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🎾 | US Open Audience Capacity from 0% Last Year to 100%


Photo Men's singles finals at the 2019 US Open Men's Finals

US Open Audience Capacity from 0% Last Year to 100%

 
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On the other hand, at the "French Open" that closed the other day, we were able to gradually increase the number of spectators while responding to the gradual deregulation of the local France.
 

"US Open" (New York, USA / August 8th-September 30th / Hard Court) accommodates 9% of spectators ... → Continue reading

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Number of spectators

Deregulation

Deregulation(Kisei Kanwa,British: deregulation) IsEconomics,Public policyIn a context such asRegulationRefers to reducing.MarketIt is one of the basic policy measures taken when a desirable type of industry is desirable,Market competitionIt is adopted to promote economic growth and revitalize the economy, but it is necessary to build a safety net etc. to solve the harmful effects of the introduction.

Overview

Original English deregulation Is not a deregulationDeregulationIs a strong word, but in Japan, bureaucrats opposed to deregulation translated the meaning intentionally (Double SpeakTherefore, it is said that it spread throughout the country.

Regulations deal with various aspects of corporate activities such as safety standards, technical standards, ownership, and scope of business, so there are various forms of deregulation. In general, there is no systematic form of practical guidance on how and where deregulation should occur, and policies are usually formed through past case studies. is there.

Evil

  • California Power CrisisAs can be seen from the above, there are cases where deregulation causes a great hindrance to the lives of the residents.Market failure.
  • Deregulation policy resultsUniversal serviceMay fall, and consumers, low-productivity industrial sectors, workers and others may lose various protections.GlobalizationAgainst the deregulation policy and market-ledEconomic policyThat is why there is a critical opinion.

議論

Globally, deregulation has become an important issue for both developed and developing countries to promote the liberalization of so-called network industries such as finance, aviation, telephone, electricity and gas, and to broaden the liberal economy.World Trade Organization(WTO) andInternational Monetary FundInternational organizations such as the (IMF) are actively supporting such moves.

economist OfYasuyuki Iida"The government's regulation of industry basically only negatively affects the potential GDP growth rate," he said.[1].

EconomistFumio Otake“If market entry is tightly regulated, there will be less competition and all market participants will get high profits. On the other hand, if regulations are relaxed, competition will become severe and the gap between market participants will increase. If the entry restrictions are strong, there is a large disparity between market participants and those who cannot participate, but the disparity is not felt."[2].. Otake also points out, "There is a study that workers in industries with highly deregulated areas and highly competitive industries are more likely to trust others."[3].

Mizuho Research InstituteIs "Regulatory reformHas the effect of destroying vested interests, which may bring disadvantages to existing businesses that have been protected by regulations. However, the profits that consumers can obtain are large due to expansion of new entrants and promotion of price competition."[4].

EconomistYukio Noguchi"A lot of people will agree that deregulation needs to boost economic activity, but when it comes to individual themes, there are oppositions to opposition."[5].. Mizuho Research Institute points out that "regulatory reforms are generally supported, but in each case there are often cases in which implementation is slow due to the passive attitude of related businesses."[4].

EconomistHideomi TanakaIs "Trade liberalizationIt takes a long span for the effects of deregulation and deregulation to actually appear, and it cannot be said that it is good or bad unless it is seen in 5-10 years."[6].. Tanaka said, "Japan was a more regulated economy in the 1980s than it has since, but it has achieved higher growth than the 1990s and 2000s.Macroeconomic policyIt was because of the achievement of[7].

EconomistJoseph E. Stiglitz(Columbia University(Professor) states the error of deregulation. "The goal is not deregulation. The question is what is proper regulation. There can be no functioning society without regulation. The question is what regulation is good? Deregulation has triggered the global financial crisis Deregulation has created a bubble, of course, a booming economy like that is not sustainable, and the US has taken the lead in deregulating the financial sector. As a result, the entire world was hit and entered this great depression.”[8]

EconomistRagram Rajan"It's out of the question to leave everything to the market without regulations, but it's also a mistake to get rid of it by regulation. In short, we should introduce appropriate regulations while being careful not to hinder competition. Even if regulations are strengthened for the purpose of ensuring safety, we must not distort the fairness of competitive conditions."[9].

National policy

Japan

In Japan, the so-called "Master Hinomaru"ofBureaucracyInefficiency ofeconomic growthHas been actively discussed for the past 30 years,globalismThe voices of deregulation and liberalization in line with the progress of the government are deeply rooted in the business world, and the LDP and Democratic governments after the Koizumi administration are also active in deregulation. He was also the governor of Tokyo from 1999 to 2012.Shintaro IshiharaWas the mayor of OsakaTohashi HashishitaOf the Governor of MiyagiYoshihiro MurailikeMunicipalitiesThe number of people who are also active in deregulation is increasing.

The following are examples of deregulation, privatization and liberalization since the 1980s.

Cabinet OfficeShows the results of calculations that privatization and deregulation of tariffs in the telecommunications field resulted in more than 2000 trillion yen in consumer profits in 4[4].. According to a calculation by the Cabinet Office, the economic effect of regulatory reform since the 2005s in 1990 was about 18 million yen.[10].

footnote

  1. ^ Yasuyuki Iida “Introduction to the simplest economy in the world From everyday questions to deflation” Enterbrain, 2010, 112-113.
  2. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.68.
  3. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.123.
  4. ^ a b c Mizuho Research Institute, "Economics in Three Hours-Points to Know", Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 3, p. 2002.
  5. ^ Yukio Noguchi “The Bank of Japan Triggers the Collapse of Japan” Protecting old industries and making no growth possible-a perspective to evaluate growth strategiesDiamond Online August 2013, 5
  6. ^ Kuniko Asagi/Hideo Tamura/Hideomi Tanaka “Reconstruction theory of Japan [mobilize surplus funds of 100 trillion yen! ] Fujiwara Shoten, 2012, p. 137.
  7. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, Deflationary Depression, The Deadly Sins of the Bank of Japan, Asahi Shimbun, 2010, p. 177.
  8. ^ Joseph E. Stiglitz "Rethinking TPP and deregulation“Kotoba” Summer 2013 issue, Shueisha.
  9. ^ [Interview] Ragram Rajan (Professor, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, USA) It's a mistake to leave the market or excessive intervention Protect the free market economy with "appropriate regulation"Foresight April 2009, 4
  10. ^ Naoaki Okabe, "Introduction to Basic Nihon Keizai," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 4th edition (Nikkei Bunko), 2009, p. 136.

References

  • Akira Kawamoto "Regulatory Reform" Chuko Shinsho, January 1998.ISBN 4121013972

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