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Professional soccer player
The definition of "professional" in soccer competition isInternational Football FederationIt is defined in "Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players" defined by (FIFA) as "a person who has a contract with a club and is paid more than daily spending by soccer activities".. For this reason, not only those who do not have a contract with the club, but also those who have a contract but the salary is very small, and those who are nominally paid as compensation other than soccer activities (so-called)Employee playersAre not treated as professional players. In addition, players who have once turned professional can return to amateurs again 30 days after the last match they played as a professional..
As a general rule, professional players can transfer their club only between the end of the season and the start of the next season (up to 12 weeks) and at a specific time in the middle of the season (up to 4 weeks). This period is called the “transfer market”. In addition, when transferringTransfer feeMay occur. The transfer of a player under the age of 18 to a club in a different country is prohibited unless there are parental circumstances unrelated to football or special circumstances such as a radius of 100km or less from the player's house ( HoweverEuropean Union(In case of transfer within (EU), it is possible from 16 years old with condition).
When signing a professional contract, the contract period is, in principle, the shortest "until the end of the season" and the longest 5 years (however, 18 years for athletes under the age of 3). Contracts for other periods are permitted if the rules of the football association in the area permit, but the excess portion will be invalid even if a contract for a period longer than the maximum period is signed... Six months before the contract with a club expires, it is possible to negotiate a contract with another club.
The birth of professional players in soccer19st centuryから20st centuryHanging onEnglandIs. Initially, clubs were run by communities such as towns, districts, churches, businesses, factories, and pubs. Players had a separate job from football and earned money from here, but when competition between clubs became more intense and players were required to improve their levels, especially for players from the working class. In order to secure practice time and to play soccer without fear of injuries that cut off the way of income, a reward (guarantee) has come to be paid for playing soccer itself. This is the birth of professional players.
Birth and expansion of professional players
Football in englandFootball association It was first codified in 1863 with the establishment of (FA). At this time, football is mainlyPublic schoolOr they are playing in a team based on public schools,Amateur rhythmWas the norm.
Working-class teams dominated in the 1880s. Mainly composed of factory workersOf 1883FA cupWon.. They became the first working-class team to win the tournament that began in 1871... Professionalism was not allowed, but the Blackburn Olympics set up jobs for athletes and supplemented their income with off-balance-sheet compensation... This was common in Lancashire clubs.
The gap between amateur idealists in the south of England and the increasingly professional teams of the industrial cities in the north became apparent in 1884.Preston North EndAfter defeating and winning the FA Cup, London-based Upton Park protested that Preston's victory was due to professionalism and sought to overturn the outcome. This put the FA in danger of division. Preston withdrew from FA Cup and is the same Lancashire clubBurnleyとAlso followed. The protests have gained momentum, with more than 30 clubs in the north proclaiming that if the FA does not recognize professionalism, they will establish a rival British Football Association... Eighteen months later, the FA broke down and professionalism was officially recognized in England in July 18..
English clubs now hire professional players,Scottish Football AssociationContinued to ban this. As a result, many Scottish players moved to clubs in England. Initially, the FA set residence restrictions to prevent this, but in 1889 these were abolished..Football leagueIn its first year (1888-89), the winning club Preston North End had 10 professional Scottish players... The Scottish FA lifted the ban on professionalism in 1893, with 560 players registered as professionals..
Outside of England,1920 eraUntil then, it was common for amateurism to take the lead and regulate these movements by rules. In addition, it was also regarded as a problem that the reward would increase infinitely by becoming a professional. (This problem has not been solved until now.) Still, in the mid-1920s,オーストリア,Czechoslovakia,ハンガリー,アルゼンチンEtc. have decided to become professional.
Chronology of professionalization
|England||1885||The world's first professional league, the Football League was founded in 1888.|
|The United States of America||1921|
|イタリア||1926||it: Carta di Viareggio|
|メキシコ||1927||The year when the national team became professional. Mexico's first professional league was founded in 1943.|
|Brazil||1933||Rio and Sao Paulo League. It was later professionalized in other states.|
Professionalization in Japan
In the Japan Soccer League, around the 1970s, players are given bonuses for practicing hours during work or overtime, paying salaries, and various other names (for example, winning to raise the name recognition of the company). It has become common to give money with (= substantial victory salary). These forms were not entirely "amateurs" as defined by the IOC and FIFA. Furthermore1969FoundingYomiuri ClubThen, I was paying for playing soccer itself. The Japan Soccer League Secretariat and the Japan Football Association confirmed this form.1985Was started fromSpecial license playerIt is a system (substantial professional contract). Initially as a special licensed playerWest Germany (at that time) OfBundesliga,1. FC CologneI just returned to Japan after playingOkudera Yasuhiko(Furukawa Electric Soccer Club)WhenKaji Kimura(Nissan Motor Soccer Club) Two people registered. However, although the reality is that he has received some kind of treatment and is not an amateur,Hitachi Soccer Club, Furukawa Electric Soccer Club, etc. registered most of the players as amateurs.
However1980 eraFrom the end1990 eraAt the beginning, as the trend toward professional leagues became apparent, most players were registered as professional players.1993Opened inJapan Professional Soccer LeagueIn (J League), it has become common for most players to play professionally.
Positioning of professionals and amateurs in soccer
Most professional clubs around the world own teams in the "youth", "junior youth" or lower categories, depending on their age. These are, of course, amateur teams. Also, Germany and JapanFC Gifu SECOND,Fagiano Okayama NextThere is no time to list the examples of owning an amateur team with no age restrictions. In soccer, it is common to have a pyramid-shaped club with a professional team at the top and amateur teams by category underneath. In most cases, there are no restrictions on the participation of amateur players in these categories in the matches of professional teams in the same club.
Not only clubs but also national associations control not only professional teams but also all clubs and teams including amateur teams. This makes it possible to hold tournaments in which all clubs and teams affiliated with the associations of each country, whether professional or amateur, participate. England as such a tournamentFA cup,JapaneseEmperor's Cup All Japan Soccer ChampionshipThere is.
Japanese professional soccer player
For professional players in JapanJapan Football Association(JFA) has jurisdiction. The contract form is divided into the following three stages according to the past achievements of the players.
Pro A contract
So-called general professional contract. The color of the contract iswhite.
In the contractJapan Professional Soccer League(J League) official games (league games, cup games, super cups),Japan Football League(JFL) Official Match (League Match, Super Cup),Emperor's Cup All Japan Soccer Championshipで一定以上の時間試合に出場していること（J1で450分（5試合フル出場相当）、J2で900分（10試合フル出場相当）、J3・JFLで1350分（15試合フル出場相当））、またはプロC契約締結後3年が経過したことが必要。なお試合の出場実績には、Japan national football teamAs an international A match,FIFA U-20 World CupFinal,AFC Champions LeagueAlso included.
The minimum annual salary is 460 million yen, the upper limit is 670 million yen only in the first year of the contract, and there is no limit after the second year. The limit is 2 people per club (if a person who is qualified to be promoted from a lower level is made, it will be necessary to remove one of the previous contractors). The number of clubs participating in the AFC Champions League will be increased to 1. AlsoJ1-J2There is also a lower limit on the number of people that can be held, and J1 must conclude an A contract with 15 or more and J2 with 5 or more.
Pro B contract
The color of the contract istag.. The contract must meet the same conditions as the Pro A contract.
The maximum annual salary is 460 million yen,ParticipationEven if you set, there is an upper limit of 1 yen or less per game, but there are no restrictions on other variable rewards. There is no limit to the number of contracts per club.
Professional C contract
The color of the contract is绿.. When an amateur player / employee player signs a professional contract, he / she basically starts from this contract.
The maximum contract period is 3 years. The basic annual salary is a maximum of 460 million yen, and variable remuneration other than participation salary and victory salary is not allowed, and the participation salary is 1 yen or less per game, so the salary is kept low. There is no limit to the number of contracts per club.
If a player with a Pro C contract meets the entry criteria for a Pro A / B contract in the middle of the season, the club must notify the change to a Pro A or Pro B contract within 3 days. If the club does not offer a change to the Pro A contract at this time, the player may request to be on the transfer list. The change from Pro C to Pro A contract in the middle of the season will not be covered by the 25-person quota mentioned above only in that year.
For foreign players, it is also possible to individually conclude contracts that do not fall under the above professional A to C contracts. However, the treatment is the same as the Pro A contract, and it is subject to the 25-person quota.
またJ3It is obligatory to have three or more professional contractors, but unlike J3 and J1, there is no clear standard that "must be a professional A contract".
- ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 2-2
- ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 3-1
- ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 6
- ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 19
- ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 18-2
- ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 18-3
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