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⚾ | Shohei Ohtani "There is no safe course" High and low home runs ... Bad ball hits are also MLB top class


Photo No. 34 (left) and No. 13 released by Angels Shohei Ohtani [Photo: Getty Images]

Shohei Ohtani "There is no safe course" High and low home runs ... Bad ball hits are also MLB top class

 
If you write the contents roughly
One is No. 1 which hit a high ball into the right wing stand in the Indians game, and the other is No. 13 which carried a low ball.
 

Guerrero Jr., who is competing for the home run king, is about 48.3 cm, and Tatis Jr., who is number one, is about 1 cm. → Continue reading

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Ball (baseball)

baseballInball(English: ball) isBall as a throw decision(strikeTo the ball)Ball as a toolThere is a (baseball ball).

Ball as a tool

JapanIn baseballHardball(Koshikikyu)Semi-hardball(Junkou Shikyu)・SoftballThere are three types of standard balls. Depending on the ball usedBaseball-Semi-rigid baseball-BaseballIt is divided into three baseball forms.

Hardball

Hard ballAlso called (Koukyu).1878ToSpaldingCompany developed[1].cork,rubberOn the core ofyarnWrap it aroundCowhideCovered with[Note 1], Sewn together. As a general rule, there are 1 stitches per ball.[3].. As the name "hard type" means, it is very hard,Dead ballOr when the hit ball hits the body directlyBruise,fractureEtc.injuryIn some cases.

weight141.7-148.8g,Circumference22.9-23.5cmIt is defined by the official baseball rules. The hard balls used in professional baseball areOfficial sphereIt is called (Koshikikyu). The test of the repulsive force of the ballcommissionerAt 270 km/h (standard relative velocity of ball and bat) calculated by this test by the SecretariatCoefficient of restitutionIs 0.4034-0.4234[4] A ball that meets the criteria of is accepted and the official mark ((Japan Baseball OrganizationA mark, proof hologram, commissioner signature, and more than three prints)[3][5].

Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB)

Japanese professional baseball (NPB) official sphere supplier nine in 1980[6], Before 2010Mizuno,Zet,ASICS,Kubota sports equipment store, Nasu Sports[7],SSK,Matsukan Industry7 companies[8]In 2010, there were 4 companies, Mizuno, Z, ASICS, and Kubota sports equipment store.[1].. The material and manufacturing method are slightly different depending on the manufacturer, and there are some differences in function (easy/difficult to jump, easy to grip/hard to grip, etc.)[9][10].. The official ball was selected and used from the balls of four companies at the discretion of the sponsoring team.[11].. Official balls are only sold in small quantities (difficult but in one army official gameFoul ballorHome runAlso available as a ball).

Opened January 2010, 1Japanese professional baseball organizationIn the executive committee,World Baseball ClassicIn order to respond to the increase in international games such as the above and the problem of “flying ball” described later, and to standardize the ball globally, let one company of the official ball in the NPB official game after 2011 supply exclusively. Is decided[1]In 2011, a unified sphere made by Mizuno Co., Ltd. is used.[12].

It should be noted that the total number of 1 team game balls (including practice and bullpen) for all 12 teams used in one year is said to reach about 2 dozen (about 5000) (Information as of 30. ). In addition, it is also required to have 2013 dozens in stock to prepare for transportation and customs clearance problems.[13].

Major League Baseball (MLB)

The first full-scale baseball team that has played with rules similar to current baseball from around 1842,New York KnickerbockersWere sewn by themselves for the first six or seven years, the original ball was handmade and was a valuable item that the winning team could receive as a prize from the losing team.[14].Civil WarBy the end of the 1860s, when baseball fever had risen all at once, many manufacturers started producing balls.[14].Major league baseball The official ball of (MLB) is Spalding from 1878 to 1976, and from 1977RawlingsThe company supplies it exclusively, and as of 2014, RawlingsEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euUses what is produced in the factory[15].. The NPB official ball is the lower limit of the size and weight specified in the baseball rules, while the MLB official ball is the upper limit, so it is slightly larger and heavier than the Japanese official game ball. The texture of the cowhide on the surface is smoother and smoother than that of Japan.[1]The seams are also higher than Japanese balls, and due to the difference in air resistance, the same grip and throwing methodPitch typeHowever, the degree of change is different from the official sphere of Japan.

Hard ball repulsion test

NPB is supposed to put an approval stamp on all balls used in the game, but at this time, it is a condition that the repulsive force is within the regulation. The repulsion test is performed about once every two weeks during the season, and each of the products that pass the size criteria is tested.Manufacturer1 of the ballsdozenIt is taken out and inspected. The test method is to eject the ball with a machine and hit it against the wall.The velocity before hitting the wall and the velocity after bouncing are measured, and the coefficient of restitution is calculated from the ratio.[3].

The problem of "flying ball" and "not flying ball"

The coefficient of restitution increases due to some factor in the manufacturing process of hard spheres, or the weight decreases and the flight distance increases significantly.RabbitIt is sometimes referred to as a "rabbit ball" or "flying ball".[Note 2].. Rabbit balls are easy for home runs, soStealIt is often criticized because it impairs the importance of play and the pleasure of watching games.

1910 flying ball
In MLB1910 World SeriesFor the first time, a flying ball with a cork core was used. The number of 1911% batters increased from 3 in the previous year to 30 in the 57 season after using this ball.[2].
1931 improvements
Because the number of home runs was increased by the flying balls and criticism occurred,1931Has been improved by wrapping the cork with rubber and raising the seams to make it easier for the pitcher to grip.[2].
1948 - 1950Rabbit ball
Ishii Kajima (Jun Ishii)Common name for balls manufactured by automatic ball manufacturing machines manufactured by. 19489Introduced to NPB as a test1949Fully used from to 1950. The precision of the ball, which was almost handmade until then, has been dramatically improved by introducing this automatic manufacturing machine. In terms of material, it became possible to manufacture high-quality balls by contracting with a major woolen company for the introduction of machinery for what was inferior to that during the war. In addition to the improvement of the material, the manufacturing method of removing moisture with an electric dryer also contributed to the improvement of the repulsive force. By introducing this ballHome runThe number has increased dramatically. After this, the regulation of repulsive force was made.
1978 - 1980Flying ball
At the timeMizuno10 balls made by other companiesMetersThe cause was that the ball had a high repulsive force with a long flight distance. In 1978Hankyu BravesIntroduced and won the league record with the batting average, home runs, and goals scored. Then i knew itKintetsu Buffaloes 1979Introduced to, the league's first batting average and home run record was recorded to achieve the first league title.
In 1980Pacific LeagueThe number of home runs in the three teams exceeded 3, with 200 home runs in the entire league (1196 on average for one team). A professional baseball commissioner of the time who saw this situation seriouslyTakeshi ShimodaRedesigned the rules for repulsion test[17].
Flying ball problem in the early 2000s
2001It was said that Mizuno's balls of those days had a higher coefficient of restitution than balls made by other companies, making it easier for them to fly. For example,Average number of home runs per game at Tokyo Dome (official game) The1988Is 1.31While it was (112 in 147 games)2004Is 3.43The home run rate increased to 76 times or more (261 in 2.6 games). Also,In 2004, 3% of the 36 batters reached the designated bats(21 people, 15 people). Other,2003Switched to MizunoYokohama Bay StarsIncreased the number of home runs by 95 from the previous year. In the 2004 seasonChunichi DragonsIs basedNagoya DomeSome of the balls used in the game were switched from Mizuno to those made by Mizuno (which are said to fly less than Mizuno) by the opponent.[18].. In 2005, when these were seen as problems, Mizuno's newly developed "low-resilience ball" was adopted by eight teams including Giant, Yokohama, and Softbank. As a result, the total number of home runs in 8 decreased by 2005.2010, Which was made by Mizuno in both league 11 teams, is still said to be easier to hit distance compared to other companies.
Problems with unified sphere in the first half of the 2010s
Unified sphere used in 2011 and 2012 and unified sphere change issue in 2013

As stated above, from the 2011 criticism that different balls were used for each team, and the purpose of bringing them closer to the balls adopted in international games such as WBC, from the 12 fiscal year all XNUMX teamsMizunoWe adopted a unified sphere made of low-resilience rubber material. Mizuno explains that the flight distance can be reduced by about 1 meter[12] However, as a result of various conditions such as the change of strike zone, the number of home runs in both leagues has decreased sharply from 2010 to 1605.[19].

The unified sphere is said to fly less than the MLB sphere, and if the MLB official sphere and the unified sphere were actually dropped from the same height, the MLB official sphere tended to bounce higher.[20].. In particular, in 2012, from the opening to April 4, 25 out of 123 games in the baseball team were recorded as abnormally high pitch lows with 38 games closed[20] Others were done in JapanYomiuri Giantsas well as the Hanshin TigersSeattle Marinersas well as the Auckland AthleticsBased on the testimony that "the major ball flies," from several MLB hitters who hit the unified ball and NPB hitters who hit the ball used in the MLB in a friendly match with[21]On April 4th, the athletes' group issued a request to verify the unified ball[19].. : Also, in terms of adapting to the international competition which was another purpose,2013 World Baseball Classic(WBC) is completely different from the ball used,It was hard to say that I had achieved my purpose[Source required][22].

On June 2013, 6, NPB announced at a press conference that the coefficient of restitution of the ball may have fallen below the standard value in past repulsion tests. Although it was within the standard in the unannounced inspection in 11, the average restitution coefficient of the balls collected from multiple stadiums in the inspection in 2011 greatly exceeded the average restitution coefficient of 2012-0.4134 which is the standard of NPB. Sometimes even recorded 0.4374, which is below[23].. However, in fact, the average value was below the standard in all four inspections in 2011 and three inspections in 4, and it was revealed that balls below the regulation were used before 2012 as well.[24].. Also, although the reduction in flight distance was about 1 meter due to the specifications, a survey by a specialized organization also showed that it was shortened by 3 meters.[23].. Along with that, it was also revealed that Mizuno requested that it not fall below the lower limit from fiscal 2013 in the summer of 2012. Originally, it was rumored that the ball became easier to fly in 2013, and 73% of the players answered that the ball of the year (2013) will fly.[25].. The average home run per game was also higher than in 1 and 2011[26][27].. When I actually cracked the 2012 ball and the 2013 ball and examined it, there was also a survey result that the feel of the cork material in the center of the ball became hard in 2013.[28].

The NPB side concealed this fact by requesting Mizuno company to "not disclose the adjustment of the ball specifications", and the player's association falsely explained that "the specifications have not changed". Acknowledged the changes at a press conference on June 6[23][29].

The record of the home run caused by the change of the unified ball is shown below.[30].

Ryozo KatoWhile the commissioner apologized for causing the confusion, he denied that "I didn't know until yesterday" about Secretary-General Shimoda's claim that the change was made with Kato's approval, and a reporter pursuing responsibility "I don't think it caused a scandal,"[31][32].. However, it was discovered during the interview that in fact, he received reports of the unified ball inspection from time to time.[33], Which led to the situation that the Kato Commissioner was forced to resign.

After 2014

On January 2014, 1, NPB changed the standard value of the restitution coefficient of the unified sphere from "20-0.4134" to "0.4374-0.4034"[4].. When the 2014 season started, it became clear that the average value of the sampling inspection by NPB was "0.4034", which exceeded the standard value "0.4234-0.426", and the ball maker Mizuno company collects the ball and Measures for sorting and future manufacturing processes announced[34].. As a result, there was a protest from the professional baseball players' association that the inspection based on the standard value has a narrow tolerance range and there are too many "violation" balls. At the same time, the sampling inspection that was conventionally performed after delivery was switched to the inspection before delivery.[35].

Other processing

Ball with serial number
MLBThen, when the hit record, which is attracting a lot of attention, is about to be updated, the league system speciallyserial number,hologramPrepare a game ball with a sticker. This is a mark that identifies the ball used when achieving the record,auctionIt is a measure to prevent counterfeit goods from circulating around. As an example where balls with serial numbers have been used so far,Barry BondsWhen the total home run record ofAlex RodriguezWhen the youngest 500 homers hit (both in 2007),IchiroWhen the record hits most in the season is achieved (2004).

Semi-hardball

Semi-rigid baseballWith balls used inSemi-hard sphereAlso called (Junkoukyu).The core is made in the same way as a hardball, but the surface is made of rubber instead of cowhide.It is located between the hardball and the softball in terms of manufacturing method and hardness.

Softball

BaseballIn the balls used inSoft ballAlso called (Nankyu).Official baseball rulesAccording to the material直径・ It is roughly divided into m-ball (junior high school students and above) and J-ball (elementary school students) according to the difference in weight and repulsion.On the ballheartIs engraved.The repulsion in the table below is from a height of 150 cm大理石The height of the bounce that was dropped on a board[36][37][38].

issue直径weightRebound
M number71.5-72.5 mm136.2-139.8g70.0-90.0 cm
No. J68.5-69.5 mm128.2-131.8g60.0-80.0 cm

KWB ball

A ball made of rubber that has characteristics similar to hard balls. For the purpose of smoothing the transition from softball to hardball2000Developed in.

Ball as a throw decision

The ball as a throwing judgment ispitcherThe pitch ofStrike ZoneJudgment given when you do not pass[39].Ball sphereAlso called (ball gama).

When the batter is sentenced to the fourth ball, he is safely allowed to proceed to first base without fear of being out (Four ballsbyFirst base).

1872Added to the rules as "unfair balls"[40].. "Unfair balls" means "unhitable" (illegal) pitches in baseball, which is a "hit" sport. After that, the part "Unfair" was omitted.

Conditions under which the ball is declared

The prerequisite is that the batter makes a batting motion (striking,Empty swingDo not cause).

  • PitchingStrike ZoneIf did not pass.
  • When the pitch touches the ground. Even if it passes the strike zone after this, it does not become a strike.
  • If the pitcher touches the batter but the batter does not try to avoid it (Dead ballIt doesn't. However, only three balls will be dead).

In addition, the ball will be declared in the following cases:

  • When a pitcher commits a foul pitch when he is a non-runner.
  • When a non-runner, the pitcher possesses the ball and does not throw it within 12 seconds (2006 seconds until FY20 in Japan) from when the batter faced the pitcher in a striking posture. Is judged to have "throwed" when he leaves.)

Ball declaration

Ball refereeWhen he declares the ball, he utters "ball" without moving his face or hands while keeping his seat down to judge the pitch. Do not shake the head, shake one hand downwards, show the posture to cut your eyes from the pitch, or make a judgment without speaking. Especially moving one handstrikeIt may be misunderstood that it should not be done.

Designation

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ In MLB it was made of horse leather until 1974[2].
  2. ^ It used to be called Lively Ball[16].
  3. ^ Meiji Jingu StadiumHanshin Koshien Stadium7 at each, 3 at Yokohama Stadium,MAZDA Zoom-Zoom Stadium HiroshimaNagoya DomeTwo at Tokyo Dome and one at Tokyo Dome.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d "Begin examination for unifying balls in 2011"Weekly baseball』April 2010, 2 issue,Baseball magazine company, Pages 102-103.
  2. ^ a b c Ryoichi Fukura, "Transition of Major Hardballs," Weekly Baseball, February 2010, 2, Baseball Magazine, p. 8.
  3. ^ a b c "Same in the world... professional baseball". Kyutaro's baseball trivia page. Japan Baseball Organization.As of August 2006, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2017/7/21Browse.
  4. ^ a b "Corrected the standard value of restitution coefficient of unified sphere". Asahi Shimbun digital (February 2014, 1). As of February 20, 2014オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/8/6Browse.
  5. ^ Unified game ball authentic ballNippon Professional Baseball Goods Store
  6. ^ What the history of flying balls teaches
  7. ^ The flying ball is the Hanshin official ball! Aerial battle at Koshien
  8. ^ "Thorough commentary on the big shake of the world and the unified sphere problem”. Excite Review (June 2013, 6). 2015/10/11Browse.
  9. ^ The Par League was hot Yutaro Imai & Hiromasa Arai talk fierce fighting
  10. ^ Hiromitsu Kadota holds his thesis on adding home runs. "If you hit the ball with the size of the stadium, you're good to go"
  11. ^ Unification ball how to turn professional baseball XNUMX army Made by Mizuno from next season
  12. ^ a b "About the specifications of the unified ball to be delivered to 12 professional baseball teams from next season" (PDF) (Press Release), Mizuno, (March 2010, 8), http://media.mizuno.com/~/media/Files/com/newsrelease/jp/2010/100823.pdf?v=1e37866b-c64f-4a7f-a962-9d29d19e152e 2017/7/21Browse. 
  13. ^ "Unified sphere, error in mass production... Reducing repulsive force during storage". YOMIURI ONLINE. Yomiuri Shimbun(November 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://archive.is/20130629181453/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/sports/npb/news/20130618-OYT1T00019.htm 2017/7/21Browse. 
  14. ^ a b Kazuo Sayama"Baseball English A to Z: Kazuo Sayama's American Baseball Terms"Sanshusha, Pages 24-25.ISBN 978-4384051773.
  15. ^ "CorpWatch (English)”. Transnational Resource & Action Center. 2009/10/23Browse.
  16. ^ "Baseball America"Every baseball team Hen,Osaka Mainichi NewspaperAlso, 1926, page 67.
  17. ^ Problems with professional baseball and the ball.
  18. ^ "Chinese "new ball that doesn't fly" to be used from next season". Osaka Daily Sports Company Naniwa WEB(November 2004, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2004, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20041230063614/http://osaka.nikkansports.com/obb/p-ot-tp2-041221-0017.html 2010=02-01 viewed. 
  19. ^ a b Unified ball verification request = Professional Baseball Players Association[Broken link]
  20. ^ a b (October 2012, 4). “The reason why the unified sphere does not fly more than the major sphere that I noticed in the friendly match with MLB.". Number Web. 文藝 春秋. p. 1. 2012/12/22Browse.
  21. ^ Yasushi Washida (April 2012, 4). “The reason why the unified sphere does not fly more than the major sphere that I noticed in the friendly match with MLB.". Number WebBungei Shunju. P. 2. 2012/12/22Browse.
  22. ^ "Overkill Samurai batting line and passive baseball cause of defeat = WBC Semifinals Japan vs. Puerto Rico Mr. Saki Jiki explains". Sports navigation columnWise Sports (March 2013, 3). 2017/7/21Browse.
  23. ^ a b c "NPB white letter... I was secretly changing the unified sphere". nikkansports.com(July 2013, 6). http://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/p-bb-tp0-20130612-1141196.html 2013/6/12Browse. 
  24. ^ "Announcement of resilience coefficient inspection NPB". Everyday.jp (Mainichi Shimbun). (January 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130615055046/http://mainichi.jp/sports/news/20130615k0000m050048000c.html 2013/6/14Browse. 
  25. ^ "Weekly baseball』April 2013, 6 issue,Baseball magazine company, 23 pages, Magazine 20442-6 / 10.
  26. ^ "NPB: Secretly changed to a unified ball that is easy to fly". Everyday.jp(November 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130614032421/http://mainichi.jp/sports/news/20130612k0000m050091000c.html 2017/7/21Browse. 
  27. ^ “Unified sphere problem: NPB secretariat is chased by the response”. Daily jp (Mainichi Newspaper). (May 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130615164041/http://mainichi.jp/sports/news/20130612k0000e050192000c.html 2013/6/12Browse. 
  28. ^ "Abe "clearly flying" ball change is not surprising to the players". Sports report(November 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130612030456/http://hochi.yomiuri.co.jp/baseball/npb/news/20130611-OHT1T00168.htm 2013/6/12Browse. 
  29. ^ "Shock!! It was changed to a flying ball". Daily Sports ONLINE(November 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130612102820/https://www.daily.co.jp/newsflash/baseball/2013/06/12/0006068783.shtml 2017/7/21Browse. 
  30. ^ "NPB recognizes the ball to fly!. Sankei sports(November 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130615221757/http://www.sanspo.com/baseball/news/20130612/npb13061205070002-n3.html 2017/7/21Browse. 
  31. ^ "Kato Commissioner "I didn't know"". nikkansports.com(July 2013, 6). http://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/p-bb-tp0-20130613-1141707.html 2017/7/21Browse. 
  32. ^ "It is not a scandal"/one question one answer". nikkansports.com(July 2013, 6). http://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/p-bb-tp0-20130613-1141771.html 2017/7/21Browse. 
  33. ^ "Unified ball inspection, Kato Commissioner who received reports from time to time". Asahi Shimbun digital(November 2013, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130615024144/http://www.asahi.com/sports/update/0614/TKY201306140380.html 2017/7/21Browse. 
  34. ^ "This season is more than the last season". MSN Sankei News (February 2014, 4). As of February 10, 2014オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/8/6Browse.
  35. ^ “NPB amends the regulations and removes the upper and lower limits of the restitution coefficient standard value”. sanspo.com(November 2015, 2). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150402091846/http://www.sanspo.com/baseball/news/20150203/npb15020317370001-n1.html 2015/3/4Browse. 
  36. ^ "Softball standard changes = Bounce suppression, flight distance maintenance-baseball". Jiji dot com news(November 2016, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20161202113247/http://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2016120100906&g=spo 2017/7/21Browse. 
  37. ^ “A baseball softball, with a feeling close to that of a hardball for the first time in XNUMX years”. Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun). (December 2016, 12). http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASJD14V5FJD1UTQP00S.html 2017/7/21Browse. 
  38. ^ "5 secrets of the new ball of heart". 2019/8/2Browse.
  39. ^ 2009 Certified Baseball Rules 2.04
  40. ^ "Evolution of 19th Century Baseball Rules (Continued)”. 19th Century Baseball. 2010/2/1Browse.

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