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⛳ | Yuka Saso "Thank you" One week after winning the US Women's Open


Photo Yuka Saso of women's golf holding the US Women's Open Championship championship trophy (provided by the Japan Women's Professional Golf Association)

Yuka Saso "Thank you" One week after winning the US Women's OP

 
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After winning the championship, he reported to his Japanese family on a videophone and showed them the trophies and enjoyed each other.
 

Yuka Saso, who won the US Women's Open Championship (closing on the 6th) at the youngest age of 19 in the history of the tournament, will be on the 13th (Japan ... → Continue reading

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Videophone

VideophoneWhat is (TV phone)?TelToVideo cameraVideo monitorIt is the name of a system that allows you to talk while watching the face of the other person by combining screens. Using the internet lineVideo chatAndVideo conferenceRefer to the item for. Unless otherwise specified in this section, videophones (dedicated videophone terminals) in Japan andfeature phoneDescribe the videophone in (phone call).

History

First appearance of video phones in the world

First appeared1936May 3Opened toLeipzig Trade Fairwas.The videophone at that timePublic phoneThere is a telephone room likemonitorHandsetWas installed.BerlinLeipzigThe call charge was 3 and a half marks, and the current monetary value was 5000 yen, and I was able to make a call for only 3 minutes.But,1939May 9ToPolish invasionService was discontinued for military reasons when[1].

First appearance of videophone in Japan

The first time a videophone appeared in front of people1970Held inOsaka Exposo,OsakaTokyoIt is said to be the first to connect the gap. At that time, there was no small camera, and it was quite large and expensive. In general, it was a dream and a dream story, such as using a dedicated line for communication. Since thenDenden Public CorporationPR was done at the booths.

Still picture tv phone

1987,SonyThe still image videophone "Mieru" was released for 49800 yen. Due to the limitation of the line speed at that time, it had a display capacity of several frames per minute in monochrome. Although the video can be saved on audio tape, it is initially incompatible with the Sony camp.Mitsubishi ElectricThe camps were standing side by side, but were later unified.

For the appearance of a practical videophone, it was important to maintain a high-speed line that can be used on a daily basis. Near the 21st century, a practical videophone will come out.ISDN videophone,Analog line videophoneTelephones were expensive and not common, but later, mobile phone videophone-compatible models became widespread and the prices were lower, and the fixed telephone systems are also becoming lower in price.

Realization on landline

For the appearance of a practical videophone, it was important to maintain a high-speed line that can be used on a daily basis. Near the 21st century, practical videophones have come out.

Other than the use of simply adding an image to the telephone, the main use methods are as follows.

  • Video conferencing (video conference)
  • English conversationInternet lessons, internet, etc.Tutorな ど
  • Means of communication between doctors in the medical field and between patients and patients and telemedicine
  • Deaf personSign language interpreter for
  • Contact between a care welfare company and the care recipient's home
  • Relay with viewers and performers' homes in TV broadcasting
  • On the go of the crew in the transportation company

ISDN video telephone

In ISDN, assuming the use of a videophone from the beginning of development, a band of 64 channels was decided at 2 Kbps each for audio and video.

Mobile phone with cameraThe advantages over the videophone using the terminal are the sharpness of the image (resolution) and the size of the screen. 704 x 408 for major ISDN videophonesDotIt can handle (maximum) images. For this reason, the main LCD monitor is a 5-inch LCD monitor, which is suitable for simultaneous calls by multiple people. Some products can be connected to a home TV (or require a separate TV). At the time of mass production of videophones using ISDN lines, still images were the mainstay, but progress in image compression technology and the development of high-speed processors, and the use of INS64's 2B channel, 1 bandsADPCM4/5 for voice (call)MovieIt became possible to send and receive relatively stress-free video and audio by allocating in a well-balanced manner (ITU-T international standard is PCM only, in which case audio 1/3, video 2/3 band Allocation).

A general ISDN videophone terminal achieves 15 frames per second (maximum) and is equipped with a camera with a resolution of about 30 pixels.ISDNCharacteristics of (デ ジ タ ルCircuit switchingSince there is almost no data loss during transmission/reception, it is a major feature that the behavior expected during development can be faithfully reproduced without depending on the environment.

Many products are standard telephonesliquid crystalWith monitorカメラOften has a built-in shape, you can see the most common and completed form as a videophone. The communication system is almost standardized and standardized to some extent by each manufacturer, and it is possible to support still images and low-pixel lower-layer communication systems using the communication speed of 64K on one side.Analog videophoneThere are many products that can communicate with.

In 1990ITU-T H.261Following the advocacy of (International Standard for Image Compression),2000 eraSince then, it has spread rapidly mainly in the fields of medical care, education, and mass media.

A typical model used in such cases is the Phoenix mini, which is a low-priced terminal that OEM supplied to NTT by Mitsubishi Electric.HV-300, HV-31 and so on. The latter two models are positioned as high-end models of ISDN fixed videophones. As a successor to the Phoenix miniFOMAA model that works in cooperation with has also appeared (however, the video for FOMA communication depends on the network quality of the FOMA side, which makes it considerably slow and unclear).

Almost all models are compatible with multipoint conferences, and some high-end models such as HV-31 host specific terminals themselves and hold each terminal to hold videoconference without special service. There are also products that do so.

Analog line videophone

Conventional analog telephone network (GSTN) ButanalogTelmodemWith the speedup of, the videophone with sufficiently practical image quality can be used.H.263byAnalog lineV.34 modem for use 33.6kbps circuit switching data communication.ISDN videophoneMany can be connected to each other. However, the other party's ISDN videophone must support 1B video calling. In addition, in the case of 1B communication, in many cases, the number of frames per second is considerably reduced, resulting in loss of smoothness, and since it takes time from connection to communication start, it is less practical than the ISDN system. doing.

IP videophone

With the spread of the Internet,IP phoneInVoIPLike the video signalIP networkIntroduced the technology of transmitting in.Video VoIP (VVoIP) Also say.Broadband lineMany of the things that take the form of IP phones to connect, often 1 ~ 15 frames can be sent and received per second. Especially,Optical fiberWhen using as an access line, the smoothness of the video has reached a level where there is almost no problem. In addition, the installation form was mostly fixed because it depended on the line system.

Like an IP phone,TelAs a servicePhone NumberMay be assigned. In addition, call charges may not be charged between the same networks.

In the field of IP videophone, communication standards were in a state of disrepair, but it was used from the beginning as an end-to-end protocol.H.323からSIPThe transition to video codecs is progressing rapidly, and video codecs are alsoH.263からMPEG-4,H.264The transition has progressed to.

  • NTT (East and West) : FLET'SWith the Phone VP1000, IP videophone services provided by major IP telephone operators and on the FLET'S networkVideo chatAlso supports services.
    • Hikari phoneStarted videophone service between VP1000 connected to the line and FOMA.
    • FLET'S Phone VP1500 as an inexpensive videophone / video conferencing terminal for business use, FLET'S Phone VP100 as an inexpensive videophone terminal for consumers, and FLET'S Phone VP2000 as a larger screen Internet / videophone terminal (NTT EastOnly), VP3000 was also released.
  • Ginga System Solution : NEWProvides a videophone terminal for foreign language lessons.
  •  : Peer-to-peerIt provides a videophone system of the system.
  • JANIS net : Provides videophone service using Sonnet TELEBB-1000.

Realization with feature phones

1999, the world's first camera phoneKyoceraVP-210Was released, and the spread of mobile video telephones became a reality, and various attempts were made.

DDI pocket

1999DDI Pocket in SeptemberWILLCOM→CurrentSoftbank) Released byKyoceraOf the terminalVP-210Is the world's first videophone on a mobile phone. 32kbps OfCircuit switchingToMotion JPEG1 in 2 second with colorフ レ ー ムIt was hard to say that it was practical because of the technical limitations at that time. The service was launched prior to mobile phones, but the production of terminals has since been discontinued.

FOMA (W-CDMA)

NTT DoCoMoFOMAThen,W-CDMAAs part of the common standard, videophones will be a pillar of service. The first FOMAP2101VIt was possible to make a video call from, and it became 1 frames per second.

With the spread of FOMA, callers are not notified to videophones.One cutWas also born. The reason is that FOMA receives emails by phone number.SMSIt is said that the purpose is to collect information to send the email.

Use the same communication methodSoftbank mobile OfSoftBank 3GOr overseasW-CDMA Adopt (UMTS)CareerAlso provides videophones and is compatible with FOMA (Avatar data in the FOMA terminal).DecodeBecause it is sent after performing, it is also possible to receive character images with SoftBank 3G).

All 3G mobile phones, including FOMA, are used as videophone technology for video.MPEG-4For visual and audioAMRUsing3G-324M"The standard is adopted. W-CDMA videophone is 64kbpsCircuit switchingIt is realized by data communication.

NTT (East and West)Hikari phoneStarted videophone service between VP1000 connected to the line and FOMA.

Docomo PHS

January 2002Docomo PHSAlso, the housing of FOMA "P2101V" was diverted.Lookwalk P751vThe terminal called has appeared. In terms of performance, it is just a FOMA-compatible P2101v compatible with PHS. At that time, the area of ​​FOMA was small, so this was more practical, but it did not sell well due to the fact that it was too large for PHS and data communication could not be performed by connecting to a personal computer. Also,@FreeDCan be used by plugging it into a PC for compatible terminalsVideophone softwareWas provided. 64kbps circuit-switched data communication is standard, but it can also be used at 32kbps.FOMACan be connected with.

SoftBank 3G (W-CDMA)

Vodafone Japan Corporation(Old J-PHONE, currentSoftbank mobile)But200212G service launched in DecemberVodafone Global Standard In (VGS), the W-CDMA standard videophone service was launched under the name of "Video call", and compatible terminals (V-N701/V-SA701) were also provided. However, since VGS itself did not spread so much, the number of video call users did not increase much.

2003The company name changed to Vodafone, and accordingly a pledge called "Promise of 10" was announced. Among them, "TV call service is at the same charge as the call". But the next2004The 10 promises were breached and videophones were priced 1.8 times higher than voice calls.

In December of the same year, the service nameVodafone 3GIn order to popularize the service in Japan, we introduced 7 terminals including those made overseas. Especially,Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications Of802SEWas a unique model equipped with a rotary camera at the hinge of the folding housing, and not only for taking ordinary photographs but also for taking selfies on videophones with a megapixel camera. The same communication methodW-CDMA Use (UMTS)NTT DoCoMo OfFOMAOr some overseasCareerIt is possible to make videophone calls with each other. Videophone is also available while roaming overseas.

2006The company name will be SoftBank Mobile, and the service name will also beSoftBank 3GWas changed to.

Some of the models that claim to be "video call compatible" have a small margin outside the specifications table, "You cannot talk to the other person while shooting yourself because you do not have a sub camera." There are things (for example, 944SH). The video of the other party is displayed on the display of this side, but for the video of this side, it is a substitute image registered in advance,On the back sideThe user selects and sends one of the images shot by the camera. Therefore, “TV call compatible” models that do not have a sub camera and cannot rotate the display part could not talk while looking at each other's faces.

CDMA 1X WIN (CDMA2000 1x EV-DO)

200612ToKDDI, な ら び にOkinawa Cellular PhoneEach ofau brandStarted the serviceCDMA 1X WINTop-level service of (CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev.A) Is one of the main features of the one-to-one videophone and au mobile phone compatible models (as the first compatible model)W47TandDRAPE (W46T) will be released at the same time as the service starts), and "Group Video Phone" that can talk up to 5 people has started. EV-DO Rev.A hasQoSSince the variable bit rate function, which is one of the technologies, is incorporated, if the line is busy, if the speed is not sufficient, the image quality will be degraded, or outside the area.CDMA2000 1x EV-DOBy seamlessly switching to the network, you can use videophone without stress. Unlike FOMA and Vodafone 3G,Packet communicationBy adopting the method, high-quality and highly efficient video calls[2]To support. You can also use the characters of the avatar service "EZ Avatar" provided on "au My Page", which has a function to display an avatar as a substitute image.NTT DoCoMo OfFOMA-PHSAndSoftbank OfSoftBank 3GBoth can make videophone calls with each other. You cannot make videophone calls with fixed-line phones (ISDN, analog, IP).

The decline of feature phones and videophones

In the early 21st centuryインターネットBy speeding upインターネットVideophone using line (Video chat) Has become a commonly available technology. this isInternet phoneIt is a type of software that can be realized by software if there is a camera and a microphone (which can be externally attached) and an internet connection.computerNot only each OS ofSmartphone(Android,iPhoneEtc.),PSPAlso compatible with game consoles such as. FurthermoreFlat screen tv,DVD/BD recorderWas also built into some models of.

Video chat, which can be used across OSs and terminals, does not require subscription to a dedicated service, and is inexpensive, has eliminated the need for a dedicated videophone device. further2010 eraThe smartphone was rapidly slaughtered by a feature phone, which had its own standards and systems. While it became possible to make videophone calls on a global scale, special-purpose devices and feature phones became legacy.

About popularization

Videophones and dedicated services were not as popular as smartphones. That is,Critical massThere is nothing that has reached the penetration rate of. The reasons are as follows.

  • Special machine-specific problems
    • Requires subscription to dedicated terminals and services.
    • A dedicated machine is expensive because it requires a camera and screen. The feature-phone compatible terminals were expensive and the image quality was low when the camera phone was introduced.
  • Cultural, psychological, and environmental problems of the videophone itself
    • Policies,SecurityProblem with
      • I talk while looking at the other person's face, which makes me nervous sometimes and sometimes. This is especially true when strangers or sudden calls come in (in this case, rather than letting the user display the image on the videophone suddenly, let the user choose).User interfaceIs important, and some terminals have implemented such a function).
      • Especially for women, unless they are close to each other to some extent, they are reluctant to appear on the screen with a clean face at home. This trend is spurred by the improvement in the video quality of videophones. Although “Charaden” can be said to be a countermeasure function against such a situation, there is an opinion that it falls due to the existence of the videophone.
      • Since the surroundings are also shown as a background, there are problems such as being unpleasant in a dirty room at home, sensitive information may be reflected in an office, and whereabouts may be known outside.
      • As a result, it is usually hesitant to make a videophone call suddenly because the other party is in a state of being able to take a videophone call or the calling party is not known, which leads to a drop in the actual usage rate.
    • Overwhelming advantage The problem of absence
      • Although there are many things that are convenient because of the existence of video, there are actually few situations where it is fatal to have only audio without video.

TraditionalTelIs already a system with a history of 130 years, and the recognition and custom of the telephone was established on the premise of "means that only voice can be transmitted" for good or bad. Since videophone is a service that overturns that major premise, it is necessary to change the perception and idea of ​​the user side,Video chat,SmartphoneHad to wait for the appearance of. When it was necessary to subscribe to a telephone-only terminal or a dedicated service, the incentive to introduce a videophone at a cost was difficult to work.

Invented the phoneGraham BellWas also considering a videophone, but has come to the conclusion that it would not be culturally acceptable. This issue has plagued many people involved in videophones for the last three centuries.[Source required]

footnote

  1. ^ Tomohiro Takeda, "Invention of the Nazis," Saizusha Corporation, 2011.ISBN 978-4-88392-817-0.
  2. ^ Kiyoshi Sekiguchi (August 2006, 8). “"Videophone service" that allows you to call other mobile phones". Mobile watch. Co., Ltd.Impress.As of August 2019, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2008/3/10Browse.

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