Did the tension of professional baseball increase due to the corona wreck?Private language among the reduced players ... Welcome voice from the ball world
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But in the old days, I couldn't think of doing a voluntary exercise with other team players.
Corona's scourge has changed the way professional baseball should be.Last season, there were 120 games, and it was the first match in both the Interleague and Pa leagues with no spectators ... → Continue reading
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Physical training(Physical Training) Is a type of physical activity carried out for the purpose of strengthening physical strength and maintaining a healthy state... "motion","exercise"(Physical Exercise) Is also called.
Generally, it is roughly divided into the following three.
- stretch・ ・ ・ Increase the flexibility of joints
- aerobic exercise(Cycling,Walking,jogging,水 泳）
- Performed for the purpose of increasing muscle mass and hypertrophyWeight training-Anaerobic exercise
Benefits of exercise
2021In 1 monthHarvard Medical SchoolAlthough intense exercise provided better results in measuring mental and physical fitness, it did not extend lifespan or prevent cardiovascular disease or cancer, according to a study published by.There was no significant difference in mortality between the group with moderate exercise and the group with more intense physical training..
Difficulties of exercise
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of walking daily for 24 weeks on the body.The number of steps was 10000, 12500, and 15000, respectively.The result is that lean body mass has increased, but fat has also increased, and weight has increased.Did not decrease at all..Researchers conclude that "walking did not help prevent weight gain or fat gain.".
CaliforniaLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Statistician Paul Williams (Paul Williams) And Stanford University researcher Peter Wood (Peter Wood) Is a study that gathers 13000 runners who have a habit of running well and compares their cumulative weekly mileage with yearly weight changes.2006Published in.Peter Wood is also a person who has been studying how exercise affects health since the 1970s.In this study of 13000 runners, those who ran the most tended to weigh the least, but all of these runners said, "Get fat with each passing year (fat accumulates in the body)There was a tendency.
2007 year 8 month,American Heart Association(The American Heart Association) And the American College of Sports Medicine (The American College of Sports Medicine) Jointly published guidelines on physical activity and health.Experts from the group said that about 5 minutes of vigorous exercise a day, five days a week, "is necessary to stay healthy and promote."However,"obesityWhen asked, "How does exercise affect being and staying lean?", They could only answer:
"It makes sense to assume that people who consume more energy per day are less likely to gain weight over time than those who consume less energy. For now, this hypothesis There is no convincing evidence of support. ".
1960, Epidemiologist Alvan Feinstein (Alvan feinstein) Is a medical journal "The Journal of Chronic Diseases』Analyzing the effectiveness of various obesity treatments in the criticism published in," Exercise is of no use in increasing energy consumption ", as a means to cure obesity I rejected the "exercise".Feinstein said, "To burn enough calories to lose weight requires physical activity that can be called'overdoing'. In addition, physical exercise provokes a desire for food and then calories. It's possible that your intake will exceed what you lost during exercise. ".
1973January,National Institutes of Health(The National Institutes of Health) Hosted a conference on obesity.One of the participants in this conference, a Swedish researcher, Pal Beyontorp (Per Björntorp) Reported the results of his clinical trials on obesity and exercise.Beyondrup conducted an exercise plan three times a week for seven obese subjects and continued for half a year.The result was that after six months of exercise, the subjects' bodies remained heavy and fat..1977, The National Institutes of Health hosted the second Obesity Conference.The experts gathered at this conference finally reached the following conclusions.
"The importance of exercise in weight management is incredibly low. As humans increase their physical activity, they tend to eat more at the same time, and whether the increase in energy consumed by exercise outweighs the increase in food consumption. Is impossible to predict. ".
1989, Danish researchers have published their findings on the effects of physical activity on weight loss.Subjects who tend to sit downmarathonTrained to run (26.2 miles). After 18 months of training, the subjects actually participated in the marathon.Eighteen men who participated in the study lost an average of 18 pounds of body fat, but nine female subjects wrote that "no changes in body composition were seen." Are.. This yearニ ュ ー ヨ ー クJavier Pisanier (Director of Obesity Research Center, St. Luke V. Roosevelt Hospital)Xavier Pi-Sunyer) Re-examined existing trials analyzing the idea that "more exercise can help you lose weight."His conclusion was as follows. "No changes were seen in weight and body composition loss or increase.".
EnglandDoctor, John Briffer (John Briffa) States that "aerobic exercise does not increase muscle" and "aerobic exercise has no effect on weight loss".He also points out that "when the amount of exercise is increased, humans tend to stop exercising (tend to sit) naturally in other situations.".
joggingKnown for popularizingJim fixx(Jim Fixx) Is while he is joggingheart attackWoke up and collapsed, and died as it was, Exercise puts a strain on the body and organs.Jake Emmet, a professor at the University of East Illinois and an expert in exercise physiology and marathon physiologyJake Emmett) About Jim Fixx's death, "His death, running is coronary heart disease (Coronary Artery DiseaseI was convinced all over the world that not only would it not be possible to prevent), but it could also lead to sudden death. ".
During or immediately after joggingCoronary heart disease(Coronary Heart Disease) Is not uncommon..There is no evidence that good athletic performance protects the body from fatal accidents during exercise.
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death for people over the age of 40 who died while running. Five white runners aged 10-22 (average age 176) who ran 53-40km in 53 years and an average of 46km a weekSudden deathAnd thatautopsyAccording to, no one had heart disease before he started running as a runner..
At the gymnasiumtreadmillA 57-year-old man who was running with a sudden death died suddenly during that time.The cause of his death was "Ischemic heart disease''(Ischemic Heart Disease)Met.Researchers say, "People who perform physical activity irregularly have a higher risk of sudden death than those who do not." "Extreme physical activity is fatal to the heart, even if it had not previously had symptoms." It may bring about good results. ".
University of Cape TownWith a professorExercise physiologyとSports medicineAn expert inTim Noakes(Tim noakes) Said about sudden death during exercise: "People over the age of 50 need to have a cardiovascular diagnosis before starting any kind of exercise. Even people under the age of 50 who died suddenly You need to have an interview about your family history and be diagnosed with the symptoms of cardiovascular disease and its clinical signs. "" If you have hypertrophic cardiovascular disease, you are at increased risk of dying during exercise. "" Athletes It is not always possible to prevent the onset of heart disease during exercise. ".
Even if you are exercisingcarbohydrateAs long as you are eatingHigh blood sugarCannot be prevented (the most common cause of hyperglycemia is carbohydrate intake), Insulin sensitivity declines as soon as you finish exercising (Insulin resistanceWill be higher)..Insulin resistance cannot be prevented by exercise.
In the mid-1950s, Harvard nutritionist John Meyer (Jean Mayer) Conducted an experiment using rats.We studied changes in rat diet and body weight between rats that were forced to exercise for several hours each day and those that were not.Rats exercising according to the exercise plan consumed more energy on non-exercise days and by immobilizing themselves when not exercising.On the other hand, the weight of the exercise-forced rats remained "exactly the same" as the non-exercise-forced rats.And when experimental rats were released from this exercise program, they began to eat more food than ever before and gained more weight with age than rats that were not forced to exercise. ..Also, studies with hamsters and gerbils have only resulted in "gaining weight and body fat" when exercising..
Until the 1970s, many Americans in general did not think that they should sweat in their spare time if they could avoid it.1977,New York TimesReported that the United States at that time was "in the midst of a growing heat of exercise." In the United States in the 1960s, "Exercise is bad for you"(" Exercise is poisonous to the body ") was a widespread idea, but eventually it became"Strenuous exercise is good for you"(" Exercise that makes you feel pain is good for your body. ").
UKBorn funeral director,William Banting(William Banting) Is worried that he was overweight and for the purpose of losing weightRiver ThamesI kept rowing the boat every morning.His arms were strengthened, but with a ferocious appetite, he gained more and more weight than he lost.William Harvey, a doctor and friendWilliam harvey) Advised Bunting to "stop exercising"A diet that limits carbohydratesTaught.Bunting according to this diet not only lost a lot of weight, but also recovered from physical illness..1863, Banting summarized the diets that succeeded in weight loss and the methods that have been tried and failed in weight loss.Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public("A letter to the public about obesity") was published.In this letter, Bunting cites "reducing the amount of food you eat and increasing the amount of exercise" as one of the "methods that have no effect on weight loss."
Blake F. Donaldson, a cardiologist in New YorkBlake F. Donaldson) Is for "obese heart disease patients"1919Around that time, I prescribed a "meal consisting almost entirely of meat".. With three meals a day, the daily calorie intake was at least 1 kcal.Donaldson also "reduces the amount of food you eat and increases the amount of exercise"I don't lose weight at allI was aware of that..Total fat intake was 1-75% of the daily calorie intake, and patients were instructed to eat beef with 80 pounds (2 g) of fat.Patients' weight loss rate slowed when they consumed less fat or skipped meals...By the time he retired 40 years later, Donaldson said he had prescribed the diet to 17000 obese patients.When Donaldson visited the Natural History Museum and asked the anthropologist who was resident there, "What did our prehistoric ancestors eat?", The anthropologist asked, "Our ancestors are fat. Was eating a lot of meat. "Donaldson decided that "meat with a lot of fat is essential for any weight loss diet," and prescribed this diet to obese patients.Donaldson's patients were able to lose 2-3 pounds a week without suffering from hunger.It was the "bread addict" who couldn't lose weight.Donaldson1961Published in the book "Strong Medicine("A powerful drug"), "I don't care how much a doctor knows about diabetes. I know how to lose weight and maintain that weight loss." If not, the person is disqualified as a doctor. A doctor who is prone to gain weight and has learned how to control weight gain seems to understand the seriousness of the problem better. ".
1940s,DelawareCompany,DuPont (DuPont) Alfred W. Pennington ()Alfred W. Pennington) Prescribed "a diet consisting almost exclusively of meat" to 20 overweight and overweight employees.Their daily calorie intake averaged 1 kcal.As a result of continuing this diet, they lost an average of £ 3000 a week.Overweight employees who were prescribed this diet were not allowed to consume more carbohydrates than this, with a stipulation that "the intake of carbohydrates per meal should be no more than 2g."George Gairman, Director of Industrial Health Care, DuPont (George Gehrman) Said, "I told him to eat less, calculate calories, and exercise more, but it didn't work at all."Gairman turned to his colleague Pennington for help, who prescribed this meal..
Science journalist OfGary Taubes(Gary Taubes) Said, "The idea of'reducing the amount of food you eat and increasing the amount of exercise for the purpose of losing weight'seems to make sense, but in reality it is not only wrong, but it is of no use. Absent", "What if'a life that tends to sit down'(Sedentary BehaviorIf) makes us obese and exercise prevents it, then "thinness", not obesity, should be prevalent.But in reality, an obesity epidemic occurred at the same time as the onset of exercise fever. ""Even if your goal is to lose weight and your health and life depend on it,'If you work hard every day for a year and a half, you can lose 1 pounds of fat.MaybeWill you train to be able to run 26 miles (42 km)? Is asking.
"Obesity patients can lose weight faster by resting on the bed, while strenuous physical activity slows weight loss." "The more you continue to exercise, the more fat you consume. The patient's theory that weight loss should be proportional to that should seem correct at first glance, but the patient is discouraged to see the scales show no progress. ".
Wilder rejected the idea of "you can lose weight by exercising", "get fat if you live a sedentary life", and "get fat because you eat too much" as "childish".
The Biggest Loser
The United States of Americaで2004The TV program "The Biggest Loser』There is.In this, multiple overweight people gathered, divided into groups, and under the guidance of a dedicated exercise training instructor, they worked hard and competed for weight loss while aiming for a slender body and survived to the end (most). Contestants who have lost a lot of weight can win $ 25 in prize money.
2009Aired on "The Biggest LoserA six-year follow-up study was conducted to investigate the weight gain and loss of the contestants who appeared in the 8th period and the changes in the body's metabolism.Kevin D. Hall, a senior researcher at the National Institutes of Health, studying nutrition and metabolism (Kevin D. Hall) Leads this study.According to the research results, most of the contestants who appeared on the program and lost weight returned most of the weight lost.Some of the contestants weighed even more than they had before they appeared on the show...According to Hall, the contestants were quite obese when they appeared on the show, but their metabolism was normal.However, by the end of the eighth phase of the show, their metabolism was completely down, making it difficult to maintain their body after losing weight..
8th season winner, Danny Kayhill (Danny Cahill)は、番組に登場した時点で体重が430ポンド（約195kg）あった。彼は7か月かけて239ポンド（約108㎏）減量し、体重を191ポンド（約87kg）まで落とした。しかし、減ったはずの彼の体重は元に戻っていき、減量を終えた後の191ポンドから295ポンド（約134㎏）にまで体重が増えた.New York TimesGina Collata, a reporter who belongs toGina Kolata) Said, "What surprised the researchers terribly was the following: The participants' physical metabolism did not recover, they continued to deteriorate, and they gained more and more weight. As if their bodies were desperately trying to regain the weight they lost. "..One of the show's contestants, Sean Argaia (Sean Algaier) Weighed 444 pounds (about 201 kg) at the time of appearing on the program, and reduced to 289 pounds (about 131 kg).However, his weight has since increased to 450 pounds.I was heavier than before I appeared on the show..One of the show's contestants, Rudy Pauls (Rudy Pauls) Weighed 442 pounds (about 200 kg) at the time of appearing on the program, and lost weight to 234 pounds (about 106 kg).However, the weight still returned to normal,2014At that time, he weighed up to 390 pounds.He then underwent surgery to cure severe obesity and weighed 177 pounds..
Gina Collata is a doctor, David Ludwig (David Ludwig) "Simply limiting calories doesn't solve anything. The combination of indelible hunger and poor metabolism is just a prescription for regaining weight loss, for more than a few months. I can explain why so few people can maintain their weight after weight loss, "said Michael Rosenbaum, MD, an obesity researcher.Michael Rosenbaum) "The reason why it is difficult to lose weight and maintain weight after losing weight is an ecological problem and what does it have to do with whether the power of will is abnormally weak? There is no.
Ludwig2018"If you eat less, you feel hungry, your body tries to reduce energy consumption, your metabolism worsens, and you don't lose weight." "Calorie restriction is destined to fail first. Yes. A low-calorie diet or a low-fat diet worsens metabolism, increases hunger, and causes a starvation reaction associated with elevated stress hormones (cortisol). ".
Gary Taubes also said, "When you eat less, animals stop moving in an attempt to reduce wasted energy, because they don't get the energy they need to move. When the body runs out of energy. , Binge eating, getting stuck trying to reduce energy consumption, or both, and gaining significantly more weight than before eating less and becoming obese. " Are.
1941Julius Bauer, a professor at the University of Vienna and an obesity researcherJulius Bauer) Leaves the following description.
"Currently prevailing obesity theory considers only the imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure and is inadequate ... Increased appetite in the imbalance between energy intake and consumption is obesity. It's not the cause, but the result of adipose tissue causing abnormalities. "
Eating and exercising are meaningless
In the early 1990s, the National Institutes of Health said,The Women's Health Initiative”(“ Women's Health Initiative ”), a $ 10 billion study..At the same time, a study was also conducted on "Can a low-fat diet really prevent heart disease and cancer?" Nearly 5 women were enrolled, of which 19541 were randomly selected.Research1993It started in and continued for eight years.Researchers told the participating women about fruits, vegetables,Whole grain・ Foods rich in dietary fiber ・ Foods low in fat ・ ・ ・ Instructed to preferentially eat these.Women received regular counseling to continue this diet..We aim to reduce fat intake from 38% to 20% of calories, and for participating women, weight gain and loss, cholesterol levels, stroke, heart attack, breast cancer, rectal cancer, and more. We also investigated whether to develop cardiovascular disease..I reduced the calorie intake of my daily diet by 360 kcal and continued to eat a small amount.The women who participated were also given instructions to "eat less," "eat less fat," and "exercise," and continued to faithfully "reduce the amount of food they eat and increase the amount of exercise.".
After eight years of this life, the women lost an average of about 8 kg per person (compared to before the start of the experiment), but their hips swelled...What this fact means is "It's muscle, not fat, that's lost from their bodies"That's what it means.In addition, the researchers said,A low-fat diet failed to prevent heart disease, cancer, and other illnessesIt also reports.A low-fat diet had no effect on reducing the risk of developing breast cancer, heart disease, or stroke, or reducing the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women...The meaning of the counseling and diet they received, whether conscious or unconscious, was "I tried to eat lessIs that.. If it is true that "if you burn more calories than you consume, you lose weight", you can't explain why the women who participated in this study got fat.Fat is equivalent to about 1 kcal of energy per kg.If they had reduced their daily dietary calorie intake by 7000 kcal, they would have lost about 360 kg of fat within 3 weeks of starting the experiment, and would have lost about 1 kg of fat for a year. Become.At the start of the study, half of the women who participated were obese and the majority were at least overweight...Researchers believe that a low-fat diet will reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, and nutritionists say, "If you reduce your fat intake to the target of 20%, the effect of a low-fat diet is clear. May have become. ".. The results of this eight-year study were published in the American Medical Association magazine ("Journal of the American Medical Association』) Was published. The results of the Women's Health Initiative show that a low-fat diet has no effect on the purpose of preventing cancer and cardiovascular disease..
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