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🏃 | Spring High School Championships Start / Shiga


写真 

Spring high school overall begins / Shiga

 
If you write the contents roughly
Even in athletics, under the blue sky, the athletes, mainly in the third grade, were trying their best to demonstrate the results of their practice.
 

The Spring Prefectural High School Championships, which leads to the Inter-High, started on June XNUMXrd with many competitions.Last year it was held at Corona War ... → Continue reading

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Athletics

Athletics(Rikujokyogi) is mainly performed on the tracks, fields or roads of the open-air stadium.Run-jump-throwFocusing on 3 basic techniquesCompetition OfGeneric term[1].. simplylandIt is often called (Rikujo).

Overview

Athletics is a general term for sports that are mainly performed outdoors (fields, tracks, or roads in outdoor stadiums), and have three basic skills: running, jumping, and throwing.[1].World Indoor Athletics ChampionshipsThere are also track and field competitions that are held indoors,60m runThere are also events where only the room is an official event.

Its history776 BCThe 1thAncient olympicGo back to. →#history

Track and field competitions are roughly classified into running events and are conducted on stadium tracks.Track competition, Jump (Long jumpEtc.) and throws (Hammer throwEtc.) as the subjectField competition,furthermarathon,RacewalkRun a set course on the road outside the stadiumRoad raceThere is. However, depending on the stadium, there may be field competitions (especially jumps) located outside the track. Track and field competitionsAthletic fieldAs an internal competitionTrack & fieldMay be treated together with the competition.

History

Athletics776 BCThe 1thAncient olympic[2] It is a competition with a history that goes back to. At this time (XNUMXst time), the running event for the length of the stadium,Running stadium(Short-distance running as it is called in modern times) was only performed, and the number of events increased after that. In addition to the stadium run (short sprint) at the Middle Greek Olympic Games,Dialos running(Medium-distance running),Doricos running(Long-distance running),Pentathlon,Discus throw,Spear throwing,High jumpWas also done[3][Note 1]..In addition to this in GreeceNemea Festival,Isthmian Festival,Putia Grand FestivalSuch a big competition was being held[4].

OtherCeltic,TeutonicDefeated the Roman EmpireGoth peopleIt seems that ethnic groups such as the above also held athletics competitions and were gaining popularity. However, in these races, athletics was generally associated with military discipline and was not very organized.中 世It seems that the sons of aristocrats were training in riding, jumping, wrestling, etc. Hosting competitions with rival competitors and friends was also widely practiced, both formal and informal.

It has been confirmed that many track-and-field sports have been popular across Europe beyond the time frame. AthleticsRenaissanceAfter that, it developed as a modern sport,1896Held in1st Athens OlympicsIt has spread throughout the world. Many land-based events have their origins dating back to ancient times, and the form as a sporting event had already been established in ancient Greece. Athletics1896Also held at the 1st Modern Olympic Games in[5], It will continue to be an ongoing competition, and it will be a flower competition in the first half of the Olympics, which has always been held since the first competition.SwimmingAlong with, it is said to be a flower-shaped competition in the latter half of the Olympic Games.Regarding athletics and swimming, the competition numbers are often No. 1 and No. 2 in general sports competitions other than the Olympic Games, and with the exception of pole vaulting and throwing in athletics, basically tools and opponents are used. Its existence value is emphasized because it is a universal sport that pushes the limits of humankind with only one's own body without needing it.Compared to commercial sports such as martial arts and ball games, which aim to make money as a professional, their raison d'etre is also different.However, in the first half of the 20th century, there was a strict rule that athletes participating in international competitions must be amateurs, but in the second half of the 20th centuryEastern countriesAlso inWestern countriesIn the early 1990s, such regulations no longer existed.[6].. In the 19th century, athletics belonged to men, and only men participated in the Olympic Games, but in 1921International Women's Sports FederationWas founded and women's athletics competitions began to be held in 1928.Amsterdam olympicWomen's track and field became an Olympic event in[7].

International Sporting OrganizationWorld athletics The1912Was founded in1983From now on, apart from the Olympics, as an athletics-only event,World Athletics ChampionshipsCame to hold[8].. World Athletics is one of the world's leading sporting eventsBerlin competitionIt is said that about 3300 million people watched the event[9].. otherWorld Indoor Athletics Championships,European Athletics ChampionshipsAnd so on. Also,Asian GamesAthletics are always held even in competitions by continent, and it is one of the flower competitions. Although it attracts a lot of attention during the major track and field events, especially in the Olympics, the general interest in many countries tends to be rather low in many sports.

In track and field competitions, a circuit competition was established in 1985 to compete for overall results by competing in competitions around the world. IAAF Grand PrixIAAF Golden League・Through2010The two are integrated fromIAAF Diamond LeagueNext[10],IAAF World ChallengeHeld every year from spring to summer (since 2020)[6].. On the other hand, in marathon competitions, large-scale marathon competitions are being held all over the world.Boston Marathon-London marathon-Berlin marathon-Chicago Marathon-New York City Marathon5 tournaments and 7 tournaments including the Olympic and World AthleticsWorld Marathon MajorsCame to be held[11].. Furthermore, from the 2013 competition,Tokyo marathonParticipated in the World Marathon Majors, making a total of 8 competitions[12].

The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom imposed national restrictions on the enjoyment of sports during the 13th and 16th centuries. this isarcheryWas to make sure that the training of[13].. After this constraint was lifted in the 17th century, sports re-energized in Britain. Track and field organization activities began to take place in the 19th century. This has the effect that sports education has started to be implemented in schools. As the first appearance that the athletics in a regular school was adopted,Sandhurst Royal Military AcademyIn1812,1825There is no evidence to reinforce this, although there is a theory that it was done. The oldest meeting on record is the country'sShropshireShrewsbury1940It was held by the Royal Shrewsbury School in1838から1841CT Robinson, who had been enrolled as a student until 60 years, wrote in details in several letters XNUMX years later.

1868According to the "Latest Athletics" published in, most of the athletics at that time were handicap races.[14].. AthleticsgamblingThe audience focused more on winning and losing and on the process of race and fairness than on record. Therefore, qualified handicappers were equipped with handicaps, such as adjusting the start position according to the track record of the athletes, to produce a heated race. On the other hand, eliminating professional runners,紳士Amateur track and field clubs aimed at character building through sports1866Was organized in London and held a permanent athletic stadium[14].. Track and field handicap races were held even in official races such as the Olympic Games until the first half of the 20th century, but they disappeared in the process of changing sports from modern sports based on amateur rules.

Japan

JapanThen.1873(6th year of Meiji)May 3ToTokyo-TsukijiWas inNavy soldier dormitoryOpened by an English teacher inCompetitive gameIs the first track and field event[15].. Competitive gameathletic sportsIn spite of this, sparrow chick nest (Suzume no Sudachi, 150 yards run), Tsubame Gakuhi (Tsubame no Tobinari, 300 yards run)High jump) Etc.[15].. In October of the same yearKaisei school(Tokyo UniversitySource)Emperor MeijiIt is possible that the first exercise of "Gymnastic Handbook" "Gyohi" performed under the seat next to you was a race.[16].. AthleticsJapaneseWhat will be done between1875(Meiji 8)Tokyo English School(Later the University of Tokyo)Frederick William StrangeAfter the dissemination activities by[17].. StrangeEaton CollegeI am fromBoat competitionSpecialize in practicing these and in the leisure time, attracted and disseminated students' interests[17].1883(Meiji 16)Tokyo UniversityIt became a specialty of the University of Tokyo since the athletic meet was held with three departments[18].. Later in this athletic meetMinoru FujiiSet a world record with 100m and pole vault[19].

Meiji 30s (1897 - 1906), with Tokyo Imperial UniversityDaiichi High SchoolCentered onGakuin,Higher commercial school(AfterHitotsubashi University), but athletics became popular,1907 - 1912)Spike shoesStarted to be used,Waseda University-Keio UniversityEmerged as a new force[20].Tokyo Higher Normal School(AfterUniversity of TsukubaIn)Jigoro KanoThe school had long-distance runs under the principal, but it was still weak in the track and field world.[21].TaishoThe Japanese word "athletics" did not exist until the beginning of the era, and the athletics club that was founded around this time was "walking" at the Tokyo Higher Normal School (laterUniversity of Tsukuba Athletics ClubRenamed to),Waseda University,Meiji UniversityNow, I am calling the "race section".

Japan firstModern olympicParticipated in191245th (5th year of Meiji)Stockholm conventionAnd sprintingYahiko MishimaAnd long-distance runningShinzo KanaguriParticipated[22].. The first track-and-field competition held in Japan (organized by a non-school organization)This representative from JapanTournament for selectingInternational Olympic Pick Player Qualification"(Dainippon Athletic AssociationWas sponsored)[23].. Kanaguri devoted his life to the spread of marathons after the Olympics,Tokyo Hakone University Ekiden RaceFounded[24].

米 国

The American Amateur Sports Federation, which was the umbrella body in the United States,Professional sportsAs the promotion progressed, it went out of its jurisdiction.As a new governing body, an organization called TAC (The Athletics Congress) was formed and later renamed (USA Track and Field; USATF; USA T & F).As an even looser organization, there is (RRCA) as an organization that promotes the spread of road racing.Both groups used toFake amateurismIt does not prohibit the act of earning money through race participation.

Event

The following events are officially recognized as world records. The Japanese record is also compliant. Half marathons and Ekiden races have not been adopted for the Olympic Games or the World Athletics Championships. Like the marathon, this has to be done outside the track and field, that is, on public roads,Furthermore, because it is necessary to separate men and women, it is thought that traffic restrictions on public roads will increase too much, the burden on security will increase, and the impact of the restrictions on citizens' lives will be large.[Source required].. In the case of girls, most of long-distance running and walking, jumping, throwing, etc.Japan Land FederationMany of them started as non-Japanese record official events. Mostly1930Although it was officially approved by1980, Triple jump1986, Pole vault, hammer throw1993Became officially recognized.

World record

The following eventsWorld recordCertified by World Athletics as.

National records

Japan

The next event is the Japan Athletics FederationJapanese recordIs certified as.

U20 world record

The following events are officially recognized as U20 world records.

Indoor world record

The following events are recognized as indoor world records.

Others

The following events are not officially recognized as world records. Or once licensed,Summer olympicBut it was an outdoor event that was being conducted.

World record

Competition rules

About measurement and unit

About measurement of finish time (track competition)
  • torsoThe runner's finish is reached when any of the parts (here, not including the head, neck, arms, hands and feet) reaches a vertical plane that includes the end of the finish line close to the start line.[30].. The boundary between the torso and the neck is the line connecting the recessed part of the upper chest and the protrusion of the 7th cervical vertebra, and the boundary with the arm is the outer end of the scapula.[30].
  • Photo judgmentIf the device is used, in competitions of 10000 meters or less, one thousandth of a second or less is moved up to one hundredth of a second. For competitions longer than 1000 meters, less than 1/100th of a second is increased to 1/10000th of a second. In addition, even for some races that are held outside the stadium, the tenths of a second or less is advanced to a second.
  • Manual timingIn the case of, in the case of a track event, one-hundredths of a second or less is advanced to one-tenth of a second, and even in some races that are held outside the stadium, one-tenth of a second or less is advanced to a second. Also, 100clockIf two of them match, the time is recorded, and if all are different, the middle time is recorded. When there are two clocks, the later time is recorded. Therefore, multiple people are in charge of timing the same arrival order.
About the unit of distance (track competition)
  • Basically, competitions that are held on the stadium are expressed in meters, and competitions that take place on public roads are expressed in kilometers.
Distance measurement (field competition)
  • CentimeterTruncate less than and record in meters.

About wind speed measurement

wind speedMeasures the number of seconds below each item and rounds up one hundredth of a meter or less to one tenth of a meter.

  • 60 meters 5 seconds after starting
  • 100 meters 10 seconds after starting
  • 200 meters 10 seconds after the first player goes straight
  • 100 meters hurdle 13 seconds from start
  • 110 meters hurdle 13 seconds from start
  • 40 meters from the long jump crossing, 5 seconds after passing the mark by the runway, and 40 seconds from the start of the run if the competitor's run is less than 5 meters.
  • 35 meters away from the triple jump crossing board, 5 seconds after passing the mark near the runway, 35 seconds from the start of the run if the competitor's run is less than 5 meters.

For track competitions, the measuring device is installed within 1 meters from the track on the lane side, 2 meters from the finish line, and in the case of field competitions, 50 meters from the crossing and 20 meters from the runway. Install. The height shall be measured at 2 meters for both track and field.

About clothes at the time of competition

  • Even if clothes are wet, they are not transparent.
  • Number cards in front and behind (former name:Number)[Note 2].
    • Usually 1 to 4 digits. 5 digits in road races.
    • Athletes will prepare for small-scale events.
    • In some competitions (where there are limited number of participants with qualifying and standard records), a number card with the name of the event and the name of the sponsor will be distributed.
    • Recently, depending on the competition and the event (such as short-distance running in a separate lane or a field event), the number card may not be attached.
  • Track competitionPhoto judgmentAttach a waist number card that shows the lane number foranchorOften only).
    • By the way, recent waist number cards are often stickered so that they can be removed immediately (since the lane is determined just before the race). Since this sticker is completely unfamiliar with the material of spats, it often peels off immediately after the start of the competition, and in the final races of the Olympic and World Championships, the sight of the player "dropping" the white number card at the start can be seen. Therefore, some athletes put the number sticker directly on the skin such as the thigh in a 3000 meter obstacle where the stick becomes easier to peel off when the foot gets wet in the water moat.

About major disqualification

  • In track competition,Even onceIllegal startAthletes who are responsible for.. However, in a mixed competition (in addition to road races and Ekiden races according to the domestic rules), a competitor who made an incorrect start after the incorrect start of the first time.
    • This rule, in which the first false start will be disqualified immediately, has been applied in the WA sponsored competition since January 1. In Japan, it will be applied on a trial basis for three years from 2010, and after 1Japan Athletics FederationIt is applied at all tournaments sponsored and co-sponsored (excluding elementary school students). District competitions are at the discretion of each athletics association, but new rules are recommended. In principle, a flying judgment device should be installed, but if there is no such device, it will be judged visually and by video.Japan Student Athletics AssociationAlso with the Japan Student Track and Field Individual ChampionshipJapan Student Track and Field ChampionshipsThe new rules are applied in both tournaments.2011 World AthleticsOf the world record holder in the men's 100m finalUsain BoltWas disqualified due to a false start, so this new rule attracted attention[31].
    • Introduced in 2003, the rule that every race is disqualified after the first flying in each race, but the fact that the first flying will not be disqualified, you can intentionally fly for bargaining Things were being questioned[32].
    • National Elementary School Athletics Exchange CompetitionThen, if the same competitor makes two false starts, he will be disqualified.
  • Interfering with other competitors, such as intentionally blocking the path of other runners.
  • In open lane track competitions, when a runner comes into contact with someone other than another runner during the competition (because it is considered to have been assisted by an outsider. ).
  • In an open lane track competition, invading inside the designated lane.
  • In a separate lane track competition, deviating from your lane during the competition.
  • Perform baton delivery outside the takeover zone by relay running.
  • In a relay run, when the baton pass has not been established (the runner who receives the baton dropped before touching the receiving runner picks up, throws it, etc.).
  • In a hurdle run, you stick out the hurdle and jump to a lower position, or you intentionally knock down the hurdle.
  • When you do not accept the convocation (roll call before the start of the competition) by the designated time.
  • Use of prohibited drugsTo do.
  • SexFalsely enter the competition.
  • Other, leading to the prescribed disqualification.

About the start signal of the running event in the international competition

  • StarterEnglish-French· Give a signal in one of the venue languages.
    • If it is less than 400m, the starter will first say "On your marks" to bring the athlete to the starting position. After that, the starter said to the player, "Set"Crouching startTake the posture ofStarter pistolShoot.
    • If it exceeds 400m, the starter will say "On your marks" and will put the athlete in the starting position,Standing startAfter confirming that it is in the posture, shoot the starter pistol.
  • With the revision of the 2006 Racing Rules, the signals given by starters will be unified in English at the following competitions.
    • World Athletics Championships,Olympicand
      • The World Championship is applied from the 2007 Osaka Games and the Olympic Games from the 2008 Beijing Games.
    • Track and field championships with exclusive control of WA
    • International competitions other than those mentioned above will be signaled in the language of the country or region in which they are held as usual, in English or French.

Handling of official events and official records

  • The official event is an event officially approved by WA, etc.World recordRecognized as. This authorization is held by the IAAF[33].. In addition, it is treated as the "world highest record" in events other than the officially recognized events. In official events, the official records (world records, national records, various competition records) are 100 meters, 200 meters, 100 meters hurdles, and 110 meters hurdles.Long jump,Triple jumpIn the case of, a tailwind of 2.0m or less will be an official record. If the tail wind exceeds 2.0 m, ranking records of various competitions will be attached, but it is not recognized as an official record.Tailwind reference recordCan be stopped[34].
  • In mixed competitions, if the average wind speed of the event that measures the wind speed is within 2.0m of the tailwind, it will be certified as the record of the mixed competition, otherwise it will be the "tailwind reference record" (2010 rule revision).
  • Only an official record can be obtained unless it is recorded at a competition that complies with WA competition rules.[35].

International Federation

Since it was founded in 1912,World athletics(WA) of track and fieldInternational FederationHas become. At the beginning, it was named "International Amateur Athletic Federation" (IAAF).[36], Sports in the late 1970sAmateur rhythmFrom the shift from professionalism to professionalism[6]In 2001, the name of amateur was deleted and it was changed to "International Association of Athletics Federations" (abbreviated as IAAF).[37].. Furthermore, the name was changed again in November 2019 and became the current name.[38].

WA has 215 member countries and regions,Six great statesThere is a competition federation that governs each[39].. The six continental federations are Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, North America and South America. WA headquarters since 6(I.e.Being scented[37].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In addition, although the classification is different from the modern "land", at that time (outdoors) there were also tank races, wrestling, boxing (fisting),PankrationWas also done.
  2. ^ Only one front or back vault and pole vault is required.

Source

  1. ^ a b Daijisen
  2. ^ "Cultural History of Sport: From the Ancient Olympics to the 21st Century" p29 Wolfgang Behringer Translated by Yoko Takagi Hosei University Press March 2019, 3 First edition First edition
  3. ^ "Illustration of the History of Humankind: Ancient Science and Technology 70 Great Inventions that Created the World" p207 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First edition First edition
  4. ^ "Cultural history of sports: From the ancient Olympics to the 21st century" p41-42 Wolfgang Behringer Translated by Yoko Takagi Hosei University Press March 2019, 3 First edition, first edition
  5. ^ https://www.joc.or.jp/sp/column/olympic/history/002.html "Beginning of the Modern Olympics" Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Japanese Olympic Committee Retrieved April 2020, 4
  6. ^ a b c "Sports World Map" by p86 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
  7. ^ "Athletics Coaching Studies" p3-4 Japan Association of Athletics Federations Taishukan Shoten February 2020, 2 First Edition First Edition
  8. ^ https://www.jp.tdk.com/athletic/wca_tdk/ "World Athletics Championships and TDK" TDK Corporation Retrieved April 2020, 4
  9. ^ "Sports World Map" by p97 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
  10. ^ https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2677080?cx_part=search "Bolts that made the world hot again in 2009" AFPBB December 2009, 12 Retrieved April 22, 2020
  11. ^ "Sports World Map" by p69 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
  12. ^ https://www.marathon.tokyo/about/founders-history/ "History of the Games" TOKYO MARATHON 2020 Retrieved April 2020, 4
  13. ^ Kei Okao "Searching for Roots of Athletics" Bunrakukaku 1996 p.6
  14. ^ a b Toshio Nakamura "Sociology of Sports Rules" Asahi Shimbun <Asahi Election Book> 1991,ISBN 402259523X pp. 32-50.
  15. ^ a b Hasegawa 2013, pp. 59-60.
  16. ^ Hasegawa 2013, p. 59.
  17. ^ a b Hasegawa 2013, p. 60.
  18. ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 60-61.
  19. ^ Hasegawa 2013, p. 61.
  20. ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 61-62.
  21. ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 41-47.
  22. ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 112-128.
  23. ^ Hasegawa 2013, p. 66.
  24. ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 141-267.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Girls only
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Boys only
  27. ^ Men's Japan Record
  28. ^ Women's Japan record
  29. ^ 7300 points or more for girls
  30. ^ a b Track competition referee Japan Athletics Federation
  31. ^ "Athletics Coaching Studies" p5 Japan Association of Athletics Federations Taishukan Shoten February 2020, 2 First Edition First Edition
  32. ^ Immediate disqualification after flying Kokusai Renren to introduce new rules - Asahi Shimbun
  33. ^ https://www.jaaf.or.jp/pdf/about/rule/1918.pdf `` Athletics Rulebook 2019'' p371 Japan Association of Athletics Federations viewed November 2019, 11
  34. ^ "Athletics Coaching Studies" p5 Japan Association of Athletics Federations Taishukan Shoten February 2020, 2 First Edition First Edition
  35. ^ https://www.jaaf.or.jp/athlete/rule/handbook_pdf/02.pdf "Official Competition" Japan Association of Athletics Federations, viewed November 2019, 11
  36. ^ "Sports World Map" by p94 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
  37. ^ a b "Sports World Map" by p95 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
  38. ^ https://www.jaaf.or.jp/news/article/13372/ "Notice Regarding IAAF Organization Name Change" Japan Association of Athletics Federations November 2019, 11 Retrieved April 22, 2020
  39. ^ IAAF National Member Federations Archived 2009-09-03 at the Wayback Machine.. IAAF.Retrieved on 26 March 2010.

Related item

References

  • Takamichi Hasegawa "Running XNUMXkm Marathon Father, XNUMXrd Kinaguri Reprint"Kumamoto Nichi-Nichi Shimbun・Kumamoto Athletics Association, August 2013, 8, p.20.ISBN 978-4-87755-467-5.
  • Tokyo University of Education, Physical Education History Laboratory, "Illustrated World History of Physical Education," Shinshisha, 1964

外部 リンク

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