be done.In addition, it is an exercise that uses the muscles of the whole body, requires instantaneous power of the whole body, is the exercise with the highest calorie consumption per hour, requires flexible and supple movement, and is underwater. Swimming is a sport that allows you to develop your overall physical ability using only your own body, such as the need for a core that keeps your body axis so that you do not receive water resistance even if you move violently. It is considered that it is most suitable for improving physical ability, and it is also most suitable for training, dieting, and exercise for health even after the peak of physical ability and adulthood.For the above reasons, there is no bias between men and women and age compared to other sports, and it is widely practiced regardless of age or sex, so it has a very old history and a large number of athletes in Japan and around the world. It has become a universal and major sport.
There is no data on when people started swimming, and it is not clear, but human beings live in rivers and the sea as food to maintain their lives from the primitive age when they started bipedal walking.Fish and shellfishKnowing the existence of water buoyancy through opportunities such as the need to capture, crossing rivers for movement, evacuation from floods, washing for hygiene, bathing for religious beliefs, etc. It is said that he learned the technique of swimming by using it, and it is said that swimming started with human life as one of the most universal exercises performed by himself using only his own body.Since 70% of the earth is the sea and there are many rivers, lakes, and ponds on land, it is natural that swimming was indispensable for human life from the birth of human beings.It is said that there was a mural painting showing a person swimming about 9000 years ago.Ancient greeceIt can be seen from the paintings and sculptures at that time that swimming was popular in those days.Ancient GreeceAncient romeSwimming was an important subject in physical training of the times, and it was necessary for cultural people to be able to swim as well as to be able to read letters. An ancient kingdom in Southwest Asia 3000 years agoAssyriaA relief excavated from the old land of the country depicts a soldier swimming across the river.As a record,Ancient egyptPapyrus document (2000 BC), figure of soldiers from Nimrud, Assyria (9th century BC),Ancient china OfShoko,Liezi,Huainanziand so on.
Olympia Grand Festival, a festival of the ancient Greek era (Ancient olympic) Was already actively practiced as an important subject, but it was not adopted in the competition of the ancient Olympics.The exact reason is unknown, but there is a theory that it was done so naturally and that it was impossible to swim due to the lack of water in the Olympia river at the time of the festival.In the first place, since the event that is the prototype of the current athletics was mainly held, it is considered that it was not familiar because it had to be done in another place to swim.
The earliest swims imitate animals,dog paddle,BreaststrokeIt is said that it was similar to.中 世At the stage of imitating the swimming of animals,19st centuryEnterThe United KingdomAfter the Industrial Revolution, with the modernization of sportsBourgeoisieWith the background of gambling races, speed is required for swimming.Therefore, improvements have been made to swimming, and from the most primitive form of swimming and the prototype of breaststroke, "swimming that scrapes water with both hands at the same time and pushes water backward at the same time with both feet", "water at the same time with both hands". After scratching and opening both legs to the left and right, the "Futoshi (current wedge kick)" was devised to gain forward power by sandwiching water vigorously, and the current breaststroke was completed.
Various movements that have been carried out around the world as part of physical training, entertainment, and daily life have been established as current sports competitions due to the "modernization of sports" that took place in England after the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. It was.In this era, swimming has been so farレ ク リ エ ー シ ョ ンThe competition will be started in the form of school competition by young people, mainly children of the upper class of England, who are not satisfied with swimming as a school.UKIt is inHyde Park OfSerpentine LakeDivide (pond) like a pool1837The world's first swimming competition was held in1869The London Swimming Association was established in.1896Held in1st olympic gamesHas been adopted as a formal competition and has been held without being removed until now (the competition that has been held continuously since the first competition is swimming and swimming.Athletics-Gymnastics-fencingThere are only 4 competitions. ), It is a flower-shaped competition in the first half of the Olympic Games along with the second half of athletics.The event of the first tournament isFreestyleOnly was done and the competition was virtually breaststroke.1900Paris olympicからbackstrokeIs added as an event, and in freestylecrawlWith the advent of swimming1904St. Louis OlympicsBreaststroke became an independent event.1952Helsinki olympicThen many athletes in breaststrokeバ タ フ ラ イI started to use the scraping of my hands1956Melbourne olympicButterfly became an independent event.Distances were initially implemented as yards or miles, but gradually the events were organized.1908London OlympicsFrom now on, only meters are implemented.Also, in the same year, this London Olympics triggeredInternational Swimming Federation(FINA) was established. Currently, he is learning to swim in physical education classes at elementary and junior high schools. (Crawl, breaststroke, backstroke, butterfly)
Competitions are divided by event, distance and gender.
平泳ぎ・背泳ぎ・バタフライでは 50m・100m・200m があり、個人メドレーでは200m・400m がある。
As a group event, four men and women swim in order as one teamrelayIs done. All four swim in freestyleFree relayAnd four people swim in the order of backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, freestyle, respectivelyMedley relayがある。国際大会の場合はフリーリレーは 4×100m・4×200m が、メドレーリレーは 4×100m が行われるのが一般的である。日本ではフリーリレーとメドレーリレーの 4×50m も記録として認められている。低年齢や高齢者で短水路の場合4×25mも行われる。
Depending on the competitionOpen water swimmingMay be treated as a type of swimming competition or as an independent competition.
See each page for details.
スタート時は、審判長の合図の後に飛び込み台に乗り（背泳ぎの場合は入水し、グリップをもって壁に足をつけて待機）、出発合図員の「take your marks」のかけ声で構える。このとき、号砲までは静止しなければならないので、体を振って勢いなどをつける事はできない。号砲の後は各種目で指定されたルールに従って泳ぐ。
The automatic referee timekeeping device is used in international competitions and major competitions, and it is the sensor of this device.Touch boardThickness is 1CentimeterTherefore, the length of the long waterway pool without the touch plate is 50.02 meters, and the length of the short waterway pool is 25.01 meters.
FINA stipulates the following in Article 5 of the General Regulations (GR) and Bylaws (BL).
- The clothing (swimsuits, hats, goggles) worn by all athletes shall not violate public order and morals, comply with the rules of individual sports, and shall not carry any symbol other than permitted.
- Supplement: Regarding trademarks, there is a separate specific provision that the total area of a trademark should be 1 square centimeters or less per product.
- Any swimsuit must be opaque.
- At competitions, athletes may wear one one-piece or two-piece swimsuit. (Two caps can be worn.)
- Men must wear a fibrous material from the navel to the knees and girls to the knees without covering the neck or over the shoulders (approved according to FINA swimwear approval requirements).Armbands and wristbands are not considered swimwear parts.
- Competition officials have the authority to exclude athletes wearing swimsuits that do not comply with the rules (usually at the convening office, the convener checks the swimsuit for FINA approved barcodes. ).
- Swimwear with new designs, designs and materials used in competitions must be submitted by the manufacturer to FINA for approval in advance.
- Swimwear manufacturers must understand that new licensed swimwear must not be for a particular athlete.
- Note: For swimwear that can be worn at the Olympics and World Championships, it is a condition of permission that a manufacturing system is in place to ensure that all participating athletes are evenly distributed.For this reason, when releasing the latest swimwear, each manufacturer first supplies it only to the representative class and gradually lowers the level of athletes who sell it, and depending on the item, it is only one year after the announcement. It may be sold to end users or not to the general public at all.
Swimming in each country
Around海Surrounded by, fast flow even in the inland areariverThere are manyJapanSo swimming was familiar.From ancient timesHow to swimIs well developed and underwaterFightingTechnology and horse-riding water training,Treading waterAtbow,gunHandling ofsamuraiIt was also regarded as a taste of.After the Meiji Restoration, as Western sports became more widespread, "swimming" also became a focus of Japanese interest.1914The first national swimming competition was held in Japan1924ToSuehiro KetaroDainippon Water Sports Association (currentlyJapan Swimming Federation) Was established. By the way, the first swimming competition in Japan was1856In TokyoEtchujimaIt is said that this was done when the Kobusho's viewing swimming was held.
1930From generation1940Boasting the world's No. 1 ability in his generation, swimming was called a Japanese specialty.At the olympic games1932Los Angeles OlympicsSo, he won a gold medal in 6 out of 5 men's events. In the 100m backstroke, he monopolized the gold, silver and bronze medals.next1936Berlin olympicBut of rivalsThe United States of AmericaOverwhelmed.1940からSecond World War,Pacific WarThe Olympics were interrupted by the outbreak of.1948London OlympicsJapan could not participate in the event, and the world suspected the ability of Japan, a defeated country.1949The Japanese team participated in the US Championships in Japan and set world records in rapid succession.It showed that the power from before the war had not diminished.
As the world's swimming level rises in swimming, which is a time competition that is disadvantageous in terms of physical inferiority, Japan gradually loses its international competitiveness.1964 Tokyo OlympicsAfter that, it entered a period of complete stagnation.1988Seoul OlympicsThen,Suzuki DaichiIs 100m backstrokegold medalBrought the gold medal to the Japanese swimming team for the first time in 16 years, and the acquisition of the gold medal in the Japanese sprint event had a great influence on the Japanese sports world at that time.1992Barcelona OlympicThen,Kyoko IwasakiWon a gold medal in the 200m breaststroke and became a gold medalist (Olympic medalist Japanese youngest record) in the youngest swimming record of 14 years and 6 days. There were things to do, but the level of the entire swimming world did not rise,1968Mexico City Olympics,1976Montreal olympic,1984Los Angeles Olympics,1996Atlanta OlympicsThen, the medals ended up being zero.
While the swimming powers are working on strengthening the whole country, Japan has finally started to strengthen it systematically in recent years.2004Athens OlympicsThen,Kousuke KitajimaAchieved two crowns in the breaststroke and in the medley relaybronze medalHe won 8 medals (3 gold medals) for the first time in a long time.Kitajima continues2008Beijing OlympicsHowever, he won two crowns and achieved the first two consecutive Olympic titles in Japanese history (the world's first two consecutive breaststroke titles).2012London OlympicsThen, he won 2 medals (no gold medals), which is the most after the war and the second highest tie in history.Especially in the medley relay, boyssilver medal, Women won bronze medals, the first men in the history of Japanese swimming to win silver medals in this event, three consecutive medals, and both men and women.
Once[When?]In Japanese swimming, when introducing the contestants before the start of the competition, a unique announcement was made to extend the "first ko ~~~~~ su, XX-kun" and "ko" for a long time.At the beginning of swimming in Japan, there was no program or bulletin board that could list the names of athletes, and the people concerned, spectators, and reporters had no basic information source for the competition, such as participants, other than the on-site broadcast. It is said that such announcements have come to be made to take time to record.[Who?]. Current[When?]Such announcements are no longer made because the sources of competition information are in place and there is no need to make time.
- World record list of swimming
- List of Asian records for swimming
- List of Japanese records of swimming
- List of Japanese high school records of swimming
- List of Japanese junior high school records of swimming
- List of Japanese schoolchildren's records of swimming
- List of Olympic records for swimming competitions
- Olympic swimming competition
- 水 泳
- ウ ォ ー タ ー ス ポ ー ツ
- ^ a b Japan Swimming Federation site "Swimming"
- ^ Popular sports in XNUMX Asian cities
- ^ Sports population by discipline
- ^ Japanese sports
- ^ The most common practice was "walking"
- ^ a b c d e f g History of swimming
- ^ 
- ^ Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games implementation event decided!
- ^ History of Swimming-Japan Swimming Federation
- ^ Japanese Olympic Gold Medalist
Ward(23 wards),Tama area(With 26 citiesNishitama County3 towns and 1 village) andIslands(2 towns and 7 villages). Located in the southwestern part of Kanto, with a long and narrow metropolitan area in the east and west,Tokyo BayFace.. In the westMt. KumotoriyamaTo be the highest peakKanto MountainsBecome.
Administrative agency,Financial institution,large companyAnd so on,News (Chinese)-broadcast-PublicationSuch asculturesurface,University-research InstituteSuch asEducation-AcademicIn terms of JapanCentralMake up.TransportationAlso in terms ofTrainnetwork,道路network,AirwayCenter of.Has one of the largest populations in the worldInternational metropolisIs.
In Tokyo and 7 surrounding prefecturesCapital AreaConsists of.In particularTokyo areaThe total population of (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa) has reached about 3500 million.Japanese populationOccupies about 30% of.
The area of jurisdiction isTokyo Ward(23 wards of Tokyo),Tama area(26 cities[Note 3]And 3 towns and 1 village in Nishitama district) andTokyo islands((I.e.,(I.e.,Hachijo,Ogasawara) 4 branch offices (2 towns and 7 villages).Okinotorishima,MinamitorishimaIncluding Ogasawara Islands includingJapan's southernmost and easternmost pointsに 位置 す るPrefecturesBut also. Tokyo Metropolitan (Tokyo Met.) is the English notation of Tokyo, which is officially recognized by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. There are also Tokyo Prefecture and Tokyo Metropolitan Prefecture.
populationThere are 13,957,977 people (as of April 2021, 6).This is the most populous prefecture in Japan,Japanese populationIt accounts for about 11% of.The population densityIs also the highest in the prefectures.Centered on TokyoTokyo metropolitan areaHas a population of over 3700 millionWorld's largest metropolitan areaIs.About 3% of Japan's population is concentrated,ポーランド,モロッコ,カナダIt is comparable to the total population of such countries.
Tokyo is,Edo ShogunateWas once placedEdoAndTokugawa Ieyasu OfLand use planningGreatly developed by.BakumatsuAfter the upheaval, the texts of the first year of the Meiji era began to be written as "Tokyo."1869On February 2 (January 11, 2)Heianjing(京都) To the capital ()Tokyo Shrine,List of former capitalsSee also),1878Prefectural government came into effect in (Meiji 11)TokyoIt became.Second World WarIn1943(18)May 7, Of the capitalAdministrative functionFrom the purpose of strengtheningTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentWas enforced. With this, with TokyoTokyo cityWas abolished, and in the form of integrating theseTokyoWas installed.. After the end of the war1947(Showa 22)Local government lawWith the enforcement, the Tokyo system since 1943 was abolished, but the name and administrative area of "Tokyo" have not changed. In other words, the ward established in the former Tokyo city, which was directly controlled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, is a special local public entity due to the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Law.special areaHowever, some office work and tax collection rights were retained in the city.[Note 4].. For this reason, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government still includes “23 wards.municipal officeFunction asPrefectural officeIt also has the "function as".
Of TokyoVoting bodyAsTokyo Metropolitan AssemblyIs installed. Of TokyoChief TheGovernor of TokyoIs. Its authorityLocal government lawIs defined byelectionElected by. The term of office is 4 years. As an assistant to the governorDeputy Governor of TokyoFour people will be placed.2017(HeiseiAs of April 29, the number of Tokyo Metropolitan Government employees (so-called “Tokyo Metropolitan staff”) is about 4 general administrative staff, such as governor departments.Public enterpriseDepartment (Transportation-Water supply-Sewer) Is about 1. to thisTokyo Fire DepartmentandMetropolitan Police DepartmentStaff in TokyoPublic schoolThe total number of faculty members is about 16..
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building(Main government building) is longChiyoda WardYurakuchoWas there,1991(3)May 4ToShinjuku wardNishi-ShinjukuMoved to. The regulations were revised in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law along with the relocation, and after thatNishi-Shinjuku XNUMX-chome, Shinjuku-ku, TokyoHas become.. However, "Tokyo" is used for the convenience of notation of the location of Tokyo Metropolitan Government such as maps..Geographical Survey InstituteAccording to the report, prefectures other than Tokyo use the name of the city, whereas in the case of Tokyo, 23 wards including Shinjuku ward, which is the actual location, are collectively referred to as "Tokyo".[Note 5].. Many textbooks also refer to "Tokyo" as the Geographical Survey Institute. The cause is that the special ward is not a municipality, it does not have some of the authority of the business that the municipality has, and the ward part was once a city called Tokyo city..
Japanese private sectorgraduate School 2016Announced in "Global Cities Competence Ranking""UKとニ ュ ー ヨ ー クRanked 3rd in the world after.. Research department of "Economist",Economist Intelligence Unitby2019According to the survey, Tokyo is the 7th largest city in the world as "the most livable city in the world".AsiaElected to 2nd place..Also in the United Statesthink tankAnnounced in 2020World cityIn the ranking (GCI 2020), New York, London,Paris4th in the world aftercityWas evaluated as.The United Kingdom2021 "World" announced by the institutionFinancial centerIn the Index, it was rated as the 7th largest financial center in the world and the 5th largest financial center in Asia..
TokyoCity centerWas onceEdoHits the,Edo ShogunateSince its establishment, it has been a substantial center of Japanese politics and administration.1868ToHeianjingFrom EdoImperial Palace,Prime MinisterIt is said that the capital functions such asTokyo Shrine), then EdoTokyoIt was renamed and became the capital for the purpose.Dainichi this empireIn the periodImperial CapitalAlso called.Pacific WarIn1943In TokyoTokyo cityWas merged and Tokyo became the capital again. Post-war1950To TokyoJapanese capitalSo that it can fully demonstrate its functionCapital Construction LawWas enacted in 1956.Metropolitan Area Improvement ActWas abolished with the enforcement of. In this way, due to the abolition of the Capital Construction Law, Tokyo legally lacks the ground that it is the capital of Japan.Japanese GovernmentThe official opinion and official document is that it is the capital, and the central function of Japan exists in Tokyo.2018In 2 monthMember of the House of RepresentativesSeiji Osakaquestion ofHowever, there is no law that directly stipulates that the capital is Tokyo, but I think that Tokyo is the capital of Japan is widely accepted by the general public, the government said. Was.
Also, according to the Metropolitan Area Improvement Act, Tokyo isCapital AreaThe metropolis of Tokyo's official English notation "Tokyo Metropolis" has the meaning of "capital" in addition to "major city, metropolitan area".
As mentioned above, what directly defines Tokyo as the capital isThe Constitution of JapanandJapanese lawAlthough not in the center of the capital (especiallyTokyo 23 Ward) To the Japanese governmentHouses of Parliament,Prime Minister's OfficeAnd major ministries,Supreme CourtThe central authority of the three powers, including In addition to this, there are also laws that set the institution in Tokyo.[Note 6].
The main part of Tokyo isKanto PlainLocated inTokyo BayFacing. Besides this,Izu Islands-Ogasawara IslandsThe islands are also administrative areas. This island is the southernmost tip of JapanOkinotorishimaIs the easternmost point of JapanMinamitorishimaIs also included.In the sense that the southernmost and easternmost points of Japan are included in the administrative area, the southernmost point of Japan and the easternmost point of JapanPrefecturesIt has become.
The north, south, east, and west ends of Tokyo are as follows:.. North endMt. Ohira (Chichibu district, Saitama prefecture)The west and eastern ends of the island are on Minamitorishima, and the southern and western ends are on Okinotorishima. The center of gravity obtained by putting a provisional boundary line in the prefecture boundary undetermined area without considering Okinotorishima is also shown.. AlsoStatistics BureauAccording to the 22 national census,SuginamiLocated near Narita Higashi 1-chome..Kobo is about 1,700km from the north end to the south end and about 1,900km from the west end to the east end.
|Center of gravity|
|Center of gravity|
|Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building Location||Eastern end|
|West end and South end↓|
Topography and geology
In the eastern part of the ward,Sumida River,Arakawa,Edogawa,中At the mouth ofAlluvial plainIs spreading. The ground is soft,Zero meters above sea levelNot a few. SouthernTamagawaThe area along it is also lowland. The western part of the wardMusashino PlateauIs the end of theTongue plateauIt has become a terrain with a height difference in which the plateau and the lowlands are complicated. The coastal areaLandfillHas become. LandfillTokugawa IeyasuIt started in the era ofNew sea surface disposal siteLandfill of waste and construction soil is being carried out.
In the Tama area,TamagawaAlong the lowlands along the north,Musashino Plateau, The south sideTama HillsHas become. In western TamaKanto MountainsThere is a mountain range included in.Saitama OfIruma-gunからOme,Tachikawa,Fuchu-shiIn the direction ofTachikawa faultIs confirmed to exist. Tachikawa Fault is JapanActive faultAmong theEarthquakeThe probability of occurrence of is expected to be relatively high. Besides this, Edo-TokyoSagami Trough giant earthquakeFrequent big earthquakes (Genroku Earthquake,Ansei Edo Earthquake,Great Kanto Earthquake) Has been damaged.
On the islandsIzu IslandsとOgasawara IslandsIs included. BothVolcanoIt is a volcanic island formed by activities. In the Izu Islandsactive volcanoThere are many,MiyakejimaOyama has been volcanic since 2000.Alsoizu-Oshima OfMiharaBut in 1986eruptionActivity was seen. Of the Ogasawara IslandsNishinoshimaThe area of the island is expanding due to volcanic ejecta.
23 wards for climate classification in JapanTamaEastern andIzu Islands ThePacific climate, Tama West etc.Central highland climateBelong to.Ogasawara Islands TheSouthern Japan climateIs. Characteristically, the changes of the four seasons are clear, and the weather tends to change day by day. Summers are hot and rainy, and winters are sunny and dry.Köppen climate classificationThen the whole of TokyoHumid subtropical climate (Cfa)However, since it is a world-class classification, it cannot fully explain the various climates of Tokyo.
In spring, the weather changes cyclically and there are many sunny days, but the developed low pressure system may pass through and the weather may collapse.Cold vortexUnder the influence ofthunderstormThere are times whenrainy seasonIn the season ofRainy season frontIt is covered with rain and it is easy to rain. The first half is mainly light rain, but the second half is heavy. RarelySky rainy seasonThere are also years. Summer,Pacific highIt is covered with a lot of rain, and there are many hot and sunny days, and thunderstorms are likely to occur. However, depending on the yearOkhotsk Sea HighThe weather may become cloudy and rainy.
In the first half of autumnAutumn rain frontIt makes it easier to rain. AlsotyphoonMay pass and become a storm. In the latter half, the weather changes cyclically and there are many sunny days. In winterWest High East LowThe winter typePressure patternIt is easy to get wet, and there are many days when the air is sunny and dry. From February to MarchSouth coast lowIs easier to pass throughCentimeterThere may be some snowfall. However,Tama regionIn some cases, the snowfall may be 20 cm or more.When snow piles upTransportationThe operation of may be disturbed.
- Tokyo Ward -Meteorological AgencyOpen airAccording to the observation near Otemachi where there wasHeat islandIs greatly affected.1920 eraHas been observed for about 70 days a yearWinter dayHas decreased and the number of tropical nights has more than tripled. Also, in winter, in southern KyushuKagoshima,Miyazaki CityThe lowest temperature could be higher than that.NahaNationwide excludingPrefectural office locationIn横 浜 市,Chiba,Kobe City,OsakaIt was not uncommon for the lowest temperature to be the highest along with the above. However, the maximum temperature in summer itself is not so high. On the other hand, inlandNerima-kuAMeDAS observation[Note 7]Winter days are not uncommon in the region,Shinjuku ward,Shibuya WardWinter day observations are often seen in central Tokyo. Also in Chiyoda Ward, where the weather station is located, the area near Otemachi and the Meteorological Agency depot were relocated.Kitanomaru ParkThere is a difference in the minimum temperature in winter, and the average minimum temperature in January 2012 was 1 ° C in Otemachi and 1.8 ° C in Kitanomaru Park, and the number of winter days was 0.4 days in Otemachi and 3 days in Kitanomaru Park. Is.This is the temperature from Nerima (average minimum temperature -11 ℃, 1th winter day) in January.Due to these factors, even within the same metropolitan area, it is a suburb from the inland such as Nerima Ward.Chuo-ku,Chiyoda WardIt can be seen that there is a large difference in temperature from the coastal area. further,Edogawa-kuAmedas under the name of the Edogawa seaside is also installed in the coastal area of, and the lowest temperature in winter is often lower than that in Otemachi, indicating that the heat island phenomenon of Otemachi in winter is extremely remarkable. , The temperature displayed in the weather forecast for Tokyo's wards was based on the temperature at the outdoor area of Otemachi.
- Tama region - Inland climateTherefore, the lowest temperature in winter is very different from that of Tokyo's 1 wards.The average minimum temperature in January in Fuchu is -0.8 ℃, Ome is -2.3 ℃, Hachioji is -2.0 ℃, and Okutama is -3.0 ℃, which is below freezing, and it is rare that the temperature difference from the city center is 5 ℃ or more. Absent.In winter, the low pressure on the south coast can cause heavy snowfall, often resulting in snowfall of 20 cm or more.Even if the city center is sleet or rainy, it often snows in the Tama region where the temperature is low.In particularOkutama Town,Ebara-mura,OmeIn western Tama, such as in the mountains, from around NovembersnowMay rain.
- Izu Islands - Oceanic climateAnd, the difference in temperature is small throughout the year. The average temperature in the middle of winter is around 7℃-10℃, but the climate is mild, but it is located in the northernmost part.izu-OshimaIt is not unusual for it to get colder than the central part of Tokyo due to heavy snowfall. Further southHachijojima,MiyakejimaIs warmer.
- Ogasawara Islands - JapaneseClimate classificationThen.Southern Japan climateBelongs to and is warm throughout the year.Minamitorishima TheKöppen climate classificationThen.Savanna climate It belongs to (Aw) and has the highest annual average temperature of 25.4 degrees Celsius in Japan. In Japan, there is no rainy season with Hokkaido.It is a region.
|23 wards||Tama||(I.e.||Niijima||Miyakejima||Hachijojima||Ogasawara Islands|
|east||Western part||North||Southern||Western part|
Number of days
- Tokyo Ward
In the ward,Edo Castle(Imperial Palace) As a referenceChengbei""Joto""Seongnam""Josai". The west side of the wardMusashino PlateauBecause it is the end ofYamanoteIt is also called. Urban functions are concentrated in the center of the ward.City centerIs called. The scope of “city center” does not have a uniform definition, but in the narrowest senseChiyoda Ward,Chuo-ku,Minato-kuOften referred to as the "city center 3 wards", and in a broad sense, the entire ward area is sometimes called the "city center" ("City center # city center and centerSee also).Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentThen variousLand use planningInFukutoshinHas been formulated and todayShinjuku Fukutoshin,Ikebukuro Fukutoshin,Shibuya Fukutoshin,Ueno/Asakusa Fukutoshin,Kinshicho/Kameido Fukutoshin,Osaki/Shinagawa Fukutoshin,Tokyo waterfront subcenterThe 7 locations may be called "Fukutoshin".
- Tama area
Tama areaWas onceRegulatory country OfTama-gunFrom the remnants ofSpecial WardincludeHigashitama DistrictOther thanMinamitama County,Kitama-gun,Nishitama CountyAs a general termSantamaIt may also be called.While playing a role as a commuter town in central Tokyo, some cities have offices and factories of large companies such as Hachioji, Tachikawa, and Fuchu.The Tama area is also popular with families because nature remains from the city center.During the era of the province of Japan, Musashi Kokubunji was located in Fuchu City and Musashi Kokubunji was located in Kokubunji, which was the center of economy and politics.
- Tokyo islands
On the other hand, the islands areOshima Branch""Miyake Branch""Hachijo branch office""Ogasawara Branch", but this isBranch officeHowever, the towns and villages in the area do not belong to the branch office. For example,Ogasawara VillageThe address is "Ogasawara-mura, Tokyo", not "Ogasawara-mura, Tokyo Ogasawara branch office".
Basic local government (ward municipalities)
Within the Tokyo area,Basic municipalityThere are 23 wards, 26 cities, 5 towns and 8 villages as below. All towns are read as "towns" and all villages as "mura".
Old province of Japan
In light of history,Regulatory country OfMusashi countryPart of (generallyTamagawaNorth, and generallyArakawaSouth),IzukuniThe Izu Islands, which were a part of the above, correspond to the current Tokyo area.
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAccording to the officially announced land prices, which are officially announced, Tokyo is the prefecture with the highest land prices in Japan. The average land price per Tokyo announced in 30 is 340 yen (the unit price per square meter is 2840 yen), which is the second highest in Japan.OsakaThe average price is 90 times higher than the average price per tsubo of 1015 yen and the average price per square meter of 27 yen... Tokyo's land prices are rising further ahead of the Tokyo Olympics, and the average rate of increase in 30 is 3.39% compared to the previous year at the points where the announcement was continued from the previous year. Then the 2nd and 1st place in JapanOkinawaThe land price increase rate for 30 is 5.74%).
The municipalities with the highest publicly announced land prices in Tokyo areChuo-kuThe average unit price per tsubo is 2568 yen (unit price per square meter of 4691 yen). The municipalities with the highest rate of land price increase in TokyoChuo-kuThe average rate of increase is 7.48% compared to the previous year. Second place belowShibuya Ward(Rise of 7.07%), 3rd placeTaito(The rate of increase is 6.99%).
The stations with the highest public land price in the surrounding area in TokyoGinza StationThe unit price per tsubo is 1 yen (the unit price per square meter is 1878 yen). The area around Ginza Station is the place with the highest public land price in Japan, and the announcement of the public land price is attracting attention every year. On the other hand, the stations in Tokyo that have the highest rate of increase in land pricesMeiji Jingumae StationIs. The average rate of increase is 14.83% year-on-year, exceeding the rate of increase of 11.79% around Ginza Station. Second place belowHarajuku Station(Rise of 14.47%), 3rd placeTsukiji market station(Rise of 13.51%). At Harajuku Station, a large-scale commercial and residential complex development project with a total project cost of 2020 billion yen is underway toward 550, and it is considered that this is affecting the soaring land prices..
- Chichibu City
- Niiza city
- Wako city
- Kawaguchi city
- Yashio city
- Sagamihara City(Green District-Chuo-ku-South ward）
- 横 浜 市(Aoba-ku-Green District-Seya-ku）
- Kawasaki City(Kawasaki ku-Koku-ku-Nakahara-Takatsu Ward-Tama-ku-Aso）
The population of Tokyo as of October 2015, 27 is 10 million according to the 1 Census... This is an increase of approximately 22, or 1316%, compared to the "35 million" of the 2.7 census before that..
|Population distribution by age in Tokyo and Japan (2005)||Population distribution by age and gender in Tokyo (2005)|
■Green-All over Japan
Changes in Tokyo population
|Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan|
- Senior citizens
As of 2010 (Heisei 22)Aging rateIs 20.4%, which means one in five elderly people(The elderly population is expected to continue to grow, and by 2020, one in four people living in Tokyo is expected to become elderly.).
Daytime population, nighttime population, daytime inflow population
- Daytime and nighttime population
2015As of (27)Daytime populationIs about 1592 million. On the other handNighttime populationIs 1352 million.. This is to the workplace in TokyoCommutingTo the people who go to school in TokyoCommuting to schoolIndicate that the daytime population is increasing(Some people commute from Tokyo to surrounding prefectures only in the daytime, but because the population that flows in is larger than that number, the difference is that the daytime has more than 241 million people. stay up). Tama area and Tokyo area (not adjacentIbaraki,Tochigi,Gunma(Including the southern part of)Bed townAre scattered,ShizuokaEastern partNiigataFrom the southShinkansen commutingAlso exists.
- Daytime inflow population
The daytime inflow population to the ward is1980The number of 55 million was gradually increasing in (266), and in 1995 (HeiseiPeaked at 7 million in 372 yearsAfter that, it gradually decreased to 2015 million in 27... The large number of inflowing population during the daytime means that these people are energized by performing various activities (production activity and consumption activity) in the daytime in the ward area. But at the same time,disasterSometimes in large quantitiesPeople who have difficulty returning homeIt also means that there is a risk that(Great East Japan EarthquakeAt that time, it was estimated that about 352 million people were difficult to return home in Tokyo (Cabinet OfficeEstimates based on an internet survey released by the company on November 2011, 11. Detail is"People who have difficulty returning home due to the Great East Japan EarthquakeSee article).
Second World WarIn1943May 7ToTokyo cityとTokyoWas abolished,TokyoWas installed. The first Tokyo SecretaryMinistry of InteriorFromShigeo OdateMet. Of the end of World War II1945May 3ToTokyo air raidThe downtown is burned down by theAir raidDue to the damage caused by the disaster, much of the city of Tokyo has become a "burn field". Also, of the Ogasawara IslandsIwo JimaThen.Ground warWas done and caused a lot of damage in both Japanese and US troops.
After the war, the government gave top priority to the reconstruction of the capital, Tokyo, and in the Tokyo Metropolitan War Reconstruction City Plan, there were plans to develop 34 radially extending trunk roads and 8 loop lines, as well as roads in Tokyo, but they eventually failed. It is said that1964HeldTokyo OlympicsThe postwar reconstruction ended and Tokyo wasHigh economic growthIt has made great progress as a new political and economic center of Japan.1962Tokyo's permanent population (nighttime population) surpasses an estimated 1 million for the first time in the world[Note 8], Economically violentTokyo extreme concentration, And this trend continues to accelerate even today.
Also in TokyoShinjuku-Shibuya-IkebukuroAround the terminal station in the western part of TokyoFukutoshin-DowntownWhile it rapidly developed asAsakusaThe stagnation tendency in the eastern part of the Tokyo ward, which is symbolized by the decline of the city, was a problem.Donut phenomenonDue to the1966The peak began at 810 million and began a gradual decline. on the other hand,Tama areaIn the ward, commuting to the city caused a rapid population increase,Hachioji CityとTachikawaThe number of unlisted cities has increased to 26, and the population ratio has risen.Inagi-shi-Tama City·Hachioji City·Machida-shiSpread overTama HillsToTama New TownWas built and otherwiseFarmland,MusashinoFrom the hills, forests and wildernessHousing complexThe conversion to residential areas was promoted.
1968, The Ogasawara Islands andVolcanic islandsWas returned from the United States and transferred to Tokyo.1991In ShinjukuNew Tokyo Metropolitan Government BuildingWas completed and became a new symbol of Tokyo, and Shinjuku came to be called the "new city center".1999ToShintaro IshiharaSince taking office as Governor of Tokyo,Shinagawa,Marunouchi,ShiodomeandCoastal subcenterUrban redevelopment such as the above, and the development of main roads are being promoted, but the areas are not developed and the road conditions are complicated. As it is an overcrowded city, it is being promoted by the regulations of the city etc. to make it incombustible and safe as a whole against the earthquake.
From the high economic growth period in TokyoBubble economyWages and asset prices soared significantly over the period,1980 era~ In the 1990sLand price,物 価Was at the top level in the world.1990 erafirstBubble burstLand prices have plummeted. Since 1998deflationAgainst the backdrop of falling prices and exchange rate fluctuations,2010 eraIs no longer at the world's top prices.. Land prices in Tokyo have been declining for a long time since the bubble era, but began to rise at most points around 2012..
Will be held for the second time in 2020Tokyo Olympics-ParalympicIs planned and towards thatInfrastructureAnd other capital improvements are planned to be carried out (a full-scale epidemic was confirmed from 2020)New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)Due to this, the Tokyo Games will be postponed to 2021).
Organizations in Tokyo can be broadly divided into parliament as a voting body and governor as an executive body... The parliament and the executive body are in an equal position and have a “two-person representation” relationship that checks (evaluates/monitors) each other's actions.(Check-and-balance relationship).
Organizations in Tokyo are responsible for the politics of the entire metropolitan area (metropolitan government) and the politics of cities in wards.
Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly
Voting body TheTokyo Metropolitan AssemblyIs. this isThe Constitution of JapanandLocal government lawInstalled according to.. Make up parliamentMetropolitan assemblyIs elected by the citizens of Tokyo.
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Enforcement agencyIt is,Governor of TokyoRepresented byTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentAnd its main task is to carry out projects based on the decisions of the Parliament... The term of governor of Tokyo isLocal government lawStipulated as 4 years by.. Governor of TokyoelectionElected in.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office has the functions of both the administrative agency (city hall) of the so-called ward and the general prefectural office. However, due to the progress of delegation of authority from the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to each special ward, its peculiarity has diminished and it is approaching general prefectures.
Within the regionBasic municipality(市町村) Has 26 cities, 5 towns and 8 villages. otherSpecial local governmentThere are 23 special wards. The special ward is considered to be a basic local public body that is similar to the city, and exists only in the Tokyo area in Japan. Special ward otherGovernment-designated cityThe form is very different from that of "ku". The mayor and ward council are publicly elected, and in recent years the delegation of authority from the city has progressed, and the city is almost the same as a “city”. However, the name “ward” still exists today because the residents are reluctant to change the name from the ward to the city and the delegation of remaining authority is not well organized.
In addition, in the regionLocal governmentAs a special wardSome office associationsIsSpecial ward personnel/welfare office association,Twenty-three wards of Tokyo cleaning part office association(Former: Tokyo Metropolitan Cleaning Bureau),Special Ward Horse Racing Association,市町村Partial office association (34 groups),Property wardThere are 1 property districts in 2 city and 8 towns.
Finance and business
Of Tokyofinancehow's it going,BusinessThe increase in metropolitan tax income due to the recovery ofShintaro IshiharaDue to the austerity measures under the administration by the Governor of Tokyo, the worst level around 2000 was recovered. The “hidden debt” that the general account borrows from other accounts is expected to be paid off in fiscal 2006, and the fiscal 2005 general account will be in the black for the first time in 16 years, the balance as of fiscal 2016 is balanced, and the current account is in the black doing. Debt dependence is at a minimum of 5.0% among municipalities nationwide, indicating that fiscal soundness is progressing. As of 2016, it is the only municipality in the prefecture that has not received a local allocation tax grant, and the ratio of local taxes to revenue is 74.3% (average of all prefectures: 45.1%), which is extremely high..
In the consolidation of Tokyo including special accounts and supervising organizationsliabilitiesWas the highest in the country at the end of 2004, with 16 billion yen, and the amount of debt per person was about 9508 million yen.By the end of FY2015, it was 9 billion yen, about 522 yen per Tokyo resident, which is on a downward trend. Real debt service ratio is 66.7%, future cost ratio is also low at 0.7%, maintaining a perfect financial position..
The factors that once deteriorated the consolidated financial statusThird sectorIs a financial problem. In the coastal subcenter development project promoted by Tokyo,Tokyo Teleport Center,Tokyo waterfront subcenter construction,Takeshiba regional development,Tokyo fashion town,Time twenty fourSeaside relatedThird sectorProblems such as bankruptcy of five companies occurred one after another, and the initials of the five companies were taken and called the "5T problem." Other,International Trade Center,Tokyo Seaside High Speed Rail,Tokyo subway construction(However, it was noted that the transportation infrastructure of Tokyo Seaside High-speed Railway and Tokyo Metropolitan Subway Construction is a future investment and is not a liability but a capital or subordinated bond).Also, under the initiative of Governor Ishihara中小企业Finance as a name2003(HeiseiWas established in 15 years)New Bank TokyoHas recorded a huge deficit, which requires additional investment by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.2016ToYoichi MasuzoeBy Governor of TokyoTokyo TY Financial GroupWas sold to.
WelfareAs of April 2005, there were 4 households receiving 140,848 households.
Economic and industrial
As the center of the world's third largest economy, it occupies a major position not only in the Japanese economy but also in the world economy.2014Annual gross domestic product is about 93 trillion yenAnd in JapanGDPAccount for nearly 20%. Centered around TokyoCapital AreaIs the United StatesNew York metropolitan areaAnd the world's largest economyMetropolitan areaIs.Forbes Global 2000Was ranked as the world's most populous city, with the number of world-class large corporate headquarters exceeding that of New York and London..2021According to the survey results released in March, it is the 3th largest in the worldFinancial centerIs
- Edo Period
Edo Period OfEdoIt is,Edo ShogunateAnd various daimyoClan residenceIt was established as the center of politics and was the largest consumer center in Japan. Also,currencyThen.Gold coinWas the mainstream and formed the “Edo economic zone”. However, "7 minutes of wealth in JapanOsakaThe economic center was Osaka, as it was called. Also, the tax system in the Edo period wasHeaven,Flag bookIt was mainly tax revenue from Japan, not the centralized taxation system of today.
- Meiji Restoration
Meiji government Tokyo cityHeadquartered in Tokyo, the government has concentrated its administrative functions on Tokyo in order to have national power that is stronger than the Western powers. In administration,Abandoned DomainCarrying out administrativeCentralizationThe local government was replaced by a governor resident in the local area and replaced by a prefectural governor dispatched from the central government. However, in terms of culture and economy, there were many wealthy people京都-Osaka-KobeStill had a high weight, which remained unchanged until the war regime was adopted.
- World War II
Since the Showa 10s,Wartime regimeIs created, the economicTokyo extreme concentrationStarted to strengthen. For example,Tokyo OfNews (Chinese)Company by the governmentmergerIs forced toAsahi Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers,Yomiuri notification,Nihon Keizai ShimbunOf the two companiesNational newspaperWhen,Local newspaperIsTokyo NewspaperArranged in. In addition to this, a merger of companies headquartered in Tokyo,KeihanshinWith a company headquartered inCapitalistAlso moved to Tokyo in the 10's.
After the end of World War II
Second World WarImmediately before the end of the war, Tokyo Prefecture and Tokyo City were integrated and the Tokyo system was established. From here is the economic history of Tokyo.
The integration strengthened the administrative power. The tendency of centralization and monopoly continued even after World War II.1953(Showa28 years) in FebruaryJapan Broadcasting Corporation tv setStarting from the beginning of broadcasting,Private broadcastingSome TV stations have also been established. However, with the central government of Japan aiming for monopoly information, theKey stationWas founded virtually unrecognized.
Especially during the high economic growth period1964 Tokyo OlympicsBefore and after the construction rush, the labor required for this was "Golden eggAsEast JapanCollected from various places.Bubble economyDuring this period, land prices soared in Tokyo's ward area, and a wave of "capital-oriented" rushed to rural areas. During this period, the number of people going to private universities in Tokyo increased rapidly.
Even after the collapse of the bubble economy, concentration in Tokyo's wards is accelerating. Then, as the concentration becomes faster, the head office (head office function) will be relocated to the ward of Tokyo from the local cities where many manufacturing head offices were established and from other large cities where many head offices were gathered. A tendency is emerging. as a result,GDPTokyo (including the Tama area and the Izu Ogasawara Islands) accounts for one-sixth of the total in Japan.Stock exchangeAbout 8% of securities trading inTokyo Stock ExchangeAs a result, Tokyo has become an overwhelming position in the Japanese economy.
1998(Heisei10 years)Ryutaro HashimotoImplemented by the administrationFinancial bangSince then, in TokyoShibuya Ward,Minato-kuToITCompanies are becoming more concentrated, and as a new industry, youth workforce is being absorbed in particular. In addition, existing companies have started to advance information technology, and the labor force has concentrated on the wards of Tokyo centering on intellectual workers.
そ し て,Bad debtBecause of the processing, companies resold company housing and idle land, the former Japan National Railways site was disowned by the private sector, the designated use of public land was changed, and reclaimed land could be converted to residential land. High-rise condominiums have been built one after another, mainly in the city center and coastal areas. As a result, the number of properties that have become relatively cheap due to the rise in the number of people has increased, and the number of households that have relocated from the suburbs to the city center has increased, giving the appearance of a “land bubble”.
Due to the effects of the financial big bang, etc.stock,Real estate investment trustMade a fortune in the financial sector such asMoneyAppears,Roppongi HillsSome people live in super luxury apartments such as. In this way, in TokyoYamanote LineIn the area, the attractiveness is further strengthened due to the increase in wealthy people living in the city center and the emergence of "IT Seikin". On the other hand, in contrast to the Yamanote line area where wealthy people gather, especially on the north and east sides outside the Yamanote line area,WelfareThe number of poor people who receive the disease is increasing rapidly, and the polarization is becoming more prominent.
Those who commute from other areas to Tokyo's ward areas are "Citizens of Tokyo" (Example:Ibaraki residents). Also, if you live in the Tama area or commute to the Tokyo ward from the area,Tama TominSometimes called. When land prices soared during the bubble economy, the commuting area to Tokyo wasUtsunomiyaFrom the westNumazuIt was expanded until it was said "from". In recent years, the phenomenon of returning to the central part of the city has also occurred.
From reflections on excessive concentration,Capital function relocationWas discussed. However, the debate over the transfer of the capital function has been substantially suspended due to the financial crisis, and the redevelopment of central areas such as Chiyoda Ward and Minato Ward has recently taken place.Return to the city centerCan be seen. In terms of economy, there are some companies that move as the headquarters function does not need to be located in Tokyo due to the development of information and communication infrastructure, but this is a small number.
In response to this situation in TokyoEarthquakeSuch asNatural disastersIf that happens, the Japanese economy could be hit hard. In addition, it invades every 75 yearsKanto earthquake(Tokai earthquakeIt is expected that a direct type different from the above) will occur in the near future, and there is growing concern over the excessive mono-centric concentration in Tokyo.
Average annual income by academic distinction
Yamanote LineInside ofLand priceTends to be high, inside the Yamanote lineAverage annual income by academic distinctionHighestRegion TheMinamiyama Nanzan Elementary School1409 million yen in the school district, Ota Ward outside the Yamanote LineDenenchofuIt is 1016 million yen in the school district of the elementary school.
The composition ratio of Tokyo's total production by industry isPrimary industryIs 0.4%,Secondary industryIs 18.1%,Tertiary industryIs 81.5% (FY2016). In this way, the percentage of primary industry is extremely low, that of tertiary industry is extremely high, and the percentage of service industry, wholesale industry, and retail industry is high. EspeciallyMediaHas most of the major Japanese companies in Tokyo.
In Tokyo, there are many head offices of major companies and the head offices of Japanese corporations of foreign companies.Business world3 major economic groups called (Japan Business Federation,Keizai Doyukai,Japan Chamber of Commerce) Headquarters is also located. From this point, Tokyo can be regarded as a “headquarters economic city” whose economy is made up by the existence of the head office.[Note 9].. In addition, since Tokyo's wards are also central cities in the Kanto region, the headquarters located in Tokyo often serve as the "Kanto branch office" or "Kanto branch" covering the entire Kanto area. Therefore, TokyoBranch economy cityIt also has the aspect.
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries
The cultivated area of Tokyo is 7330 hectares (2015,Ministry of Agriculture）[Note 10]And it is the lowest in the whole country.However, the cultivated land ratio isKochi-OsakaMore than that.Agricultural land is concentrated in the Tama area[Note 11], Agricultural land in the 11 wards is shrinking year by year.Some areas have no agricultural land, and in the XNUMXth arrondissement, where there are central and sub-centersAgricultural cooperativeIs not organized[Note 12]..In Tokyo, due to its geographical characteristics close to large consumption areas,Vegetables-Fruit tree-flowersIs mainly produced,Komatsuna,SpinachIs the main product. Especially Komatsuna,Tokyo Central Wholesale MarketAccount for 32.5% (2000, Tokyo) of the total amount In the old daysNerima DaikonWas a special product, but nowadayscabbageHas been replaced by, and is not much produced. AlsoChestnutThe production volume of is 8th in the whole country, and all 7 prefectures in Kanto (Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa) are in the top 10 production of chestnuts in the whole country... on the other hand,RiceIs the only prefecture in Japan designated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.Origin variety brandExcept for direct sales by producers, it is not possible to sell rice with the notation "rice produced in Tokyo", but production of specific brands such as "Edokko" in Ome City is carried out on a small scale.[Note 13].
The number of producers in the livestock industry is decreasing year by year due to the rapid progress of urbanization, but the producers are trying to strengthen their management structure by taking advantage of the advantageous condition that they are close to large consumption areas.FoundationThe Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Promotion Foundation and the Ome Livestock Center (formerly Tokyo Metropolitan Livestock Experiment Station) are working hard to develop new varieties.Ed[Note 14]""TOKYO X"(BothDream Pork), "Tokyo Spider"(Game chicken), "Tokyo"(Cow bone chicken) Is being developed. Above all, "TOKYO X"brandIs becoming more and more recognized. In recent years, in Chitose Karasuyama of Setagaya WardLandscaping shop-It was broadcast on TV that Yoshimien breeds TOKYO X with medium-sized pigs. Originally, Yoshimien was a farmer and is still a rare part-time farmer who raises livestock in the 23 wards. (In addition to TOKYO X, we also do chicken raising at Yoshimien. We introduced TOKYO X on TV with Celebut (celeb) because the location is close to a high-class residential area.)Nerima-kuThere is a dairy farmer who runs a dairy farm in Oizumi Gakuen Town, and Tama produced in Tokyo.Wagyu beefThere are also fattening farmers. (All appear in national news)
Forestry is declining due to factors such as lower timber prices, higher forestry operating costs, and the aging of forestry workers. The forest area of Tokyo accounts for about 36.0% of the total area of Tokyo. Especially in the western part of the Tama area,Akiruno,Ome,Okutama Town,Hachioji City,Hinode Town,Ebara-muraAnd so onCedar,CypressAlthough there are many mountain forests consisting of, etc., forest degradation is progressing, which is also an environmental problem. Especially, the large amount of cedar pollen generated every year from the forests of Okutama ishay feverAs a cause of this, it has a great adverse effect on the lives of the residents.
The fishing industry is one of the major industries in the islands. OnceTokyo BayIs "EdomaeCalled the "sea ofEdomae sushiIt was a fishing ground that became the origin of the word. The current center of the fishing industry is the islands,izu-Oshimanear,HachijojimaA large amount of fish is caught in the nearby waters. As a type,bonito,Chicken wicker,Horse mackerelThere are many,KusayaThere are also special products like dried fish.
Also in the Tama regionRainbow troutThe land-sealed trout are being cultivated.GoldfishIs a fish pond in Edogawa Ward,Katsushika Mizumoto ParkOn the former site of the former Fisheries Experimental StationAquacultureIt is carried out.
Tokyo isChiyoda Ward,Chuo-ku,Minato-ku,Shinjuku wardSo-calledoffice StreetHeadquarters of many major manufacturing industries representing Japan are located in.Keihin Industrial AreaBecause it is also a corner ofTokyo BayOffices mainly in coastal areas (工場) Gathers a lot. EspeciallyOta-kuIn the so-calledSmall factoryThere are many. In the Tama areaHino city,Fuchu-shi,Hachioji City,Hamura,Mizuho,OmeThere are also many large-scale business establishments in these areas, and the value of product shipments in these areas is also large.However, the manufacturing industry in Tokyo has been on a rapid decline over the last few decades.The number of establishments continued to decrease from 1983 in 9, to 7646 in 2008 and 4 in 0137 when the survey method changed, a decrease of almost 2015%.The number of employees also exceeded 2 million in 7142, from 7 in 1975 to 100 in 1983 and 94 in 4074, more than 2008% in 40 years. Was reduced.The value of manufacturing and shipment began to decrease from 4917 billion yen in 2015, and in 29 it was 6132 billion yen, a decrease of about 40%...The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Economy, Labor and Welfare has said that high land prices and stricter environmental measures due to past pollution have outweighed the convenience of transportation and caused the manufacturing industry to flow out of Tokyo. It is analyzed that the relocation is accelerating the relocation of small and medium-sized factories outside Tokyo.
As a manufacturing field,Print, Information and communication equipment,leather,Precision machineryThe number of products shipped in these fields is the highest in Japan (1, Tokyo). Besides this,Electric machine,Transport machinery, The shipment amount of general machinery is large.
The commercial value of Tokyo's commerce is 19 billion yen (4627, Tokyo), which accounts for 2001% (the same) of Tokyo's total production, which is the second highest after the service industry. Tokyo has a large share of Japanese commerce, with 23.0% of establishments, 10.5% of employees, and 14.3% of sales (Tokyo, 32.2). Both are number one in Japan.
In particularWholesale tradeThe number of establishments is 15.2%, the number of employees is 22.6%, and the sales amount is 38.7% (the same). The feature is that the sales amount is larger than the number of business establishments and employees, indicating that many business establishments handle large amounts.Retail tradeThe number of establishments is 9.2%, the number of employees is 10.2%, and the sales amount is 12.4% (same). Comparing the wholesale business and retail business in Tokyo, the number of business establishments in the retail business is significantly higher than that in the wholesale business, but the sales amount accounts for the overwhelming proportion of the sales amount, and the wholesale business also handles it. It is shown that many establishments have large sums.
The wholesale business in Tokyo has 57,653 establishments and sales of 159 billion yen (9582, Tokyo).In terms of the number of business establishments, there are many small business establishments with 2002 or less employees, but large-scale business establishments with 30 or more employees account for an overwhelming ratio of about five-eighths.There are many offices especially in Chuo Ward.By industry sub-category, machinery and equipment wholesale trade accounts for 100 billion yen (same as above), followed by various product wholesale trade, building materials, mineral and metal materials wholesale trade, and food and beverage wholesale trade. Continue.In the machinery and equipment wholesale business, more than half of the electrical machinery and equipment wholesale business accounts for.Although the number of business establishments is very small at 8, the sales value of various product wholesalers is 5 billion yen, indicating that there are very large-scale business establishments.
The retail industry in Tokyo has 119,016 shops and sales amount of 16 billion yen (Tokyo, 7460). The number of shops is large in the ward area, and the ratio to the sales amount is also large. Especially in Chuo Ward, Shinjuku Ward, Shibuya Ward, etc.Department store,Consumer electronics store, Various specialty stores are concentratedDowntownThe sales amount is large in some areas.
Tokyo is not only Japan but also one of the best in the worldFinancial center.Tokyo Stock ExchangeIs important in the worldStock exchangeThere is also a market for stocks and financial products.With the expansion of the functions of the Tokyo head office one after another by companies originating in the Kansai regionOsaka Stock ExchangeThe two exchanges merged in 2013 in response to social changes that have become less important.Japan Exchange GroupWhen the company was launched, the conventional competitive relationship was reformed, and while some highly specialized transactions were consolidated on the Osaka Exchange, the Tokyo Stock Exchange established a vertical division of labor system for intensive general stock trading. It has an overwhelming advantage in the domestic securities market.
Tokyo, JapanCentral BankBarrelBank of JapanIn addition to the main store,Resona BankとSaitama Resona Bankexcept forCity bankHead office,Japan Post BankHead office, majorSecurities company, MajorInsurance company,Trust bankHeadquarters or Tokyo headquarters is located. Also,Citigroup,Hong Kong Shanghai Bank,Allianz,AIGThe head office and the Tokyo branch of Japanese financial institutions other than Japan are also in the special ward.
Britishthink tankHas announced According to (GFCI), it is ranked third in the world in the ranking announced in March 2021...On the other hand, it is formed in these financial institutions and securities markets.Tokyo financial marketLost its absolute position in Asia, especially under the influence of the economic power of the People's Republic of China, which became prominent in the 21st century, and became Shanghai, Beijing, and Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China. ,MoreoverAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsRegional competition with Singapore and other countries, which also benefit from the economic growth of (ASEAN) countries, is intensifying.
Kodansha,Shogakukan,ShueishaMany nationwide publishers, such as, have a head office/editing room in the Tokyo ward area.Okayama CityHeadquartered inBenesse Corporation,KitakyushuHeadquartered inZenrinAre rare exceptions. WholesaleTohanとDaily salesIt is a duopoly by two companies. Tohan has recently become a logistics hubSaitamaOkegawaMoved to.
The real estate industryMitsui Fudosan,Mitsubishi EstateThe head office of a major real estate company is located.Especially Mitsubishi Estate is on the west side of Tokyo StationMarunouchiAn eight-story building completed in February 7, seven months before the Great Kanto Earthquake, the landowner of the district.Marunouchi BuildingWas described as "the tallest building in the Orient" and was built on this site in 2007.Marunouchi BuildingIs also called the "Marunouchi Building" along with the old building, and is one of the representative buildings in Tokyo.
In Tokyo, there is a lot of demand for office buildings, stores, condominiums, etc.Marunouchi,Nihonbashi,RoppongiFor example, large-scale development is in progress.Bubble economyReal estate prices, which overheated during the period, fell sharply after the collapse, but in recent years, overseas investors are also investing in real estate, and in response to this, transactions have become active.
Life and transportation
Of TokyoPolicemenAsMetropolitan Police DepartmentThere is. Since the Metropolitan Police Department has jurisdiction over the capital city of Tokyo, it has the character of not only the police of the municipality but also the capital police.
Installed by the city and has jurisdiction over TokyoFireThere is the Tokyo Fire Department. However, municipalities other than Inagi City and the islands have outsourced fire to the Tokyo Fire Department.
Tokyo International Airport is also called Haneda Airport,Ota-kuIn the south. It is the largest airport in Japan and one of the largest in the world. May 1978Narita International AirportAfter the opening of the port, most of the domestic flights are in Japan, but the new international terminal building was completed in October 2010. Due to the close distance to the city center,Government machineIn addition, special aircraft of foreign governments used by state-class passengers often use Tokyo International Airport. As a means of transportation with the city centerTokyo MonorailとKeikyu CorporationGoes directly under the terminal,Limousine busConnects to major stations in Tokyo, major hotels, and major stations in neighboring prefectures.Other route busesTaxiContact means such as are also used.
International flights other than those departing from Tokyo International Airport,ChibaNarita CityIt is inNarita International AirportDeparts and arrives from. At the time of opening the port, the means of contact with Tokyo wasEast Kanto ExpresswayNarita Airport Station at the time (currently:Higashi-Narita Station)Keisei Electric Railway OfSkylinerWas limited to1991Directly under the airport terminal from MarchEast Japan RailwayKeisei Electric Railway came in, and the contact situation improved. However, it may still take about an hour from the center of Tokyo, so in July 1Narita High Speed Rail AccessOpened.
In the Tama areaChofu AirfieldThere,New Central Airlines Izu IslandsOperates a small number of regular flights. Other airports are island airports.izu-OshimaIt is inOshima AirportHas regular flights to Chofu Airfield and Hachijojima Airport.Miyakejima AirportHas regular flights to Chofu Airfield.Hachijojima AirportHas regular flights to Haneda Airport.Niijima AirportとKozushima AirportOperates regular flights to Chofu Airfield.Ogasawara IslandsThere is no airport in the country, causing controversy over whether to build an airport to improve traffic conditions or prioritize nature conservation.
Also, in the Izu IslandsTokyo Air Land ShuttleIs in service.
The number of stations in Tokyo is 654, which is the most in all prefectures in Japan and more than 522 stations compared to Hokkaido (100 stations), which has the largest area.
It is one of the best infrastructures in the world.
The wards of TokyoEast Japan Railway OfYamanote Line Circular drivingThe roads are lined up in a circle.Tokyo Station,Ueno Station,Ikebukuro Station,Shinjuku Station,Shibuya Station,Shinagawa StationEach station such as each railway lineNoduleToTerminal stationIs functioning as. The east side of the Yamanote lineKeihin Tohoku Line,Yokosuka/Sobu Rapid Line とUeno Tokyo Line(Tokaido Line-Utsunomiya Line-Takasaki Line-Joban Line) But on the west sideSaikyo LineとShonan Shinjuku LineRun side by side. Inside the Yamanote lineChuo Line Rapid,Chuo/Sobu LineIn addition,Tokyo subwayとToei SubwayThe 13 subway lines run by are lined up in all directions. 10 subways are mutualDirect operationIn addition to the Tama area, direct trains run all day to Saitama, Chiba, and Kanagawa prefectures.
Record the number one passenger in the worldShinjuku StationIs the western part of the city (Shinjuku Fukutoshin) Is the central station, besides the Chuo LineKeio LineとOdakyu Odawara LineConnects the station with the Tama area. It is the gateway to TokyoTokyo Station TheTokaido Shinkansen,Tohoku ShinkansenIt is the starting point of the Shinkansen includingSpecific city areaandTokyo Yamanote LineIt is said to be the central station.
Headquarters located in the Kanto regionMajor private railwayTrains from all nine companies enter the 9 wards, eight of which have their own routes.In addition to the Tokyo subway, where most of the route network is located in the wards due to the history of establishment and route construction,Odakyu Electric Railway,Keio Electric Railway,Keikyu Corporation,Keisei Electric Railway,Seibu Railway,Tokyu Corporation,Tobu RailwayEach company's line enters the ward area, and most of the main lines are connected to the Yamanote line. Meanwhile,Tobu Isesaki LineAlthough it is a long line with business kilometers exceeding 100 kilometers, it does not have a connecting station on the Yamanote line, but in 1962Kitasenju StationVia the subway Hibiya Line (current:Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line) And mutual direct operation have been started to ensure convenience.Kita-Senju Station has the largest number of passengers in the 5 wards where the Yamanote Line does not pass, and XNUMX lines including the same line can be used.The only major private railway company that does not have its own route in TokyoSagami RailwayOpened in 2019Sotetsu/JR direct lineI was able to get on to Shinjuku station.Besides this,Third sector railwayOpened asMetropolitan New City Railway TheTsukuba ExpressOperateAkihabara StationIt has become one of the radial railway networks.
While the "radiation system" is being enhanced, the situation is lacking in north-south railway lines in the east-west area across the Yamanote Line.Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line OfToyosu StationFrom the sameHanzomon Line OfSumiyoshi StationUntilBranch lineTo growOf the "ring system"Metro seven,Eight linerThere is a concept such as.
The Tama area has a particularly large number of transport personnel on the Chuo Line, which connects directly to Tokyo Station and Shinjuku Station.Keio Inokashira LineConnect toKichijoji Station,Nambu LineとOme LineConnect toTachikawa Station,Yokohama LineとHachiko LineConnect toHachioji StationEach has its own downtown area. On the north side of the Chuo LineSeibu Shinjuku LineとSeibu Haijima Line, On the south sideKeio LineとKeio Takao LineRun side by side, and in each case the track extends toward Shinjuku. On the other hand, there are few routes that cross the Chuo Line,Musashino LineとTama city monorail lineCan be mentioned. Adjacent to Kanagawa PrefectureMachida StationIs one of the leading terminal stations in the Tama area, but the stations before and after it are sandwiched between Kanagawa prefectures, and the Odakyu Odawara Line is responsible for access to the Shinjuku area.From Machida city to the north side of the Odakyu lineKeio Sagamihara Line, On the south sideTokyu Denentoshi LineAre running in parallel.Central station of Tama New TownTama Center StationWith the Keio Sagamihara LineOdakyu Tama LineGet in.Both lines are competing with trains that run directly to Shinjuku Station throughout the day.
For medium-capacity transportation that operates in Tokyo,Tokyo Monorail Haneda Airport Line,Yurikamome,Nippori Toneri Liner, Tama city monorail line,Toden Arakawa Line,Tokyu Setagaya LineIt is responsible for commuting to work and school and airport access.In addition, there are some routes with a transportation volume and operating distance that are not much different from those of medium-capacity transportation on ordinary railways, which are mass transportation, but all of them are operated as being closely related to the lives of local residents.
In Tokyo and its surrounding areasShuto ExpresswayIs being built. Downtown areaInner city loop lineとCentral loop lineIt is surrounded by a double circular line of, and in the form that penetrates these circular lines,No. 1 Haneda Line,No. 2 Meguro LineRadiation such as that extends from the central part of the city toward the outer periphery. Most of these radiations areEast Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.andCentral Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.Managed byhighwayConnected with. Other in TokyoHigh standard highway-Regional high standard roadIt is,Shintakiyama HighwayExceptEast Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.andCentral Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.Is in control.There is no service area on the expressways in Tokyo.
Route buses in Tokyo are operated by dividing the business area between company stations to some extent, and there is relatively little competition or joint operation of routes as seen in other prefectures. In the Joto areaTobu Bus,Keisei BusHowever, in the Johoku area, Tobu Bus,Seibu Bus,Kokusai Kogyo BusBut the Josai areaKeio Bus,Odakyu Bus,Seibu Bus,Kanto busHowever, in the Jonan area, Keio Bus, Odakyu Bus,Tokyu bus,Keikyu BusBusinesses such as operate a number of routes. Keio Bus, Odakyu Bus, Seibu Bus, etc. in the Kitatama area, Toei Bus in the Nishitama area,West Tokyo Bus,Tachikawa BusHowever, in the Minamitama area, Keio Bus, Odakyu Bus,Kananaka BusEtc. are operating. Some islands in the Izu/Ogasawara Islands have public or private bus services. In addition, in some ward municipalitiesCommunity busHowever, both are outsourced to operators such as buses and taxis, and the local government does not operate them.
The common commuter buses in Tokyo's ward and Musashino, Mitaka, Chofu, and Komae cities have a flat-fare system with front and back stops, but the fare is different for Toei and private buses. The method of boarding a community bus differs depending on the vehicle used, but it uses a flat-rate system. The rest of the area basically adopts a fare system for getting on and off the bus before and after the ride, but some routes also have a free ride system.
In Tokyo, as a welfare business for the elderlyTokyo Silver PassIs issued by the Toei Subway, Toei Bus, Toden, Nippori Toneri Liner, and other companies' route buses operating in Tokyo (excluding some). Long-distance busesTokyo Station,Shinjuku StationFrom large-scale terminal stations such as, there are many routes to various parts of Honshu in addition to the Kanto area.
Tokyo PortIs one of the major ports in JapanSuper central portReceived the designation ofYokohama port,Kawasaki PortIt supports the economic activities of the Keihin industrial area as "Keihin Port" integrated with.In the port of TokyoTakeshiba wharfThere is a passenger terminal in the area, from hereIzu IslandsToTokai KisenBut,Ogasawara IslandsToOgasawara ShippingHas entered service and has become a transportation hub connecting the wards and islands.In addition, the coastal area handles ferries and freighters on domestic long-distance routes.Tokyo Port Ferry TerminalIn addition, it opened in 2020Tokyo International Cruise TerminalThe aim is to attract international cruise ships, but it is idle due to the postponement of the Tokyo Olympics due to the new coronavirus problem and immigration restrictions for foreigners.In addition, although the route from Tokyo Bay to the Sumida River is maintained mainly for sightseeing purposes, most of the waterway networks of rivers and canals that spread to the eastern part of the former Tokyo city were reclaimed by debris disposal during postwar reconstruction. The use of inland waterways in Tokyo is very limited compared to Osaka.
Medical and welfare
- Higher education
Tokyo Public University CorporationManages the operation of higher education institutions in Tokyo,Tokyo Metropolitan University,Industrial Technology Graduate University,Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial TechnologyIs installed.The current Tokyo Metropolitan University was established in April 2005 as "Tokyo Metropolitan University" by integrating four metropolitan universities, but was renamed in 4 and closed in March 4.Tokyo Metropolitan UniversityIs another university with a different legal personality. Graduate School of Industrial Technology, April 2006Professional graduate schoolIt was opened as a university.
In addition, in TokyoTokyo Roku UniversityAnd many otherNational university,Public university,private university,Junior college,College of technologyHas its headquarters.Also,Japanese school at a foreign universityIs also installed in Tokyo.on the other hand,Koreans in JapanMain purpose is ethnic educationKorean schoolHigher education institutionKorean UniversityIs also installed in Kodaira City, but this is under the Japanese education systemVarious schoolsIs treated as.In addition, ChristianSeminaryThere are also higher education institutions in Tokyo that provide specialized education in the form of miscellaneous schools.
- high school
Metropolitan High SchoolThere are 2015 schools as of 188. However, due to the decrease in the number of students in recent years, Tokyo Metropolitan High Schools have been closed and many schools and departments have been merged (not absorbed or merged with the remaining schools, but newly built after the closures). In addition, part-time high schools once had courses in many high schools, but the number has decreased due to integrated and closed courses,Machida High SchoolThere is also a large-scale part-time course with more than 400 enrolled students.
In addition, both public high schools and private high schools are very large in Tokyo.
MediaOf the various news media called nationwide, more than 95% of the companies cover the whole country are headquartered in Tokyo.
tv setabout,NHK,Key stationCalled "Nippon Television Network,TBS TV,Fuji Television,TV Asahi,Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd. OfPrivate broadcasting5 stations are in KantoWide area broadcastingAnd disseminates information all over Japan by placing TV stations in each region under the affiliate.The capitalBroadcast target areaToPrefectural broadcastAs a station,Tokyo Metropolitan Television There is (TOKYO MX).
radioThere is a similar situation inTBS Radio,Nippon Cultural Broadcasting, Inc.,Nippon Broadcasting System, Inc.Is the key station,NHK No. 1-Second broadcastIncluding, Kanto wide area broadcasting is carried out.In addition, the broadcast target area including the area around the cityTo whatInter FMHowever, as a prefecture broadcasting station J-WAVE,FM Tokyo There is (TOKYO FM). Other,U.S. ForcesIs broadcast by AFN Yokota baseIt is done from within.
These prefectural broadcasting stations, including those located in neighboring prefectures,SpilloverIs large,Kanto PlainSince there are broadcasting stations that receive radio waves in almost all areas, each station is conducting programming in consideration of them.
News (Chinese)InNational newspaperIs headquartered.Asahi ShimbunとMainichi ShimbunWas established in Osaka in the early 1870s of the Meiji era, and then entered Tokyo in the form of an existing paper acquisition, but more than a century has passed since the entry, and the Asahi Shimbun has become the headquarters function.Tokyo Head OfficeThe Mainichi Shimbun, which is centralized in Japan and continues the regional headquarters systemTokyo Head OfficeHas a great influence.On the other hand, it boasts the largest circulation in the world.Yomiuri ShimbunAnd has a paper structure specializing in economic informationNihon Keizai ShimbunWas first published in Tokyo in the 1870s,Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Head OfficeとNihon Keizai Shimbun Tokyo Head OfficeBoth have the core functions of their respective companies.On the other hand, before the war, it was a leading paper in Tokyo.Miyako ShimbunHas its headquarters in Nagoya after the transition during and after the warChunichi ShimbunBecame under the umbrella ofChunichi Shinbun Tokyo HeadquartersIs a newspaper that it publishesTokyo NewspaperThe only one in Tokyo that publishes many unique articles that take regional characteristics into consideration.Block paperIt is published as.In addition, English newspapers and various industry newspapersSpecialty paperMost of them are published by the XNUMX wards of Tokyo, both major newspapers and independent newspapers.
Spoken in central Tokyodialect(Tokyo dialect) Is YamanoteMountain hand wordAnd downtownEdo languageIt was broadly divided into (Shitamachi language), of which Yamate language became the mother body of standard language (common language). After that, the number of people moving up to Tokyo and the outflow of residents from the center of the city (doughnutization phenomenon) caused the traditional Tokyo dialect to decline, and the difference between the Yamanote language and the downtown language diminished.Metropolitan dialectHas become dominant. Also, in the Tama regionTama valve, On the islandsNorthern Izu Islands dialect-Hachijo dialect-Ogasawara dialectThere is. The Hachijo dialect is known as a dialect that retains the image of the ancient Eastern dialect, and is considered to be the most peculiar dialect of the mainland Japanese dialect.
Entertainment, street performance
Since 2002 in TokyoStreet artCertified system of peopleHeaven artistIf you are certified as “passed” in a test demonstrating the performance in front of the Governor of Tokyo, you will call yourself a “Heaven Artist” and put up that panel at a metropolitan park etc. You will be able to do performances without being driven away.
Ukiyo-eMost of the painters were active in Edo.Rakugo TheAboveIt originated, but in the latter half of the Edo period, it was the center of many performances in Edo.The theater tradition isJapanese movieIt also became the basis of.
In addition,Comic,ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ンThere are many writers who have been active in Tokyo, and modern Tokyo is "maniac culture" and "NerdIt has become a global source of "culture".In addition, rather than Tokyo in generalAkihabara,Koganei(WorldwideStudio GhibliLocation),NishitokyoThere are some particularly concentrated areas and prominent places, such as (there are many production companies such as the studio of "Doraemon").
Like rakugo, it originated upwards, but at the end of the 17th centuryGenroku cultureSince then, it has been overwhelmingly popular among the common people of Edo.kabukiHas maintained its momentum as one of the representative entertainment fields of Japanese traditional culture since the Meiji era, and the first generation is now in 1899.Chuo-kuCompleted inKabukizaAnd 1913ShochikuThe modernization was promoted in the period of seizing the management right by.Kabuki continues to be popular even today through the reconstruction of Kabuki-za and the advancement into movies and television, after the Kabuki-za was burned down by the bombing of Tokyo and the performance was restricted by GHQ after the war.On the other hand, I rebelled against this Shochiku KabukiForward seat,Proletarian literatureAffected byTsukiji small theaterfollowed byLiterary Theater,ActorSuch asNew schoolThe theater companies were active even after the war, and against the backdrop of the upsurge of the student movement in the 1960s.Underground play,Small theaterIn Tokyo in the 2010sMinato-kuHamamatsu TownDevelop a large-scale commercial theater based in a dedicated theaterTroupe four seasonsWhile activeSetagayaShimokitazawa OfHonda TheaterIn, various theater activities are being developed, such as small theater groups taking turns performing.
- Folk song
- Local song
1964ToThe 18nd Olympic GamesWas opened,2021Again, with Tokyo as the host city,The 32nd Olympic GamesWill be held[Note 15]..This 2021 Olympics and its followers2020 Tokyo ParalympicsThen it was built in Shinjuku Ward and Shibuya WardNational StadiumIs the main stadium, and in addition to the reuse of each facility constructed at the 1964 convention, each facility in the coastal area,Chofu City OfTokyo Stadium (Ajinomoto Stadium)Or adjacentMusashino no Mori Comprehensive Sports PlazaEach facility newly established in will also be used.
Japan Baseball OrganizationIn (NPB) as of 2021Central League OfYomiuri GiantsとTokyo Yakult Swallows2 teams in Tokyo's XNUMX wardsFranchiseAnd especiallyBunkyo ku OfTokyo DomeYomiuri Giants based inSumida-kuFromSadaharu OhIs also the main playerNagashima ShigeoWith from 1965 to 1973No. 9 in Japan for XNUMX consecutive yearsIt has gained nationwide popularity due to its achievements and the influence of past terrestrial television broadcasts.Japan Professional Soccer LeagueIn (J League)FC TokyoとTokyo Verdy 1969Is based in the above Tokyo Stadium (Ajinomoto Stadium) and covers the entire area of Tokyo.home townBesidesMachida-shiPerform limited activitiesFC Machida ZelviaAs a whole, activities in the Tama area are flourishing.It has its origins in the 18th century during the Edo period as a competition before ancient times and as a current organization.Grand SumoIn 1925, the Tokyo side (Edo sumo) integrated the Osaka side (upper sumo).Japan Sumo AssociationBecame the only national organization since its inauguration, and after many twists and turns, in 1984Sumida-kuCurrentRyogoku KokugikanIs being built on its own.
Besides this,Japan Olympic Committee, The former Japan Sports Association changed its nameJapan Sports Association, And most of the sports competition organizations affiliated with the association are headquartered in Kyoto Ward, since 18 when the 1964th Olympic Games were held.Kishi Memorial Gymnasium, From 32 ahead of the 2019nd OlympicsJAPAN SPORT OLYMPIC SQUAREAnd all are concentrated in the facilities in Shibuya Ward[Note 16].
Coat of arms/symbol mark
Coat of arms
In December, 22Tokyo City CouncilWhat was decided as a city mark in Tokyo was taken over by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government when the government administration took effect on July 18, 7. The design shows that the sun shines in six directions, wishing for the development of Tokyo, and symbolizing Tokyo as the center of Japan..
It means that the "T" of Tokyo is hidden in the center, and it is the tree of the city.stomachIt is said that it was not in the shape of a leaf.
In October 2015 as part of the Tokyo brand strategyYoichi MasuzoeThe "& TOKYO" logo was formulated by the Governor of Tokyo.United StatesNew York Cityof"I love new york", etc.madder red,Mauve,Branch color,Matsuba color,Dark colorThe five traditional colors of Tokyo express the history and diversity of Tokyo, where tradition and innovation are fused. By putting various words before the "&", various people who are active in Tokyo can enjoy the charm of Tokyo. The concept is to be able to express value, feelings for Tokyo, and each activity.However, he took office in 5.Yuriko KoikeGovernor Koike says that the “Tokyo Brand Appraisal Committee”, which is a gathering of experts, has not penetrated despite spending ¥28 billion, and Governor Koike suggests a revision..
Tokyo is 12 cities around the worldSister cityConclude relationships and engage in a wide variety of exchanges such as sports, environment, and culture.. In addition, the city is not limited to sister-friendly cities, and it will promote bilateral urban diplomacy by selecting cities that should strategically establish exchange relationships..
|America-New York City||1960|
|Australia-New South Wales||1984|
|South Korea-Seoul Special City||1988|
|Indonesia-Special Capital Region of Jakarta||1989|
|Brazil-State of Sao Paulo||1990|
|The United Kingdom-UK||2015|
Cities that have signed exchange and cooperation agreements
|ベルギー-Brussels metropolitan area||2016|
|America·City of Los Angeles||2018|
A work set in Tokyo
- ^ Adjacent across the sea.
- ^ As mentioned below, Shinjuku is a special ward,Tokyo 23 Ward,TokyoIt may be written as.
- ^ Also called "Tama 26 City".Tokyo City Council/26 cities in Tama
- ^ As an example, municipalities canFire-Water supplyThe offices were set up by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government within the 23 wards of Tokyo.Tokyo Fire Department,Tokyo Metropolitan Waterworks BureauIs going. Also, it is usually a municipal taxProperty taxIn the Tokyo metropolitan area, the city tax is collected by the city, and after the city collects it collectively, based on the “Tokyo Metropolitan Government Finance Adjustment System” established by the Local Autonomy Law, It is distributed to the special ward.
- ^ However, the specific response may differ for each publisher or even for the same publisher, but for each map.Heibonsha Map Publishing Where is the capital of Tokyo?
- ^ Impeachment court,Judge Prosecution Committee,National Printing Bureau,Statistics CenterHeadquarters,National ArchivesHeadquarters,National Hospital OrganizationHeadquarters,Product Evaluation Technology InfrastructureHeadquarters,Labor Force Labor Management Organization, etc.Headquarters,Bank of JapanHead office,Workers' retirement allowance mutual aid organizationHeadquarters,Employment Support System for Elderly/Disability/Job SeekersHeadquarters,Welfare Medical OrganizationHeadquarters,Labor Policy Research and Training OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan External Trade OrganizationHeadquarters,Nuclear Safety Infrastructure OrganizationHeadquarters,International Tourism Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,Car accident prevention mechanismHeadquarters,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices AgencyHeadquarters,National Institute of Information and Communications TechnologyHeadquarters,National Youth Education Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,National Cultural Property OrganizationHeadquarters,Information Processing Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Expressway Ownership and Debt Repayment OrganizationHeadquarters,Pension fund management operationHeadquarters,National College of TechnologyHeadquarters,University Evaluation and Degree Conferring OrganizationHeadquarters,Petroleum Natural Gas/Metallic Mineral Resources OrganizationHeadquarters,Agriculture and Livestock Industry Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan International Cooperation AgencyHeadquarters,New Energy and Industrial Technology Development OrganizationHeadquarters,SME Infrastructure Development OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Aerospace Exploration AgencyHeadquarters,Japan Pension ServiceHeadquarters,Housing Finance AgencyHeadquarters,Postal Saving Simple Life Insurance Management/Post Office Network Support OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Expressway Ownership and Debt Repayment OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Central Horse RacingHeadquarters,Japan trade insuranceHeadquarters,Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid AgencyHeadquarters,Automotive Technology AgencyHeadquarters,Norinchukin BankHeadquarters,Peace Memorial Service Special FundHeadquarters,Farmer's pension fundHeadquarters,Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Credit FundHeadquarters, Fire brigade members, etc.Japan FoundationHeadquarters,University entrance examination centerHeadquarters,Japan Sports Promotion CenterHeadquarters,Japan Judicial Support CenterHeadquarters,Industrial property information/training centerHeadquarters,National Science MuseumHeadquarters,National MuseumHeadquarters,Nippon Electric Meter Inspection Center,Electronic Navigation Research Institute,Maritime Technology Safety Research Institute,Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute,Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry,National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology,Road Safety and Environment Research Institute,National Institute of Health and Nutrition,National Public Service Mutual Aid AssociationHeadquarters,National Municipal Staff Mutual Aid AssociationHeadquarters, Japan Fire Fighting Certification Association Headquarters,Local Horse Racing National AssociationHeadquarters,Japan Broadcasting CorporationHeadquarters,High Pressure Gas Safety AssociationHeadquarters,Japan Workers Housing AssociationHeadquarters,Northern Territories Problem Countermeasure AssociationHeadquarters,Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceHeadquarters,Japan Arts and Culture Promotion AssociationHeadquarters,Japanese Red Cross SocietyMain office
- ^ Nevertheless, the observation site in Nerima was moved to the park in Ryokuchi Park from 2013 due to the strong influence of urban climate.
- ^ In addition, the daytime population including the commuter attending school outside Tokyo who has gone to Tokyo has already exceeded 1960 million in the census of 35 (Showa 1000)..
- ^ Of TokyoInput-output tableHowever, it is divided into three categories: “goods” (agriculture, forestry and fisheries, mining, manufacturing, construction and electricity, gas, and water) and “service” and “head office”.
- ^ According to the 2003 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries survey, it was 8460 hectares, which was 12 hectares in 1330 years, a decrease of about 16%.
- ^ 以下、JA東京が情報源とした農林水産省関東農政局統計部「東京農林水産年報」よると、西多摩地区が1130ヘクタール(全体比15.8%)、南多摩地区が1607ヘクタール(22.5%)、北多摩地区が2721ヘクタール(38.2%)で多摩地区合計が5458ヘクタール(76.5%)。区部が559ヘクタール(7.8%)、島しょ地区が1113ヘクタール(15.6%)。出典：JA東京中央会「Overview of agriculture in Tokyo, Read June 2021, 3.
- ^ Chiyoda, Chuo, Minato, Bunkyo, and Taitung wards, which are called "city center 5 wards," Sumida, Shinagawa, Shibuya, Shinjuku, and Nakano wards, which have sub-centers, and Arakawa ward are applicable.In Koto Ward, there are regional agricultural cooperatives only in some areas.
- ^ Since there is no brand of rice varieties, it is not possible to obtain proof of the origin and varieties, and there is no merit to undergo rice grain inspection, so the rice is sold under the notation of "uninspected rice" and "multi-ingredient rice".The indication of "rice produced in Tokyo", which is possible in the case of direct sales by producers, described in the text is permitted outside the display frame.Source: "Production and shipment of rice "Edokko" from Ome, Tokyo, General Incorporated Association Tokyo Agri Research Association, viewed March 2021, 3.
- ^ It is produced as a three-way hybrid pig. The land race lineage pig Ed used in the development is a pig developed by the Tokyo Stockbreeding Experiment Station.
- ^ Originally planned to be held in 2020,Global pandemic of new coronavirus infectionsIt was postponed for one year.
- ^ All Japan Ski Association,Japan Skating FederationAs a result of the competition, winter sports organizations that are difficult to hold games in Tokyo also have their headquarters in both facilities.In addition, it should be noted.Japan Football Association,All Japan Judo FederationHas an independent headquarters in Bunkyo Ward.Also,Shaolin Temple Kenpo FederationIn JapanShorinji KempoFounded placeKagawaTadotsu TownIt is a rare example of having a headquarters in Tokyo and a sports federation headquarters outside of Tokyo.
- ^ a b "Tokyo 2012", p. 14.
- ^ .. 『The complete encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)], [Britannica International Encyclopedia"
- ^ "Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)"
- ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia
- ^ "Encyclopedia mypedia"
- ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia
- ^ "Nihon Keizai Shimbun”. Total population decreased for 5 consecutive years, Japanese 1 million concentrated in the metropolitan area. 2020/8/5Browse.
- ^ “Prefectures and ordinance-designed cities with increasing distortion”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2011, 11) 2015/12/2Browse.
- ^ Tokyo official website "Outline of staff quota"
- ^ Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentRegulations (Tokyo) that determine the position of
- ^ About the prefectural office of Tokyo -Tokyo Metropolitan Policy Planning Bureau
- ^ "[Tell me] Why is the location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building written on the map as" Tokyo "?". Yomiuri Shimbun Evening (Tokyo: Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 16. (April 2005, 4)
- ^ The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office is in Shinjuku Ward. Why is this location shown as "Tokyo" instead of "Shinjuku"? --Tokyo Shoseki Textbooks / Books Teaching Materials FAQ Q & A Junior High School "New Edition New Society"
- ^ Global Urban Power Ranking (GPCI) 2016 Retrieved November 2016, 10, Mori Memorial Foundation Institute for Urban Strategy.
- ^ “The Global Liveability Index”(2019 edition) 2021/3/19Browse.
- ^ 2020 Global Cities Index / KEARNEY URL / https://www.kearney.com/global-cities/2020 | Retrieved March 2021, 3.
- ^ GFCI official website URL / https://www.longfinance.net/programmes/financial-centre-futures/global-financial-centres-index/gfci-29-explore-data/gfci-29-rank/ | Retrieved March 2021, 3.
- ^ Question form about capital of Japan
- ^ Submitted by Mr. Seiji Osaka, member of the House of Representatives
- ^ Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns and villages nationwide Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 11 reading
- ^ Shizuoka Prefecture's municipal offices, government offices, and the latitude and longitude of the north, south, east, and west end points (world geodetic system) Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 2 reading
- ^ Longitudinal latitude and longitude of the north-east and west end points of the Kanto region and the center of gravity[Broken link] Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 2 reading
- ^ Center of Population in Japan-From the 22 Census Results- Statistics Bureau March 2013, 2 Reading
- ^ "Tokyo's hottest town" has finally graduated? Nerima Observatory Relocation Asahi Shimbun2012/7/25[Broken link]
- ^ Weather Q & A Archived August 2009, 8, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Officially announced land price in Tokyo Retrieved February 2018, 11
- ^ NTT Urban Development/Complex development plan in front of Harajuku station/Total XNUMX square meters, start of autumn XNUMX (2017 3 年 月 日 7)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Tokyo 2012", pp. 20-21.
- ^ a b 27 national census result (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
- ^ Let's live in Yuzawa Town(Retrieved October 2018, 8).
- ^ a b Uno 1991, p. 1123.
- ^ The top 20 most expensive cities in the world to live are London and Tokyo are 1th[Broken link]
- ^ Area where land prices are rising
- ^ http://tokyo2020.jp/jp/plan/outline/
- ^ a b c d e f g "Tokyo 2012", pp. 37-39.
- ^ Tokyo bulletin special issue No. 5 -Tokyo, February 2014, 2 Archived August 2014, 2, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ a b Fiscal year 28 Tokyo Metropolitan FinanceTokyo April 2016
- ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Finance BureauFunctioning balance sheet of Tokyo (16 fiscal year version), December 17, page 12
- ^ Economic calculation for Tokyo residents (Gross domestic product, etc.) Tokyo, read October 2016, 10.
- ^ Cities Rank Among the Top 100 Economic Powers in the World Archived August 2016, 8, at the Wayback Machine. Chicago Council on Global Affairs Retrieved October 2016, 10.
- ^ Tokyo on the World StageJLL Retrieved October 2016, 10.
- ^ a b The Global Financial Centers Index Retrieved November 2021, 3.
- ^ "Weekly Toyo Keizai April 2020, 4 issue". 2020/4/11Browse.
- ^ "JA Tokyo Group”. JA West Tokyo. 2021/3/4Browse.
- ^ Gifu Fruit Tree Experiment Station "Chestnut Zensho" from 2009.
- ^ From the Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Industry and Labor "Current Situation and Overview of Manufacturing in Tokyo, Volume I", 20 (2008) and 30 (2018) editions.
- ^ What is the merit of the new subway Tokyo Line Yurakucho Line “branch line”? (Yoshikazu Kusamachi) -Vehicle News (2018.07.04 version) viewed on July 2018, 7
- ^ However,Hosei UniversityAll five universities have campuses outside of Tokyo.
- ^ Broadcasting target area of the broadcasting station that conducts foreign language broadcasting among the ultra-high frequency broadcasting performed by general broadcasting companies according to the provisions of 2) (2) (1) c of the Basic Plan for Broadcasting Promotion (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
- ^ Estimate of reception area (Tokyo Metropolitan Television)
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Overview of J-WAVE (viewed on June 2014, 6)
- ^ "TOKYO FM resume”. River Planning Division, Water and Disaster Management Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. As of October 2020, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/2/6Browse.
- ^ "Tokyo 2012", p. 1.
- ^ Review Tokyo's brand strategy to determine direction within this yearNHK July 2016, 11 Archived August 2016, 11, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ XNUMX Tokyo brand review first meeting Hiroko Koshino “Looks like a clown” Discusses volunteer uniform reviewSankei Shimbun March 2016, 11
- ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Policy Planning Bureau
- ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Policy Planning Bureau
- "All History of Japan-Japan Chronic"Shunichi UnoOther editions,Kodansha, August 1991, 3.OCLC 675926759.ISBN-4 06 203994-X-,ISBN 978-4-06-203994-9.
- TokyoPR magazine"Tosei xxxx"
- Book version:"Tokyo Metropolitan Government 2012" Tokyo Metropolitan Life and Culture BureauPublic Relations DepartmentPublic relations section,Tokyo Metropolitan Department of Life and Culture, February 2012.
- Website version: Public Relations Section, Public Relations Department, Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentMetropolitan 2012”. Tokyo (updated March 2012, 3). 2020/1/28Browse.
- Website version: Public Relations Section, Public Relations Department, Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentMetropolitan 2014”. Tokyo (updated March 2014, 3). 2020/1/28Browse.
- Website version (profile version): Public Relations Section, Public Relations Department, Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentTokyo Profile (Tokyo Metropolitan Government 2018)”. Tokyo (updated March 2018, 3). 2020/1/28Browse.
- Book version:"Tokyo Metropolitan Government 2012" Tokyo Metropolitan Life and Culture BureauPublic Relations DepartmentPublic relations section,Tokyo Metropolitan Department of Life and Culture, February 2012.
- List of highways in Tokyo
- List of people from Tokyo
- Manga/Anime works set in Tokyo
- A literary work set in Tokyo
- Movie works set in Tokyo
- Sports team based in Tokyo
- Tokyo stone
- Tokyo Metropolitan Song
- Ward song
- Tokyo city song
- Official website
- Tokyo Metropolitan Government Public Relations Division (@tocho_koho)- Twitter
- Tokyo Metropolitan Government Public Relations Division - Facebook
- Tokyo (@tokyodouga_official)- TikTok
- Tokyo Channel - YouTubeChannel
- Tokyo videos - Tokyo
|Changes in administrative districts|
1868 - Current (For Tokyo1943July -)