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- State of California
(State flag） (State emblem)
- State nickname: Golden state
The Golden State
- State motto: Eureka
State capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Gavin Newtham Official terminology English area
- Grand total
3th in the US
20,047 km² (4.7%)
- Grand total
- Population density
1th in the US
-Date of subscription
Time zone UTC -8
latitude North latitude 32° 32'-42° longitude West longitude 114°8'-124°26' East-west width 402.5 km North-south length 1,240 km elevation
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)
Website California Government Senator Diane Feinstein
California(California,British: State of California,West: State of California,中: Kalifu Amaya, California)The United States of AmericaWestern,The Pacific OceanShoreState.US West CoastOccupies most of the. State capitalSacramento.
United States statesThe largest of thepopulationProud of,US presidential electionThe number of people is also the largest.Brazil OfState of Sao PauloFollowed byAmericasSecond most populous inAdministrative divisionSo big cities are populatedLos Angeles,San Diego,San Jose,San FranciscoHas become.. No. 2 in the state (Los Angeles) and No. 6 (San Francisco Bay AreaThere are 50 cities in the 8 most populated cities.
Once in Japan, the kanjiKari Fu NayaIt was sometimes written as "," but nowadays it is not often used. This abbreviation "Cazhou" isNews (Chinese)May be used even today, such as when there is a limited number of characters like the heading. In addition, the single character of "Ka" without "state" is not Californiaカナダ(Kagodai)” is an abbreviation.
California is diverseclimateとterrainThere are also manyPeopleLive in. By area in the US statesア ラ ス カ 州とTexasIs the third after.. Oregon in the north, northeastネ バ ダ 州, SoutheastArizonaTouchingメキシコ OfBaja CaliforniaIs in contact with. Geographically from the Pacific coast to the eastSierra Nevada MountainsUntil the southeastMojave Desert, NorthwestSequoia,Bay pineThere is a forest. In the center of the state, the agricultural area boasts the highest level of productivity in the world,Central ValleyThere is.Mainland usaThen the highest elevation point (Mount Whitney) And the lowest point (Death Valley).Approximately 40% of the area is forestAs a relatively dry area, there are many forests.
From the second half of the 18th centuryAlta CaliforniaThe area calledSpanish EmpireBecame a colony of.1821Including Alta Californiaメキシコ First Mexican EmpireBecame a republic and became a republic.1846, A group of American pioneers in SonomaRepublic of californiaDeclared independence. Immediately after thatAmerican ink warAs a result, Mexico ceded California to the United States. California1850May 9Became the 31st state of the United States.
Mid-19th century,California Gold RushCaused dramatic social, economic and demographic changes in California. With the influx of people and the boom, San Francisco grew from a small village of tents to a booming city known to the world. An important development in the early 20th century was the rise of Los Angeles as the center of the entertainment industry and the vast statewide tourism industry. In addition to rich agriculture, the aerospace industry, oil industry and information technology contributed to economic development.
In California, repeated attempts at separation and independence in some areas have been repeated, and at least 1800 times have failed from the 2011s to 27..
San Francisco Bay AreaNorth with the center ofAgriculture:The central part, whereLos Angeles~San DiegoDivided into the south with the obi as the center. In the bay areaSilicon ValleyIs one of the most economically advanced regions in the United States.Los Angeles TheHollywoodHoldingentertainmentIt is the global center of industry.
Asia,メキシコClose toImmigrationThere are many.ImmigrationHave a strong tendency to settle in their respective residential areas,Ethnic salad bowlThe expression "" applies.Chinatown,Korean Town,Little tokyo,,Are famous. Above all, adjacentメキシコMany immigrants fromSpanishIs a state official language.
Much of the southメキシコOriginally in the territory ofSpanishPioneered by1848 OfAmerican ink warAs a result ofNew MexicoAlong with it, it was ceded from Mexico to the United States for $1,500 million and became a US territory (at the same timeTexasThe US ownership was also confirmed). So in CaliforniaSpanishOf originPlace nameAre very many.
Origin of the name
The name "California" was originally created in addition to today's California with parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Wyoming and the MexicanBaja California PeninsulaIt consisted of
The etymology of California is blackAmazon tribeOf the Queen Califia (probablyCaliphIs the etymologyIt is most commonly believed that it was derived from a fantasy heaven controlled by. The myth of Califia was recorded in the 1510 work "Esplandian Achievements" written by Spanish adventurer and writer Gulch Rodriguez de Montalvo as a sequel to the chivalry story "Amadis de Gaura". ing.. According to Montalvo, the Queen's kingdom of Califia was a remote land rich in gold, inhabited by strange creatures such as Griffon.
As you know, to the right of India is an island named California, very close to part of heaven on earth. A black woman lives and there is no man. Living in the Amazon style. They have strong bodies, strong and passionate hearts and great virtues. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world due to its rugged rocks. All the weapons are made of gold. Everywhere on the island is flooded with gold and expensive stones, and no other metal can be found on it.
The place name California is the fifth oldest place name given by Europeans in the United States and is still used. By the Spanish Expedition led by Diego de Basera and Fortun Jimenez, who landed at the southern tip of Baja California in 5 at the command of Hernan Cortes.California IslandWas named[Note 1] But laterPeninsulaIt turned out to be.
The western part of the Americas,Sierra Nevada MountainsWest ofThe Pacific OceanIt is an area facing.It is the third largest state and is 3 times as large as Japan.Long north-south shape, northOregonOn the east sideネ バ ダ 州-ArizonaAdjacent to.Southernmost citySan DiegoToBorder with mexicoThe entry of illegal immigrants has become a social problem.On the Pacific coastSan Francisco Bay Area,Los Angeles metropolitan area, San Diego and other metropolitan areas that represent the United States are located.
In the middle of the stateCentral ValleyThere is westAnd in the Sierra Nevada mountains to the east, to the northCascade Mountains, SouthTehachapi MountainsIt is surrounded by. Central Valley is the agricultural center of California, producing about one-third of domestic food production.. The Central Valley is divided into two parts by the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.Sacramento ValleyToSacramento RiverFlows on the south sideSan Joaquin ValleyToSan Working RiverIs flowing. Both valleys are named after the river that crosses them. By dredging the Sacramento and San Wurkin rivers, both rivers are kept deep enough to become seaports in some inland cities. The delta is also an important source of water in the state. Water is pumped from the Delta region and transported using an extensive network of canals, including the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project, which is the length of the state. Water from the Delta is drinking water for nearly 3 million inhabitants, two-thirds of the state's population, and agricultural water west of the San Joaquin Valley. On the southern coastChannel IslandsIs floating.
The Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spanish Snow Mountains) are the highest peaks on the continental United StatesMount Whitney(Altitude 14,505 feet, 4,421 m).. This mountain range is famous for being cut by glaciersYosemite ValleyOr the largest creature on earthSequoiaCovered with treesSequoia National Park, The largest freshwater lake in the state in terms of water storageLake TahoeThere is.
Migratory habitat to the east of the Sierra Nevada mountainsOwens ValleyとMono LakeThere is. In the western part of the state is the largest clear lake in the state in terms of water area. Lake Tahoe is larger, but it is divided at the border between California and Nevada. Sierra Nevada Mountains fall to Arctic temperatures in winter and are the southernmost in the United StatesAnd many small glaciers also remain.
Approximately 45% of the state's inland surface area is covered with forest, making it the most forested state in the United States, with the exception of Alaska.The variety of pine trees is unique to other states.Many of the trees are the oldest in the world. In the case of Bristol Corn Pine, there are 4,700 years old trees.
SouthernIs a large inland salt lakeLake saltonThere is. The south-south desertMojave DesertIt is called. To the northeastDeath Valley, The lowest and hottest spot in North America, (→Bad water) Is included.The distance from the lowest point in Death Valley to the highest point on Mount Whitney is less than 200 miles (320 km).Most of the southeastern part is a dry and hot desert, which often records extremely high temperatures in summer.
California isPacific Rim Volcanic ZoneIs part of(I.e.,洪水,drought, Santa Ana style (western style),Forest fire,LandslideAnd someVolcanoThere are many natural disasters such as activities. From the south to the westSan Andreas FaultAnd someFaultBecause of this, there are many earthquakes with relatively shallow epicenters (direct earthquakes).In the pastmagnitude8 classEarthquakeAre experiencing.
The climate is dominated by dazzling sun and dry summers and cool, wet winters.Mediterranean climateThere are many areas ofSubarctic climateThere are areas to enter. coldCalifornia CurrentBecause of this, fog often occurs near the coast. There is not much rainfall,Sierra Nevada MountainsThawed waterUnderground waterThere are many places that pump up water from wells. However, securing a new water source is an issue due to the rapid population increase.
Due to the shape of the state, long coastlines, and elevation differences, temperatures and climates may vary considerably between the southern and northern ends of the state or the coast and inland areas. Inland, there are cold winters and hot summers. Therefore, on the southern coastsurfingWhile some people doSkiThere are people who do
The northern part of the province receives more rainfall than the southern part. Mountains also affect the climate. The rainy place in the state is on the western slope of the mountain. The northwest has a mild climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate, but the temperature difference is greater than that of the coast. In high mountains such as the Sierra Nevada Mountains, winter has a snowy mountain climate, and summer has a relatively comfortable heat.
To the east of the mountainsRain shadeNext to it, it produces a vast desert. The high altitude desert in the east has hot summers and cold winters, while the lowland desert to the east of the southern mountains has hot summers and mild winters with little frost. Spread below sea level, Death Valley is considered the hottest place in North America. In the Western Hemisphere on July 1913, 7Maximum temperature 134° F(57 ° C) was recorded.
Many in CaliforniaEndemic speciesKagarina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundusIn other places, there are relics that have died out. California Lilac (CeanothusMany species derived from a common ancestor, taking advantage of diverse habitat conditions such asDifferentiationOrAdaptive radiationThere are many endemic species generated by. Many of California's endemic speciesUrbanization,Felling,OvergrazingandExotic speciesIntroduced into the habitat is threatened with extinction.
There are some superlatives of California flora populations. It is the largest tree (sequoia dendron), the highest tree (sequoia) and the oldest tree (bristolcorn pine). Wild grass is a perennial plant.. Since the advent of Europeans, these have largely replaced the European annual herb alien species. Today, the hills of California turn golden brown, which is characteristic of summer.
The most prominent rivers in California areSacramento River, Pitt River andSan Working RiverIs. All flow from the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains through the Central Valley,San Francisco BayThroughThe Pacific OceanFlow into. Other important riversKlamath RiverAnd the Trinity River, on the southeastern borderColorado River.Owens RiverRuns off the southeastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada MountainsLake OwensIs flowing into. The Yale and Salinas rivers flow into the coast north and south of the San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the main waterway of the Mojave Desert,Santa Ana RiverRuns from the Transverse Mountains and crosses the southern state.
|1860||379,994||+ 310.4 %|
|1870||560,247||+ 47.4 %|
|1880||864,694||+ 54.3 %|
|1890||1,213,398||+ 40.3 %|
|1900||1,485,053||+ 22.4 %|
|1910||2,377,549||+ 60.1 %|
|1920||3,426,861||+ 44.1 %|
|1930||5,677,251||+ 65.7 %|
|1940||6,907,387||+ 21.7 %|
|1950||10,586,223||+ 53.3 %|
|1960||15,717,204||+ 48.5 %|
|1970||19,953,134||+ 27.0 %|
|1980||23,667,902||+ 18.6 %|
|1990||29,760,021||+ 25.7 %|
|2000||33,871,648||+ 13.8 %|
|2010||37,253,956||+ 10.0 %|
2009Currently, its population is estimated to be 36,961,664, making it the 13th fastest growing state in the country. The number has increased by 2000 from the last 3,090,016 census, and has increased naturally (births 5,058,440, deaths 2,179,958)) And the net increase of migrants to the state of 306,925. Immigration from outside the United States increased by 1,816,633, while immigration to the United States decreased by 1,509,708.
California is the most populous state, accounting for 12% of the United States population.It has eight cities in the top 50 cities in the United States in terms of population.Los Angeles has a population of 8 (3,833,995 estimate)) And the second largest city in the United States. This is followed by San Diego (2th), San Jose (7th), San Francisco (10th), Fresno (12th), Sacramento (36th), Long Beach (37th), and Auckland (38th).Los Angeles CountyHas a population of 9,862,049, the largest in the United States counties, and more than 42 domestic states.. StateCenter of gravityHas Button Willow (Census Designated Area)Khan CountyHas become.
US Census Bureau recognizes that you and your ancestors are from Spanish-speaking Latin American countriesHispanicAre divided into two categories. Hispanics are not only "Hispanic"WhiteorAsianWhen classified into, it may be simply classified as "other race." for that reasonCensusIt is said that the data is difficult to understand.
The following is a clear classification of "Hispanics", and figures for each group other than Hispanics (whites other than Hispanics and non-Hispanics)Eskimo, Other than HispanicMixedEtc.)For more information on race and censusSee
|2000 Census ||2008 estimate |
|Latino(Regardless of raceHispanic）||32.4%||36.6%|
|Two or moreRace||1.9%||2.6%|
|イ ン デ ィ ア ンand Eskimo||0.5%||1.2%|
|Hawaiian IslandsandPacific IslandssystemIndigenous people||0.3%||0.3%|
It is the largest state in the country with 22,189,514 Caucasians, with 2,250,630 African Americans, fifth in the country. It is estimated that there are 5 million Asian-Americans, and about one-third of the 440 million Asian population in the country live in California. Indian population is 1,310, which is also the highest in the country.
The most common origin is Mexican (25%), followed by Asian.The United Kingdomsystem,GermanySystem, andアイルランドContinue with the system. Especially MexicanChicanoMany of them live in southern California, the Central Valley, Salinas, and the San Francisco Bay area.Anglo-Saxon peopleMany of them are in the eastern, northern margin of the Sierra Nevada, andNorthern coastLive in. Not to mention CaliforniaNorth AmericaThe area with the highest concentration of Asians is near San Francisco.
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
The state once counts 60イ ン デ ィ ア ンEthnic groups were indigenous. Blessed with a mild climate and abundant fishing and hunting resources, agriculture did not develop.
The 18th-century Spaniards captured and forced Christianization of various ethnic groups, used for farm labor and oversight of other Indians.(Evangelical Indian)". Currently, it is an Indian group unique to California.
The state is the first Indian-owned junior college with a fully autonomous operation.Is also the state in which the school was opened. This school was used by reclaiming the Indian reserve that had been confiscated by the federal government during the Korean War and had been used as a missile radar base. The state is now revoking the university's accreditation and disposing of it, and Indian students continue to protest.
Indian Rights Restoration Movement in the 1960sIn the United States, there was a protest of occupation by Indians across the United States. Was carried out in the stateAlcatraz Island Occupation CaseWas among the largest.
November 1969, 11,Mohawk OfRichard Oaks, SanteSioux OfJohn Tradel79 Indians of all agesAlcatraz IslandLanded and declared as a treaty right that "Alcatraz Island will be the cultural center of the Indians," and hundreds of Indians gathered from across the United States.Richard NixonThe President entered arbitration, and the "Red Power Movement" shook the world. Occupation lasted until June 1971, 6.
There are many small ethnic groups,Reservation place (Reservation) is mainly a settlement (Rancheria)"It is called. Some people take advantage of the warm climate and run orchards. Although many people specialize in resort tourism, most ethnic groups are in poverty because they have no industry.
Extinct, no ethnic recognitionSan Franciscoof"Aurone・The Mwekuma Band is a traditional cemeteryShell moundThe destroyed shopping centerWas built. In a tomb-breaking process that broke through ethnic opposition, chief Rosemary Gambler was arrested for sabotaging. The tens of thousands of remains of the Oroneans that have been unearthed have been seized and displayed in the Indian Museum at Berkeley University, and the people are in dispute for their return.
Flowing in the stateKlamath River, There are four dams upstream that block the salmon run-up, and traditional salmon fishing is not possible,,Appeals for the abolition of the dam, and in 2004 and 2005, a businessman owning the dam livesEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euI went to and was enthusiastically greeted there. At this time, they were promised to secure fishways and abolish some dams, but since the owner of the dam moved in 2006, the movement has returned to the beginning. Also,Argues that a gold dusting recreational event on the Klamath River is damaging the riverbed and harmful to salmon fishing. In January 2009, the California Fisheries and Hunting Agency rejected this as not a special "emergency". "If we don't think our fishing grounds are in a state of emergency, they're going to switch their heads," said Calc tribe Craig Tucker.
Some of the peoples of the state were displaced from the east and the south in the 19th century, and many are now in dispute, demanding official recognition from the federal government.
In 1987, the "Mission Indian Cabazon Band" was established by the fate of the peopleBingo ground"Fantasy Springs Resort Casino" is a state government that makes it illegal andAfter winning the lawsuit, he won the legal decision in the Supreme Court. This case allowed the Indians of the United States to compete for the opening of an ethnic casino,Indian CasinoBecame the business model of the nation called "modern buffalo."
In 1988, the federal government enacted the "Indian Wagering Control Act," classifying gambling by Indians into three classes, limited to federally-certified (that is, owning reservations) Indians for the highest level casino operation. The Ministry of Home Affairs has decided to approve this. On the other hand, many bands, who are the same Indian people as the "extinct people" by the federal government, have forfeited the right to reserves and welfare due to the cancellation of the treaty provisions with the federal government, and can not even have a casino. , The opportunity for independence has been deprived.
Currently, it operates 58 casinos and 90 poker fields throughout the state. There are casinos that call themselves "palaces," but many of them have the appearance of a palace, and have become one of the largest resort facilities, including hotels, hot springs, resort facilities, and restaurants.
For casinos and gambling facilities run by Indians in the stateList of Indian Casinos in CaliforniaSee.
2005Currently, 5% of Californians over the age of 57.59 are at homeEnglishSpeaking, 28.21%SpanishAre talking. Less than,Tagalog2.04%,Chinese1.59%,Vietnamese1.4%, andKoreanFollowed by 1.05%.Overall 42.4% speak non-English.
Official documents such as election bulletins and tax returns also have Spanish notation, so the federal and stateOfficial terminologyIt is often misunderstood that there is no official language in the United States. On the other hand, about 30 states set the official language of the state, and in California,1986State law amends that English is the common language and official language.
On October 2009, 10, Governor Schwarzenegger signed a new state bill to help preserve the Indian tribal language advocated by the California Indians, led by the Chumash Indian Santa Ines Band. The new state law allows the Indians of the state a license and standards for retraining ethnic languages. Once more than 24 ethnic languages existed in the state,Indian boarding schoolBy USEthnic cleansingDepending on policy, more than halfExtinct languageIt has become.
The religions of California residents are:
- キ リ ス ト 教 --75%
- Judaism --2%
- Other religions-3%
- No religion-20%
In California, like many other Western statesNo religionIs higher than other parts of the United States.
Important cities and towns
The state of California has 480 cities, the majority of which are in the metropolitan area (458 cities, 22 towns. There is no clear distinction between cities and towns under California state law, whichever you choose.).68% of California's populationLos Angeles metropolitan area,San Francisco Bay AreaAnd live in the three metropolitan areas of Riverside San Bernardino. In addition, although the size is smaller, there is a moderate population in the urban areas of San Diego and Sacramento.
Sacramento became the first city in 1850 San Jose, San Diego and Benicia continued on March 3 of the same year.. The number of meniffies that became a city on October 2008, 10 is 1th..
California recognizes two cities: charter and general law.. A city of general law is recognized by state law and is subject to state jurisdiction. Charter City is governed by its own charter. The majority of chartered cities in the 19th century were charter cities. The 10 most populated cities are also charter cities.
per sq mi
|1||Los Angeles||3,792,621||469.1||8,084.9||Los Angeles County|
|2||San Diego||1,307,402||324.3||4,031.5||San Diego County|
|3||San Jose||945,942||174.9||5,408.5||Santa Clara County|
|4||San Francisco||805,235||46.7||17,242.7||San Francisco County|
|7||Long beach||462,257||50.5||9,153.6||Los Angeles County|
per sq mi
|1||Los Angeles County||9,818,605||4,061||2,418||Los Angeles|
|2||San Diego County||3,095,313||4,200||737||San Diego|
|3||Orange County||3,010,232||789||3,815||Santa Ana|
|5||San Bernardino County||2,035,210||20,052||101||San Bernardino|
|6||Santa Clara County||1,781,642||1,291||1,380||San Jose|
|9||Contra Costa County||1,049,025||720||1,457||Concord|
Sacramento (State capital）
The population in the above table is based on the national census dated April 2010, 4..
List of important suburbs in the above area, see:en: List of urbanized areas in California (by population).
- reference:en: List of cities and towns in California and en: List of cities in California (by population)
- reference:List of counties in California
25 rich places in California
The following list is ranked by the average personal income of the residents:
- - San Mateo County - $ 152,128
- -San Mateo County-$144,197
- - Butte County - $ 131,735
- -San Mateo County-$127,868
- - Los Angeles County - $ 126,620
- -San Mateo County-$125,559
- - Santa Clara County - $ 123,127
- - Ventura County - $ 120,676
- Belvedere (California) - Marine County - $ 119,798
- -Los Angeles County-$117,241
- - Contra Costa County - $ 113,989
- - San Diego County - $ 113,132
- -Marine County-$109,976
- -Santa Clara County-$105,597
- - Alameda County - $ 101,794
- - San Diego County - $ 99,860
- -Marine County-$99,710
- - Santa Cruz County - $ 98,473
- -Santa Clara County-$98,398
- -Marine County-$95,706
- -San Mateo County-$95,386
- Malibu (California) -Los Angeles County-$95,212
- - Mono County - $ 93,233
- - Napa County - $ 89,910
- -Marine County-$89,751
Law and administration
California isRepublic OfSeparation of powersIs taking. That is, the executive office, which consists of the governor and other administrative officers stipulated in the constitution elected by the election, the legislative office, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, andSupreme CourtIs a judicial office composed of lower courts. Direct billing,Referendum,recallandApproveThere is a mechanism whereby voters can directly participate in politics. Political parties are closedPrimary electionAlternatively, you can choose either a primary election in which only members and independents can vote.
The constitutional administrative officers elected by the governor and other elections have a term of four years and can only be re-elected once. The state legislature has a fixed number of 4 in the Senate and 1 in the lower house. The Senate has a four-year term, and the House has a two-year term. There is an upper limit of three terms for the House of Representatives and two terms for the Senate.
In the 2011-2012 session, the House of Representatives has 52 Democrats, 28 Republicans, the Senate has 24 Democrats, and 13 Republicans, three of which are vacant. The governor is Democratic Party Jerry Brown.
California's legal system is clearly BritishCommon lawIs based on But in Spain like a shared propertyContinental lawSome have been inherited from. The death penalty is legal and currently holds the largest number of "waiting for execution" death row prisoners in the country. The death row prison cell is located north of San Francisco.Marine CountyIt is inSan Quentin State PrisonIt is in. Execution is currently suspended indefinitely due to human rights issues being raised... The number of prisoners in prisons in the state has grown from 1980 in 25,000 to over 2007 in 17.. California's judiciary is the largest state in the United States, with 1,600 judges (the federal judicial office is only about 840). The Supreme Court has seven judges. Judges in the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeal, appointed by the Governor, are subject to voter review every 7 years.
California, which has large metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles and San Francisco that are ranked as 10 major cities in the United States,Air pollutionThere are problems such asManufacturerEtc.Industrial wasteSuch as treatment and wastewater regulationsCorporationThe target law, Of2009In shared spaces including more privately owned apartmentssmokingIt was cracked down from an early stage, such as bylaws prohibitingExhaust gasEnvironmental regulations such as regulations are the strictest in the United States.
In the 1970s, it was regarded as one of the most politically-controlled places in the United States, but since it adopted a policy of directly selecting important bills by the referendum, administrative administration has not been successful and it was once the best in the United States. The education level, which was said to be decreasing, is decreasing year by year.
- Tokai UniversityProfessor," (PDF) , Local Government Internationalization Association Comparative Local Autonomy Study Group, 2006
|Years||Republican Party||Democratic Party|
|2016||31.62% 4,483,810||61.73% 8,753,788|
|2012||37.12% 4,839,958||60.24% 7,854,285|
|2008||36.91% 5,011,781||60.94% 8,274,473|
|2004||44.36% 5,509,826||54.40% 6,745,485|
|2000||41.65% 4,567,429||53.45% 5,861,203|
|1996||38.21% 3,828,380||51.10% 5,119,835|
|1992||32.61% 3,630,574||46.01% 5,121,325|
|1988||51.13% 5,054,917||47.56% 4,702,233|
|1984||57.51% 5,467,009||41.27% 3,922,519|
|1980||52.69% 4,524,858||35.91% 3,083,661|
|1976||49.35% 3,882,244||47.57% 3,742,284|
|1972||55.01% 4,602,096||41.54% 3,475,847|
|1968||47.82% 3,467,664||44.74% 3,244,318|
|1964||40.79% 2,879,108||59.11% 4,171,877|
|1960||50.10% 3,259,722||49.55% 3,224,099|
California has a unique political culture. It was the second state to accept abortion and the second to allow same-sex marriage (same-sex marriage was a judicial decision and was later withdrawn by a resident-invoked vote, but on June 2, 2, The same Supreme Court is once again legal because the Federal Supreme Court upheld the provincial court's ruling that the referendum "Prop 2013" denying same-sex marriage was unconstitutional.)
In the national elections since the 1990s, Democratic candidates have been generally chosen, but Republican candidates have been chosen as governors. However, many Republican governors, such as Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered more centered than the "moderate Republican," a central political party.
The Republican Party dominates in the northeast, but other areas such as the Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area are the Democratic grounds.
California's political tendencies are stronger for Democrats and weaker for Republicans.This tendency is remarkable in the presidential election.In addition, the Democratic Party has won all US Senate elections since 1992, and is a majority in both Houses of the State Legislature.In the United States House of Representatives, there were 110 Democrats and 34 Republicans during the 19th session.Either party has the upper hand in the constituencies in the state, and few constituencies are in close quarters.According to political commentators, the number of Congressmen and presidential electors should be 55, three more than the current 3..
As of 2007, the state's gross domestic product was about $ 1 trillion, the largest in the country, accounting for 8,120% of the United States' GDP.Compared to other countries in the world, it ranks 13th in GDP and 9th in purchasing power parity theory.However, it had a deficit of $ 12 billion in the 2009-2010 fiscal year..2008Economic decline in the second halfWorld financial crisisThe state budget was delayed by three months due to the urgent task of responding to the situation, but the deficit was simply carried over to 3. One problem is that a significant portion of state revenue depends on income taxes raised by a small number of wealthy state citizens.For example, in 2009, 1% of taxpayers paid 2004% of the total tax collection... Since the taxable income depends on capital gains, the decline in the securities market has had a major impact. The provincial governor has proposed significant cuts in spending and tax increases, but the legislation with Congress has made it difficult to pass the bill.
Comparing the number of employment, there are three major fields: trade / transportation and public works, local government, profession and business management, education and health, and tourism and entertainment.The largest employer is the University of California.In terms of output, finance is the largest, followed by trade / transportation and public works, education and health, local governments, and manufacturing. The unemployment rate in January 3 was 2010%, the fifth highest in the country, significantly higher than 1% in 12.5..
California's economy is highly dependent on trade and international commerce, accounting for about a quarter of the state's economy. 4 exports were $1 billion, up from $2008 billion in 1,440 and $2006 billion in 1,270..Among them, computers and electronic products are by far the highest at 2008% of the export value in 42. .. Agriculture continues to be a very important part of the California economy. Agricultural sales over the last 30 years have nearly quadrupled from $1974 billion in 73 to $2004 billion in 310..During this period, agricultural land decreased by 15% and agricultural water supply was chronically unstable, but sales increased by this amount.This is due to the intensive use of suitable agricultural land and the increased yield through technological improvements..
2007 California per capita income was $1, making it the eighth largest state in the country.. This varies widely by region and occupation. In the Central Valley, for example, migrant farm workers work below the minimum wage, making it one of the poorest regions. In recent years the San Joaquin Valley areaAppalachiaAlongside regions, it has become one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States.. On the other hand, among the many coastal cities, there are some of the richest parts of the United States in terms of per capita income. High-tech industry in the north concentratedSilicon Valley,Santa Clara CountyとSan Mateo County TheInternet bubbleHas recovered from the depression.
California has a progressive income tax system that varies in grade 6, with a maximum tax rate of 9.3%.The total income tax will be $ 400 billion a year.The consumption tax rate is 8.25%, which is 10.75% including local consumption tax... Property tax is levied on the fair market price at the time of purchase and is not increased according to the prevailing market price.
California goes bankrupt in 2009 economic crisis.. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said in June that "our wallet was empty, the bank was closed and the credit was lost".. Currently proposing a $240 billion spend cut.
Major companies, etc.
Companies headquartered in California include:
The vast area of CaliforniaFreeway,ExpresswayAnd are connected by a highway (public road). It is a car society, and traffic congestion is severe in urban areas. The Provincial Department of Transportation is responsible for the construction and maintenance of state roads and transportation planning for the entire state. The rapid increase in the population is distorting the transportation network, and it remains an issue for the provincial government whether to actively continue to expand the transportation network on freeways or to concentrate on improving mass transportation in urban areas.
One of the most famous landmarks in the state was completed in 1Golden Gate BridgeIs. The orange-colored panoramic view overlooking the bay is popular with tourists and allows pedestrians and bicycles to pass through. It was also designated as US National Highway 1, which is part of State Highway 101, also known as El Camino Real (Spanish "Road of the Kings") and the Pacific Highway. Completed in 7 among seven bridges over the San Francisco Bay AreaSan Francisco Auckland Bay BridgeIs also famous. The two-story bridge has a daily traffic volume of 1 vehicles and is divided into two parts on the island of Yerba Buena.
Transportation to and from the Pacific and mainland USLos Angeles International AirportとSan Francisco International AirportIs a big relay point. There are about 12 other commercial airports in the state and many public and airports.
There are also some important seaports. The huge seaports created by the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in the south are the largest in the country, and the container handling volume is about one-fourth of that in Japan. Auckland Port is the fourth largest in the country and handles trade with the Pacific Rim,Northern CaliforniaEnter the United States fromMarine containerIs sending out most of.
Intercity trainAmtrakOperating in the United StatesNortheast corridorThere are 3 routes with the largest number of trains. These in-state linesAmtrak CaliforniaIt has a unique brand name, and it has a different painting and specification from other Amtrak trains. In addition, Amtrak operates transcontinental and longitudinal trains from the cities on the west coast of the state to the east and north. Los Angeles(Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority) Or San Francisco (San Francisco Municipal Railway) In the metropolitan areasubway,Light RailThere is a network of. The light rails are San Jose, San Diego, Sacramento andSan Diego CountyIt also operates in the north. Furthermore, as a commuter train, the San Francisco Bay AreaAltamont Commuter Express,バ ー ト,Caltrain,Sonoma Marine Area Railroad, Los Angeles metropolitan areaMetro link, In San Diego CountycoasterThere is.California High Speed RailThe bureau was founded in 1996 and plans to connect San Francisco and Los Angeles in two and a half hours.The total length can be 2 miles (700 km). Construction with nearly $ 1127 billion in funding (state bonds) was approved by a referendum in November 100.Bus routes operate in almost all counties, and many cities also have bus services.Bus routes between citiesGreyhoundAnd Amtrak's through-way coach (railway connecting bus) operates. However, with regard to the latter, it is not permitted to sell tickets for the bus section alone due to the provisions of California law, and it is assumed that it will be used for transit with the railway..
PublicSecondary educationHas a high school that offers elective courses in trade, language and liberal arts, for those who are gifted, college oriented and industrial oriented. California's public education system is supported by distinctive constitutional amendments, ranging from kindergarten to grade 12Community collegeHave a minimum budget of. Community college grows with economic development and enrollment is increasing.
There were 2005 million students in the 2006-620 school year. California lags behind other states in budget and teacher levels. The cost per student isWashington DCIt is the 51th out of 29 states, including, and the 49th in terms of faculty and staff per student. The student to teacher ratio is also 49th, with 1 students per teacher.
Public higher education in California is a distinctive three-tier system of the University of California, California State University, and California Community College Organizations.
University of California Organization
University of CaliforniaMechanism is the mostNobel PrizeIt is one of the leading public university institutions in the world that employs award recipients. It has many research universities. It has the following 13 campuses. Abbreviation is UC.
- University of California, Berkeley (Cal)
- University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
- University of California San Diego (UCSD)
- University of California Davis (UCD)
- University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC)
- University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)
- University of California Irvine (ICU)
- University of California Riverside (UCR)
- University of California San Francisco (UCSF): Graduate School of Medicine.
Also, although not part of the University of California Organization, it is a law schoolUC Hastings Law School Is in San Francisco.
University of CaliforniaUnited States Department of Energy-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,and Los Alamos National LaboratoryIt manages the national research institute.
California State University Organization
California State UniversityThe institution is also considered to be one of the leading educational institutions in the world. With more than 1 students, the California State University Organization is the largest university organization in the United States with the goal of accepting the top third of high school students. Mainly intended for undergraduate education.. Includes the following 23 universities and branch schools. Abbreviation is CSU.
California Community College Organization
The California Community College Organization offers a low level of subject learning, with an emphasis on basic skills and vocational training. The largest higher education network in the United States with 110 colleges and over 290 million students.
The following private universities are famous. There are hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including religious and special purpose schools.
- Stanford University
- University of Southern California (USC)
- Claremont University(Including Harvey Mad College and Pomona College)
- California Institute of Technology (Caltech):NASA OfJet Propulsion LaboratoryManagement of
- California College of Arts (CalArts)
Art and culture
イ ン デ ィ ア ンIn addition, since it is composed of immigrants from all over the world, it is possible to easily enjoy food from around the world (or an American-style arrangement) in urban areas. Especially because it was originally a Mexican territory and there were many immigrants from MexicoMexican foodIs very common,Italian food,Chinese cuisine,Vietnamese foodAre being enjoyed on a daily basis.
Today in the beginning of the 21st century, not only in big cities in the United States,sushi,TeriyakiIncludingJapanese cuisineHas become popular andsupermarketButtofu,Soy sauce,noodlesIt is possible to procure ingredients such as1970 eraThere was a sign of that. Since there are many Asian residents and the climate is warm,Radish,Chinese cabbageAsian vegetables such as, medium grain called California rice and JapanAkitakomachiShort grain such asJaponica seedsIs a major production area in North America, and it is an area where fresh Asian ingredients are easily available.California Roll,fortune cookieIn many cases, it is a place where the Western-style arrangements of existing Asian foods are spread throughout the United States.
Relationship with Japan
CaliforniaHawaiiAlong withJapaneseIt is one of the US states that has a close relationship with Old timesJohn Manjiro,Fukuzawa Yukichi,Katsu KaishuTherefore, there are many Japanese who visited this place. Surprisingly,Yumeji TakehisaAlso visited this place.
MeijiLaterJapanese OfImmigrationOne after another,1924(Taisho13 years)JapaneseForbid immigrantsJapanese Immigration LawIs established. This discriminatory treatment is1941(16)May 12[Note 2] Japan-US War ・Pacific War(Great East Asian War) It became worse by the outbreak and became an enemy foreignerJapanese American Theland,propertyConfiscated,10 places OfConcentration campWill be housed in[Note 3].. These pre-warImmigrationThe birthplace ofSanyo region(Yamaguchi -Hiroshima-Okayama)andKyusyuMany of them are in the northern part of the region.Sanyo roadIs a region where many travelers come and go, and there is little resistance to migration to other places. "This region has been a water force since the Middle Ages (Western and modern Japanese military,Former Japanese Navy, CurrentJMSDF) Activity is remarkable,IsolationIs solved (OpeningAfter that, it was a departure rush again. There is also a theory that says. For this reason, I used to say, "The standard language of Americans of American descent isHiroshima dialectIs. I was even told.
After the warNikkeiIs a Japanese-American unit that was active during the war (army442nd Regiment Combat Team・100th infantry battalion) and Japanese AmericansMemberThe status and honor are restored by the production of the.1988Passed the unfair treatment of concentration camps and won financial compensation to survivors. Generally speaking, Nikkei are economically better off than the average, but there is still a social problem of the glass ceiling "invisible ceiling". It is said that it will be above average). With overwhelmingly white American farmers, in California,SacramentoThere is a large proportion of Japanese farmers in the suburbs.
Japanese American society is about the 1st and 2nd generation, and postwar immigrants from the postwar period to the 1980s,バ ブ ルIt can be roughly divided into new immigrants. In the first generation, it seems that the poor, who had a hard time living in Japan, which lacked resources and were poor, were forced to relocate.Economic refugeesIt is hard to assimilate to American society, and it is like other immigrant groups.Little TokyoThere is a tendency to form an ethnic town represented by.Prewar・It is said that there is a strong sense of suspicion for society from the experience of persecution during the war, but the experience in concentration camps wasPaternalismWas destroyed psychologically, and the authority was completely lost by the rise of the second generation leader.
After the second generation, he was interested in Japan as the land of his fathers, but he had no further emotions and his thoughts and actions were American. However, the second generationI's parentsとClothI often experience the identity crisis of tearing myself into these two cultures, and it is often drawn as the theme of. Born in the United States after the second generation, in Japan since childhoodEducationA person who has returned to the United States after receiving the treatment is called "". In this case, their emotions are almost the same as those of the Japanese, but their hardships in the United States were often as difficult as in the second generation.
Postwar immigrantsWar bride), and there are many people who went to the United States for success.Rocky aoki,Show kosugiIs a typical example. The groups are individually dispersed and not formed as one ethnic group. HoweverAgingAs we do, we can see the phenomenon of return to Japan.
New immigrants are Japan's "internationalization" after the bubble economy (=Anglo-AmericanPeople who chose to live in the United States. There are many non-saras, retirees, and international students, but their lives depend largely on their relationship with Japan, and due to the recent recession, more and more people are choosing to return to Japan.
Entry into Japanese companies
1951(Showa 26)San FranciscoLocated in northern California,Northern California Chamber of Commerce (JCCNC) Was established.2007(19) Currently, about 300 companies are members.1960 era(Showa 35-44)Los Angeles,San DiegoCentered onSouthern California Japanese Companies Association (JBA) Was established, and the number of member companies as of 2007 (Heisei 19) has reached about 500. Both organizations received state approvalNon profit organizationIs. Similar to Japanese companies and Japanese associations in other states, seminars and fellowship events for members, surveys of actual conditions of Japanese companies,Japanese cultureReferralsserviceWe are engaged in activities.
2000Survey on Japanese companies in Southern California conducted by JBA in (12)According to the survey, 70% of the companies surveyed are concentrated in Los Angeles County, with Los Angeles (108) and Torrance (94) prominent.Then 20%Orange CountyBased in Irvine and Cypress. Also,Mexican borderThere are also 20 companies in San Diego County near. However, the manufacturing industry is more common in the industrial areas along the Mexican border (Maquidora) in Orange County and San Diego County than in overcrowded Los Angeles. How many Japanese companies are expanding into Southern California1980 eraAlthough it has been decreasing after peaking at (55-64 / 62.4), new establishments are continuing. 24.3% are established as corporate headquarters in the United States and 72.8% are established as branches, which is a starting point for expanding into the United States.XNUMX% of local employers are employed, most of them金融-insuranceWork,Manufacturing industryI am in Temporary employees from JapanReal estateWork andConstruction industryHowever, it is on a downward trend at about 3.1% of the total.Medium to large scale with over 100 employeesCompanyNumber andemploymentThe number is decreasing, and on the contrary, 70% of the total are small companies (in Japan)中小企业), And is increasing employment.80% of the target companies expect sales to increase or profits similar to the previous year.real estate,Wholesale-retailIndustries such as manufacturing, finance and insurance are doing well.
2002In (14), JCCNC conducted a "Bay Area Japanese company fact-finding survey". Compared to the 2000 (Heisei 12) survey, the number of companies in the Bay Area has decreased, and the average number of employees per company has also decreased significantly to 1.The average number of temporary staff from Japan is four, and there is no change. 49% are local corporations of Japanese companies.4% of the locations are in Santa Clara, San Francisco and San Mateo County. 80%Service industryOr the manufacturing industry.2% of companies have increased their sales over the past two years, 36% have decreased, about 46% have a deficit in operating profit, and about 34% have said their outlook for the next year or two has improved or remained flat. It was.1% of the total is somethingvolunteerThe activities and donations to American organizations totaled $1940 million.
Every year, JCCNC and JBA representatives jointlySacramentoPays a courtesy visit to the State Assembly.2007Degree (19)Arnold SchwarzeneggerI had the opportunity to visit the Governor and thanked Japanese companies for their investment (1739 companies of $290 billion) and employment (15 people). State legislatorsmedical insurance,Driver's licenseFrom the personal life level such asMarine containerTaxation, facilityconsumption taxHe called for improvements to corporate-level issues such as environmental legislation and gave advice on attracting state businesses.AsianWe also had a luncheon to make pipes with the members of the Diet.
Japanese language education
Due to the large number of Japanese people and the close relationship with Japan, California has a full-time private overseas education facility.Nishi Yamato AcademyAnd all over the stateMinistry of educationLicensedSupplementary schoolThere are 6 schools. According to the Ministry of Education's announcement in 2002 (Heisei 14), three schools in Los Angeles (common name: Asahi Gakuen), San Francisco supplementary school, San Diego supplementary school (common name: Minato Gakuen) are among the 3 schools worldwide. It is in the top 187 schools. Among them, the Los Angeles and San Francisco supplementary schools, which occupy the top 10st and 1nd place, are both mammoth schools with multiple school buildings and more than 2 enrolled students.
There are two non-approved supplementary schools and JapaneseImmersion,Japanese SubjectIt is inPublic schoolTraining for Japanese language teachers according to the curriculum in the stateIs performed, (Second language-Foreign language educationAs)Japanese language educationIs thriving.
sub cultureThere is a positive climate for.
2004(16), Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger visited Japan to promote industry and tourism. From 2008 (Heisei 22) to 2009 (Heisei 21), the state tourism agency is advertising with a copy of "Anything California".
Sister cities and partner cities with Japan
- Sister municipalities
- sister city
- HokkaidoSetana Town/ Old Setana Town - Hanford City
- HokkaidoMemuro Town -
- AomoriTago Town - Gilroy City
- IwateKitakami City - Concord City
- MiyagiSendai city - Riverside city
- MiyagiIwanuma City - Napa City
- MiyagiMarumori Town -
- AkitaOga City -
- IbarakiMito - Anaheim City
- IbarakiTsukuba City - Milpitas City
- Tskuba-city, Ibaraki-pref - Irvine City
- IbarakiKamisu City - Eureka City
- IbarakiToride city/ Old Fujishiro - Yuba City
- IbarakiTsuchiura City - Palo Alto City
- TochigiNikko - Palm Springs City
- TochigiMoka -
- GunmaOta City - Burbank City
- SaitamaChichibu City - Antioch City
- SaitamaHanno -
- SaitamaKasukabe - Pasadena City
- SaitamaFukaya - Fremont City
- SaitamaSoka - Carson city
- Saitama蕨 市 -
- ChibaIchikawa City - Gardena city
- ChibaFunabashi - Hayward City
- ChibaKisarazu - Oceanside city
- ChibaNarita City - City of San Bruno
- ChibaKashiwa - Torrance city
- ChibaFuttsu - Carlsbad City
- ChibaYotsukaido-shi - Livermore City
- TokyoTachikawa - City of San Bernardino
- TokyoHino city - Redlands City
- TokyoMizuho -
- KanagawaOdawara city - Chula Vista City
- KanagawaIsehara -
- Kanagawa横 浜 市 - City of San Diego
- NiigataKariwa Village - Half Moon Bay City
- IshikawaNanao City - Monterey City
- FukuiFukui City - Fullerton City
- YamanashiKofu City - Lodi City
- YamanashiNirasaki - Fairfield city
- NaganoOmachi/ Old Mima village -
- ShizuokaShizuoka City - Stockton City
- ShizuokaMishima City - Pasadena City
- ShizuokaFujinomiya city - Santa Monica City
- ShizuokaShimada - Richmond City
- ShizuokaFuji city - Oceanside city
- ShizuokaIwata - Mountain view city
- ShizuokaKannan Town -
- ShizuokaHamamatsu city/ Old Mikkabi Town - Porterville City
- AichiNagoya city - City of Los Angeles
- Aichi岡 崎 市 - Newport Beach City
- AichiToyokawa - Cupertino City
- AichiTsushima - Hercules City
- AichiAnjo City - Huntington Beach City
- AichiInuyama - Davis City
- MieYokkaichi - Long beach city
- MieToba - Santa Barbara city
- KyotoMukai - Saratoga City
- OsakaOsaka - San Francisco city
- OsakaSakai City - Berkeley City
- OsakaKishiwada - South San Francisco City
- OsakaToyonaka City - City of San Mateo
- OsakaKaizuka City - Culver City
- OsakaTakaishi -
- OsakaHigashi Osaka City - Glendale City
- HyogoAkashi City - Vallejo City
- HyogoAshiya - Montebello city
- HyogoMiki - Visalia City
- HyogoOno City - Lindsay City
- HyogoKato City/ Old Takino Town - Hollister City
- WakayamaWakayama City - Bakersfield City
- WakayamaHashimoto -
- WakayamaArita City -
- WakayamaShingu City - Santa Cruz City
- WakayamaKushimoto -
- WakayamaNachi Katsuura Town - Monterey Park City
- TottoriMt. Ooyama Town/ Old Nakayama Town - Temecula City
- TottoriNichinan Town - Scotts Valley City
- Shimane Izumo - Santa Clara City
- Shimane Jiangjin City - Corona City
- OkayamaOkayama City - City of San Jose
- Yamaguchi Shimonoseki - Pittsburgh City
- KagawaSakaide - Sausalito City
- EhimeMatsuyama City - Sacramento City
- KochiKochi - Fresno city
- FukuokaFukuoka City - Auckland City
- FukuokaKurume - Modest city
- FukuokaItoshima/ OldMaebara - Escondido City
- SagaTakeo City/ Old Yamauchi Town -
- KumamotoAmakusa/ Old Hondo City -
- KagoshimaIchikikushikino City/ Old Kushikino - Salinas City
- KagoshimaKirishima/ Old Kirishima Town - Sonora City
Celebrities from the same state
- ^ According to historical materials published in 1601 by the Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas,フ ロ リ ダ,Dry tote gas,Cape CanaveralandAppalachianIs a place name previously named
- ^ Japan time : May 12
- ^ CampMinistry of ArmyThose managed by WRA below,Ministry of JusticeThere was a camp managed by. When referred to as a Japanese-American concentration camp, it generally refers to the former.
- ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CSV) ”. US Census Bureau (December 2009, 12). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "E-4 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State, 2001? 2009, with 2000 Benchmark.”. Sacramento, California: State of California, Department of Finance (May 2009). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. US Census Bureau. P. 29 (April 2004). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ Laaksonen-Craig, Susanna; Goldman, George; McKillop, William (2003) (PDF). Forestry, Forest Products, and Forest Products Consumption in California. Davis, California: University of California? Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. P. 1. ISBN 978-1-60107-248-1
- ^ "Is the US state of separation and independence the birth of the 51st state?"(July 2011, 7) 2011th of February 7Browse.
- ^ a b Gudde, Erwin G. and William Bright. 2004. California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. P. 59-60
- ^ Lavender, David (1987). California: Land of New Beginnings. University of Nebraska Press. Pp. 27. ISBN 0803279248. OCLC 15315566
- ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=california&searchmode=none
- ^ Person-Lynn, 2004.
- ^ Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. Pp. 11-17
- ^ Alice Friedemann. “Lessons for California and the US from movie "How Cuba survived Peak Oil"”. Culture Change. 2007th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States”. US Geological Survey (April 2005, 4). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ David Elstein (May 2004). “Restoring California's Native Grasses”. Agricultural Research magazine 52 (5): 17 2009th of February 12Browse..
- ^ a b "Table 4. Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CSV) ”. United States Census Bureau (December 2009, 12). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "Subcounty population estimates: California 2000-2007 (CSV) ”. United States Census Bureau, Population Division (March 2009, 3). 2009th of February 5Browse.
- ^ "About Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services”. Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (December 2005). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ Barrett, Beth (September 2003, 9). “Baby Slump In LA County”. Los Angeles Daily News (Los Angeles Newspaper Group): pp. N4 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ In terms of coordinates,
- ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000 (TXT)". United States Census 2000. US Census Bureau Geography Division (May 2002, 5). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau:”. US Census Bureau. 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "California-ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006-2008". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "Most spoken languages in California in 2005”. Modern Language Association. 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)". Census 2000. US Census Bureau (February 2003, 2). 2009th of February 12Browse.
- ^ California Constitution article 3 sec. 6 California Law
- ^ English-only movement English version article September 2007, 9 19:17 UTC version
- ^ a b "CA Codes (gov: 34500-34504)”. California State Senate. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Instant City: Sacramento”. California State Library. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "San Jose at a Glance”. City of San Jose. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "A History of San Diego Government”. City of San Diego. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "California State Parks: 1846 to 1854”. California State Parks (May 2007, 5). 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ McKinnon, Julissa (October 2008, 10). “Menifee celebrates cityhood”. The Press-Enterprise (Press-Enterprise Company) 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ American FactFinder. US Census Bureau. February 2011, 2.
- ^ "California Codes, Civil Code Section 22-22.2". California Civil Codes. Legislative Counsel of the State of California. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Sarhaddi Nelson, Soraya (February 2006, 2). “Morales execution on hold indefinitely”. Orange County Register (Freedom Communications) 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Thompson, Don (December 2007, 12). “Calif. Struggles with sentencing reform”. USA Today (Gannett Company) 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Sabato, Larry J. (March 2007, 3). “Electoral Trends Warm Sunbelt, Freeze Frostbelt". Sabato's Crystal Ball. University of Virginia Center for Politics. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Country Comparison :: GDP (purchasing power parity)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Cal Facts 2004 State Economy”. Legislative Analyst's Office of California (December 2004, 12). 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "California's World Ranking? 2003 Gross Product (Microsoft Excel.Xls)”. California Department of Finance. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Regional Economic Accounts (interactive tables)". Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Yi, Matthew (July 2009, 7). “State's budget gap deepens $2 billion overnight”. San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Communications): p. A-1 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Pender, Kathleen (May 2006, 5). “Google's April surprise for state”. San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Communications): p. A-1 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Nunes, Devin (January 2009, 1). “California's Gold Rush Has Been Reversed”. The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company): p. A9 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Christie, Jim; Linnane, Ciara; Parry, John (June 2009, 6). “Moody's warning on California debt stuns state”. Reuters. San Francisco: Thomson Reuters 2010th of February 2Browse.
- ^ “California Makes Plea for US Aid”. The New York Times. Associated Press (The New York Times Company): p. A21. (February 2010, 2) 2010th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Welch, William (February 2009, 2). “In California's meltdown, misery has long reach”. USA Today (Gannett Co) 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Bls.govLocal Area Unemployment Statistics
- ^ a b "Trade Statistics”. California Chamber of Commerce. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ a b "Cal Facts 2006 State Economy”. Legislative Analyst's Office of California (December 2007, 8). 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ “State Personal Income 2006” (Press Release), Bureau of Economic Analysis, (March 2007, 3) 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Cowan, Tadlock (December 2005, 12). “(PDF)”. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. P. 2. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Equalization California Board of (July 2009). “(PDF)". 2009th of February 9Browse.
- ^ “California at Budget Impasse as State Nears Insolvency”. Fox News Channel (News Corp.). (February 2009, 2) 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ a b “California's time is running out”. San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Communications): p. A-12. (June 2009, 6) 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Reach Hot California Travel Spots by Amtrak Thruway Bus Connections”. Amtrak Official Website. 2016th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "Proposition 98 Primer”. Legislative Analyst's Office of California (February 2005). 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "California Comparison”. Education Data Partnership. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "CSU Facts 2008”. California State University Office of Public Affairs (January 2009, 1). 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Community Colleges”. California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office (2009). 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Hiroshima Industrial Promotion Organization International Department Los Angeles Report September 2001 "Actual situation of Japanese companies in Southern California"
- ^ Announcement from the Subcommittee of the Association of Japanese Companies in Southern California, "Visit Sacramento in 2007 (Heisei 19) with an interview with the Governor"
- ^ Northern Japan Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2006 (Heisei 18) Courtesy call to Sacramento
- ^ The Japan Foundation Business Activities Overseas Japanese Language Education "Japanese Language Education Country Information"
- ^ California Tourism Board-Anything California
- List of California metropolitan areas
- California Power Crisis
- California (Battleship)
- California Roll
- Consulate-General of Japan in Los Angeles,Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco
- California Government (English)
- Japanese goverment
- Consulate-General of Japan in Los Angeles (Japanese)
- Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco (Japanese)
- Japan Independent Administrative Agency
- The Japan Foundation in Los Angeles (English)
- Japan Tourist Office in Los Angeles (Japanese)
- Japan External Trade Organization in Los Angeles (JETRO) (Japanese)
- California Tourism Board (Japanese)