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I knew the moment I hit it yesterday and today. "" This guy is more than an MVP. "" This guy is better than a video game. "" I can't believe it.
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Computer games(NotationThere are many <Later>.) IsComputer OfFeaturesWorks withGame OfJapaneseInGeneric term..Or a game that runs on a computer and is played between a computer and a human...Alternatively, a computer-based game and itsProgram.
For the name, "NameI will explain in detail in the section.
Japanese"Computer games(Notation : Computer games,Computer games,Computer games) ”Is the device usedDisplay deviceandGame softwareIt is classified into the following 5 types according to the difference in the supply medium of.
- arcade game - ArcadeThose that use commercial game machines installed in such places.
- Pc games(PC games)-General purposePersonal computerThose that use (personal computer) and its display device.
- Video games --For home use using a dedicated game machineTV receiverIs used for display devices.
- Handheld games(Handheld game)- Liquid crystal displayThose that use a small dedicated game machine that incorporates.Together with video gamesConsumer gamesAlso called.
- online game --PC orMobile phoneTerminals such asインターネットBy the game operatorserverConnect, game software, data, etc.DownloadWhat to play. "Internet gameAlso called..In addition, the game played using a mobile phone is "Mobile phone gamesHowever, only online games are applicable here.
Also,"Electronic gamesIn a broad sense, the word "is a general term for computer games and LSI games (electronic LSI games, which have relatively low functions), but in a narrow sense, it is another name for LSI games.
In Japanese, computer games are called "computerized".Digital gamesIn contrast to this, games other than computer games (non-powered games) are called "Analog gamesCallThere is also a direction.Here "デ ジ タ ル"and"analogThe term "" is a Japanese-specific profane that is far from the true meaning..
The term digital game was used around 1975, and the term video game via television was also used, but in the early 1980s, small electronic circuit game consoles that did not use television were used. Called a digital game, the two had some similarities in their parts, but they had different meanings... At the end of the 1980s, the term analog game, which means existing board games, began to be used.Dragon Quest III and to the legend...』Release and soundtrack"Symphony Suite "Dragon Quest III" and to the Legend ...The music of computer games was called NES music with the release ofGame music / game musicThe word game came to mean computer game... Around 1996, there was an article in the newspaper titled Digital Game, but it was one of the trends, so the frequency of use decreased as time went by.Japan Digital Game SocietyWith the establishment of, the language became widespread for academic terms and enthusiasts..
English(*De facto internationalcommon language) Then, the computer signalVideo monitorSince it was a long time when it was output to and displayed in, "video gameIt is customary to use the word ". Regarding the correspondence between English and Japanese, the meanings of" video game "in English and" computer game "in Japanese are close, and"computer game"Ya"PC game"PC games" and "PC games" have similar meanings to ".Also in English "electronic game"Is synonymous with" electronic game "in the broad sense of Japanese.
In Japanese漢字Not shown, but same as JapaneseKanji culture area OfChineseThen,Electronic games(Simplified characters<Same as below>:Electronic games）","Game game(Video game)"And its略 語"Dentou(Video game) ”, And the English“ video game ”Chinese translationdid"Image play(Image)" "Video game(video games)" "Electric game(Electric game) ”Is equivalent to the English word“ video game ”, so they are almost synonymous with the Japanese word“ computer game ”.Modern Japanese script (New font), In order from the former, "electronic game", "electric toy game", "electric toy", "image image game", "visual frequency game", and "electric game". "game machine"Is"Electronic game machine(Video game machine).
The first computer game in history1947ToCornell UniversityOf graduatesAmericanAnd developed by Estle Ray MannCathode ray tube entertainment device (cathode ray tube amusement device)..Then in 1952EDSACProgrammed aboveOXOWas developed.. Developed in 1961, "Space War!IsMini computerThis is the first general-purpose computer game developed and played in.So far, computer games haven't been a hobby for enthusiasts, but in 1971.Nolan BushnellImproved Spacewar!Computer space』Developed, this is the world's first computer typearcade gameAs a result, industrialization began.. Next year in 1972Ralph BearWorld's first byHome game consoleIsOdysseyWas developed.
Widespread in Japan since the end of the 1970sarcade gameLSI game inElectronic games), But it can be said that it is a sign of the industrialization of computer games.,1978ToSpace invaders』Was caused a big boom with the appearance.Home game consoleAlso appeared in the 1980s, but among them1983Was released inNES TheSocial phenomenonRecorded explosive sales to the extent that it overwhelmed other hardware and made home video game consoles代名詞It became.After that, the growth of consumer games continued,Play station,Sega Saturn,NINTENDO64In 1996, the size of the home video game market in Japan became the largest with the release of new hardware such as..However, after that, sales of home video games began to decline, and in 2006, sales of handheld game software exceeded that of deferred games...However, by this time, the rapid breakthrough of mobile games had already begun, and from 2009 to 2011feature phoneForsocial gameHas grown rapidlyAfter that, after 2011, it switched to games for smartphones..
In JapanNational Diet Library ActThe law to partially revise the law came into effect on October 2000, 10, including computer game software.Package systemIn electronic publicationsLegal depositObligation was imposed.Japanese standard industry classificationIn the computer game software industryInformation and communication industryIt is classified into the information service industry...The game industryTechnology/business model/contentDesignIt is said to be "a huge forest that grows while changing in quality"..
The computer game market has continued to expand rapidly since its establishment and has grown into a major industry. Total sales of computer games in 2018 are estimated to be 13 billion yenMore than 90% of them are digital distribution games, and sales of packaged games are less than 1%.Also, the sales areAsia,North America,EuropeSales in these three regions are close to 3%...Computer game sales in Japan were 2018 billion yen in 1, of which smartphone games accounted for 6704 billion yen and home video games accounted for 1 billion yen...Although the sales of game companies vary widely from year to year, the 2017 game business sales data shows that of China.TencentIs the first place,Sony,Apple,Microsoft,Activision BlizzardIt is in the order of.Also this yearNintendoIs 9th,BANDAI NAMCOIs in 10th place..Also play computer gamesSports,CompetitionTo catch asElectronic sports(Esports) is also becoming popular.
Classification as a game in general
Just like general games, theoretical classifications such as "number of people / (non-zero sum /) / (no | yes) limit / (un) definite / (non) perfect information" can be applied to computer games. ..As a peculiarity of computer games, you can use the computer as a credible judge of competitive games as a third party (as long as you believe in the provider of the program etc.), there may be doubts in terms of "game characteristics". There is a point that it is possible (compared to non-powered games) to have something like a "3-player game" in which the player just looks at it.
The following is a classification from the circumstances and viewpoints more specific to computer games.
- Rules and number of players
- In general, it can be said that a game sets some rules or starts from the place where some rules occur naturally.Computer games also have rules, but the computer decides the game and entrusts the application of the rules.The computer does the necessary elementsSimulateBecause it can be advanced while doing so, it is realPlay equipment,A humanIs not always required (metaized)).Especially AI (Artificial intelligence) Is strong.
- The progress of the game isinputThe result forComputer calculates, The processing result is repeated by the player making the next input.A simple form is a number guessing game, which is the result of a player entering a value for a single number set by the computer and the computer comparing that value with the number set by the computer. Answer only.According to this hint, the player inputs a new value, and as a result of the computer making a judgment again, the process of giving a hint is repeated.The game then continues until the correct answer is reached or the player gets bored and turns off the computer.All computer games have the property of providing play by repeating these interactions with humans, to a greater or lesser extent.
- Of the playercommunication skillOther than the input that is, the computer processes it.The main hardware configuration is the hardware itself that performs arithmetic processing and the player'sInput deviceIscontroller, The monitor screen that is the output device of the processing resultspeakerIn principle, it does not require any other auxiliary equipment.In addition, simple input devices are used, and in most cases all operations can be performed with only both hands, but there are also input devices that are controlled using the entire body.In each case, the operation input via the controller is output as a result of being processed by the computer inside the game machine.
- random number
- "TetrisTo use contingency likerandom numberMay be used.Computers can't really generate random numbers, insteadPseudo random numberIs used.There is no practical problem in using pseudo-random numbers.CRTime constantEven the simplest methods, such as circuits and counters, are sufficient for normal gaming applications to obtain seeds with "true random numbers" for initializing pseudo-random numbers.This is not so difficult even with a microcomputer in the 1970s, if you devise such as adding hardware with a cost of about several hundred yen.The so-called "Park-Miller" minimal standard "", which is generally the minimum required level, can be implemented in tens of bytes if it has the capacity of an 8-bit processor.
- In the case of the arcade "Tetris", the state was maintained by battery backup to prevent patterning from being possible.However, due to the dead battery,Power pattern"Has become possible.Also, it should be virtually impossiblePermanent patternHowever, there are cases where it is possible depending on the power supply pattern.
- in the pastCuldcept Saga #Bug ProblemPhenomena such as the collapse of the game due to low-quality random numbers often occurred.[Note 1]
- shooting gameIn the early 1980s, many of them used random numbers, but after that, there is a strong tendency to design them as so-called "remembering games" that eliminate random elements.In the case of shooting games, random numbers tend to be excluded except for slight usage such as how to disperse bullets.
- Gray zone play
- Hidden command,Tricks,cheatApart from the act of directly rewriting the memory using a debugger etc.Computer programI couldn't get rid of it as usualバ グMay create loopholes in game rules.This is just a design defect in a broad senseDefective productIt is a function that is not the original way of enjoying, such as an act that the production side did not expect, or a joke incorporated in the design.These do not find value in the mundane way of playing, but actively when they find value in a specific thing such as "watch the ending of the game", "get an invincible fighter", "create the strongest hero", etc. It will be used.
- As a rule (meta-rule) implicitly between the game designer (game designer) and the player, operations outside the game rules such as saving and loading the game should arbitrarily save and restore the state in the game. There are basic rules such as not being involved in the game rules, even if there are restrictions such as there is a section that can not be saved and it is forcibly saved immediately after encountering a powerful enemy. ..However, if you delete the save data that breaks it, the game will proceed.Or something like that, or the event that the save data is deleted by the character (NPC) in the game actually deletes the save data, there is no route to reach the "true ending" on the first lap, 1 In some cases, such a branch appears for the first time after the lap.In a more extreme example,Prismaticallization], While repeating many laps, there is also a thing that arranges flags in which events in another lap are intricately entwined like a puzzle.
Classification by platform
Computer games are categorized into several categories according to their platform.
Games played by dedicated game consolesarcade gameとConsumer gamesThere are two categories.Arcade games are games provided by professional game consoles, which are platforms for businesses rather than individuals.Arcade,amusement parkIt is often installed in such places, and a large dedicated housing was used.Large housing gamesAlso exists.Consumer games refer to those provided by dedicated home video game consoles, which are provided by stationary game consoles.Video gamesAnd small and easy to carryHandheld gamesThere are two types..In addition, there are two types of consumer games: companies that manufacture game machines (hardware) such as Nintendo and Sony, and companies that manufacture only game software and use hardware only as a platform. ThenThird partyCall.
Games played by hardware other than dedicated game machinesPersonal computerPlay usingPc gamesWhen,Mobile phone,Smartphone,Smart deviceAnd so onMobile gamesDivide into. Also,DVDCan be played on game consoles with playback functions such asDvd player gamesThere are also / UMD player's games / BD player's games.In the old daysVHDGames andLDThere are games, especially the latter is LD-ROM2There was also hardware such as MEGA-LD.
"Large housing gamesThe term "" is also a type of classification by platform.
Platform development history
arcade gameBusiness has existed before computer games andgame machineComputerization of video games in particular is one of the roots of the computer game business in the 1970s ("PongIs a video game, but I didn't use a computer in the era of the first product).
As a computer game in the 1970smain frame,Mini computerSome of them were made and played above, but the former is strongly positioned as a demonstration.The latter is "Space War!Some have evolved into arcade games, such as..But the most common is "ス タ ー ト レ ッ ク], It will be the pattern that became the microcomputer game described below. Personal computers that have developed rapidly since the latter half of the 1970s (the name at that time wasMicrocomputer), At first, games were a popular field as one of the genres of programs that were freely distributed by self-made or published program lists, but Bill Gates' efforts (en: Open Letter to Hobbyists(1976), etc., and when a market for program products for personal computers is created,Pc gamesHas become a commercial product.
Next, for home useVideo gamesAppeared.The aforementioned arcades and theseGame-only machineIn the 1970s, each model could play one type of game, or at most a dozen types of built-in games from the beginning. Appeared in the 1sAtari,NintendoIn the video game machine of, the program (software) is supplied by the ROM mounted on the cartridge, and the game machine itself is supplied.platformTurned intoGame softwareCreated a market.Later, portable game consoles that were smaller and had a built-in display were released.Summarizing the above types, "Consumer games"(Consumer = for consumer market →" for home use ").In the case of Nintendo Famicom, due to the large number of home video game consoles producedRicohICs, Sega Saturn SH2, Sega Dreamcast SH4, etc.Integrated circuitIt has also become an influence on the industry.
The cost of arcade video games has also risen due to sophistication, and it started with the diversion of basic design, and since the 1990s, many products have been designed based on some platform, and cartridges. There are also platforms where software is supplied at.
Appeared in the 1980s and 1990s due to higher performance of LSIElectronic notebook,Mobile information terminalBut there was something I could play the game with.In recent yearsMobile phone,Smartphone/Smart deviceIt is in the form of a game that can be played on.
Video expression and production have become highly functional and versatile due to advances in computer processing power..CG,Shader,ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン,virtual realitySuch,Machine learning/Deep learningWas particularly talked about.
Classification by distribution channel
Incidentally,Doujin GameThere are also games that are exchanged or sold on a small scale by like-minded people (also called indie games).
Classification by game system
The following is a list of existing game genres for convenience.There are some existing game genres that straddle some, and some have evolved into new genres, so genre classification is not absolute.Tales of seriesA unique genre name may be given, such as.
The operation skill requirement system is a game in which so-called reflexes and dynamic visual acuity are important, but in some of them, the appearance pattern of elements is determined, and thoseMemorizationIs required for some.AlsocontrollerDue to the nature of, there is also a strong tendency for elements to be easy to play and difficult to play.
- Action games --A game that requires operational skills but does not meet any of the other conditions.
- Falling block puzzle - 落下A puzzle game that has the characteristic of playing in real time.puzzle game"Tetris] Is the prototype.
- shooting game(STG)-A game in which you shoot bullets and destroy enemies.
- Sports games - SportsThe subject is.There are two types of games: pseudo-sports and sports-themed action games.
- Music game (rhythm game) -A game in which the player operates according to a musical piece or a kind of musical score.
- Experience game --Move and operate your bodyInput deviceThe one using.
The operation skill-free system is a game in which it is more important to think carefully and make a judgment than to make a prompt decision.It tends to be more complicated game rules, and the playing time tends to be longer than in other genres.saveMany of them respond to interruptions.As a game genre,Role playing games,War simulation gameThings that were played before computer games were born, such asボ ー ド ゲ ー ム/Card gamesMany of these desktop games can be played on a computer.
- Computer RPG(RPG)-A game that plays a role.
- Simulation role playing games(SRPG) --RPG with strategy elements added.
- Simulation games(SLG) --A variety of experiences can be experienced in a virtual space reproduced on a computer.
- War simulation game --Simulation of a war, such as becoming a commander of an army.
- History simulation game --Simulation based on real history events.
- Management simulation game ――A game in which you become a manager and run a company.
- Training simulation game --A game that virtually grows characters and themselves and builds relationships with virtual environments.
- Adventure games(ADV)-A game where you can solve various mysteries and move on.Sound novel,Visual novel.
- puzzle game - パ ズ ルA game to solve.
- Horror game --Those who enjoy fear,horror filmApplication to games.
- Love games -Enjoy pseudo-romance with characters in the game.The romance simulation game is a combination of various parameter operations, and the game progresses according to the schedule.The romance adventure game progresses along the story, and the result changes depending on the choice you choose.
An integrated system is a combination of elements from several game genres, or a non-game concept incorporated into an existing game.Many of them did not have a fixed genre when they first appeared. Action game elements added to RPGAction role playing games(ARPG) and puzzle games have real-time characteristicsAction puzzleThere is.
Real-time strategy(RTS) is a simulation game with real-time characteristics.Not using pauses makes play tense and mostly deals with combat.Small number of peopleonline gameare categorized.Classification in simulation gamesWar simulation game,History simulation gameBecomesMultiplayer online battle arenaThere is also (MOBA).
Besides, brain training / learning gamesThere is also a classification called. (Brain training game was proposed by Professor Ryuta KawashimaBrain trainingA game to do.Middle-aged and older people can use their intelligence moderately, especially elderly peopleSenile dementiaA game that you want to play to prevent.Some learning games are played by elementary school students, junior high school students, high school students, etc. based on what they learn in school subjects.Adults give it to childrenEducational toysThere is also a game intended to be used likeKids computer picoThere are also educational and teaching software such as. )
Classification by the presence or absence of online functions
online game TheComputer networkIt is a genre of games that works using.In the old daysPC communicationBut in the 2000s many of themインターネットShow the correspondence to.Stand aloneIt is used for various games, and in a narrow sense, it means that the game is always connected to the network.With the spread of the Internet, users in remote areas share playGame softwareHas appeared.As a multiplayer computer RPG on the netMORPG/MMORPGThere is.
Classification by relationship with other players
It can be said that the classification based on the relationship with other players is more significant than the classification based on the number of players. Even in games based on two-player battlesalgorithm(Artificial intelligence) Is the opponent, and there is a one-player mode.In this case, the computer doubles as an opponent, and even if there is only one player, the game content will be the same as that of two-player play.
In consumer games played by multiple players at the same time, those that are in a cooperative relationship with those that are in a competitive relationship are the mainstream because they have the meaning of communicating with others via a game machine at home.There is also a form in which multiple players play alone with each otherRetro gamesAndボ ー ド ゲ ー ムAnd "Monopoly"such asParty gamesCan be seen in a computer game version of.By holding multiple save data on handheld game machines, the sameROM cartridgeSome (strictly speaking, each player can only play individually) correspond to multiple players.
Progressed rapidly since the 2000sonline gamelike,Computer network(インターネット) Is increasing, and the number of games that cooperate with or compete with other players is increasing.MMORPGThere is also a tendency for generalization to share the same virtual world with an almost unlimited number of players.
Classification by player conditions
It is a classification in which the player base is limited or conditions are indicated, mainly because it has extreme characteristics.The purchaser's eligibility check may be performed at the store.Such works are so-calledFor all ageslikeThe universal reception is cut off from the beginning and specialized for a specific player groupTherefore, it is not considered to be accepted by men and women of all ages.Therefore, other than the target player group (Adult gamesIf so, it should not be given to minors), and in some cases, cautions and disclaimers regarding the content may be necessary.
- Adult game(Eroge) --Mainly those with extreme sexual expression.Strip mahjong,Crying game/Depressing game.
- Cruel game(Groge / Violence game) --Mainly extreme expressions of violence and bleeding.
Game classification is not always what the manufacturer intended.The store that sells the game and the mail-order side may also prepare a classification name, and the player side may also perform a unique classification.In some cases, it is classified according to whether or not it suits the player's specific hobbies and tastes.
- Casual games ――Easy to play in a short time.
- Serious games(LaparoscopeUsedMinimally invasive surgeryFor the purpose of. "GamificationThere is also)
- Narrative games (Since 2013, narrative games have been categorized in English-speaking countries. Narrative games (rather than stories) are important elements..
- Retro games(Regaming) --A nostalgic hobby game.Old ones that are no longer sold, old ones that have been reprinted, and the latest games made in an old atmosphere.
- Western game ――A classification from a Japanese perspective, with a Western-style taste produced by a Western (Western) game company. (Not all overseas products are called, and products developed by Korean companies are not called "Western games".)
- Galge ――The main attraction of female characters.
- Games for women(Girl game,Boys love game) --Mainly the charm of male characters.
- Character games(Charage) --Those that use manga or anime characters.
- Adva games --Provided for advertising purposes.
- Classifications and labels used by players, especially for swearing.
- The terms "kusoge" and "stupid game" are quite emotional expressions, but they are often spoken by players in the world.
- ^ In reality, most of the patterns are deliberate or omission, not using a decent pseudo-random number sequence generator in the first place, or not understanding how to use a decent pseudo-random number sequence generator.
- ^ It's okay to write "computer game" in katakana, but in the alphabet "British: computer gameThe current meaning of English is mainly PC games, which means that computer games are used to mean "computer games" in Katakana, that is, games for home video games are also included (almost).JapanglishBecome.Therefore, basically, it is safe not to emphasize it too much or explain it clearly.
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- Computer game title list - Game console list - List of game companies - List of game creators - List of composers of game music - Game magazine
- Tokyo Game Show - Electronic Entertainment Expo - Gamescom - Games convention - CEDEC - Game Developers Conference
- Artificial intelligence in computer games - Courage - Game Center CX