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🏃 | "Welcome back Monet" 58th Wheelchair Marathon player Samejima (Koharu Sugawara) appears


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"Okaeri Mone" 58th Wheelchair Marathon player Samejima (Koharu Sugawara) appears

 
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One day, a wheelchair marathon player, Samejima (Koharu Sugawara), visits Weather Extract Parts.
 

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Wheelchair marathon

Wheelchair marathon(Wheelchair marathon, English: wheelchair marathon)Public road courseEtc. (on the premises of the park or at the airportRunwayEtc. may be used)Wheelchair AthleticsでDisabled sportsOne of.Participants ride in a three-wheeled competition wheelchair with just the strength of their arms42.195kmRun through. 1984New York Airesbury Paralympics(Los Angeles OlympicsFrom time)Summer ParalympicsWas added to the official event of.

Half marathon21.0975km, 10km, 5km(English edition)Even if the distance is less than the marathon, those that are held outside the track are often called "wheelchair marathons" in Japan, but here we mainly describe the full marathon of 42.195km.

speed

World record for wheelchair marathon 1 hour 20 minutes 14 seconds (1999) Heinz Frei/ Oita International) has an average speed of 31.7km / h, which is the world record for a healthy marathon of 2 hours 01 minutes 39 seconds (2018). Eliud Kipchoge/ Berlin Marathon) average speed is 20.8km / h.

Comparison

Wheelchair and healthy person marathon (approximate number)
ItemWheelchair marathonHealthy person marathonComparison
(Wheelchair / healthy person)
averageSpeed31.7km / h20.8km / h3/2
5km lap time10 minutes / 5km15 minutes / 5km2/3
100m lap time11.4 seconds / 100m17.3 seconds / 100m2/3
  • A top wheelchair player can travel 1m in 500 minute and 2km in 1 minutes, so he can reach 80km in 40 minutes.
  • On public roadsMotorized bicycleIt is the speed to overtake (50cc motorcycle).

(* The above articles are based on data as of March 2019)

Top speed

  • 平地 - T54(障害程度の軽いクラス)男子の100mの世界記録が13秒63、200mの世界記録が24秒18、400mの世界記録が43秒46(いずれも2019å¹´3月1日現在)であるため、スタート直後はやや遅いが、トップスピードに乗ってからは100mあたり約10秒であるため、時速36kmに達している。ただしこれらはトラックで記録されたものであり、全区間の半分をコーナーが占めており、減速していることを考慮すると、東京マラソン等、フィニッシュ直前が200m程度の直線であれば、ラストスパートでは、時速37~38kmに達すると考えられる。
  • Downhill-Over 50km in the race[1][2].
    • 2008 Beijing ParalympicsOf silver medalistHiroki SasaharaHas produced a maximum speed of 68 km / h[3][4]..Since the frame rigidity has been improved and the straight running stability has also increased, it has become possible to drive at high speeds, but it completely exceeds the braking force of the front wheel brakes.Dangerous because it is out of control..Also, if you apply the brakes strongly, the front wheels will lock, so if you ride on a step or pebble on the road and the front wheels flow sideways,Increased risk of falls[5][6].

strategy

There is a strategy similar to the marathon as described below, but by following the preceding athlete to reduce air resistance, several to a dozen cars line up in a straight line, and the head that acts as a windbreak is changed (rotation) While preserving physical strength and watching the time of the spurt, etc.Road raceA similar strategy can be seen.This is a wheelchair raceDraftingRafting in different classes is forbidden.

Advance escape type

Take the lead at an early stage and escape to the finish as it is.

At the height of Heinz Frei in Oita International in the late 1990s, it was often seen that he was alone because there were no players to follow, rather than running away.

Long spurt type

The strategy is to settle before entering the stadium.

The track game depends on how much power you have, and if you are in a group, it is uncertain whether you will have a chance to move forward, so you must enter the track to make sure you win. You need to get out of the group before.In addition, this strategy is often selected for athletes who have weak abdominal and back muscles due to the damaged part and are disadvantaged in the track game.

Truck game type

Toshihiko SekoIf you are absolutely confident in your sprinting ability, you may be able to save your physical strength to the stadium and pull it out at the end, but depending on the number of groups, it is often not possible to get the course you want. , You need to have luck on your side to win.

Semicircular course and oval course

For bicycle races and car racesOvalThe course has been adopted.This is designed so that the way of turning gradually becomes stronger because it is dangerous to turn the steering wheel suddenly on a curve. (Relaxation curve(See) However, athletics tracks are designed on the assumption that people will run on their feet and that it is easy to draw lines on the playground, so the curve is a perfect semicircle.Therefore, if you turn the steering wheel at once at the entrance of the corner, you can continue to maintain that angle.

The competition wheelchair is equipped with a device that fixes the angle of the front wheels according to the curve of the track, so if you fix the handle angle at the entrance of the curve, you can continue rowing the rear wheels without touching the handle. ..In a wheelchair race, the key points are the fixed timing of the front wheel angle and the timing of returning when the vehicle goes straight.

  • (Reference) 2008 Beijing Women's 5000m
    • 2008 Beijing Paralympics, Wheelchair Women's 5000m The reason why I made contact and fell just before the last lap was because I missed this timing.When I finished the corner and went straight, the player who was running in 1nd place was late to notice that he was straight because he was facing down, and he did not put the front wheel back, so he cut inward and followed. Contacted and fell[7].. In 2004, Athens' 5000m gold medalist Wakako Tsuchida was involved in the accident, and the marathon, which was expected to win, was forced to miss.

History and format

Held as a "wheelchair section" for a big marathon event

Wheelchair division

The same course will start 5 to 10 minutes before the start of the general marathon event.If the participants are limited to runners who have the time to finish faster than the healthy people can finish, there is an advantage that the course can be used only by extending the traffic regulation by 5 to 10 minutes without crossing with the healthy people.

The beginning and development of the competition

1974 The race (distance etc. unknown) held in the United States and1975 After the proceedingsBoston MarathonBob Hall (Robert Hall), who participated in the event, is known as a pioneer of the wheelchair marathon.The influence of the Boston Marathon is great, and there are many competitions of this type in Western countries.

Recent trends

In recent years even in JapanTokyo marathonFrom 2007 (but from 2008 for girls),Osaka MarathonHas set up a wheelchair section since 2011, and it is expected that more marathon events will be set up in the future.

Wheelchair runner-only tournament

Since it is an independent tournament, it is possible to make the barrier time a little longer than in the wheelchair section, so there is an advantage that even people with severe disabilities can participate.

The beginning and development of the competition

Inspired by the Boston Marathon, there was a move to participate in existing marathon events in Japan, but in Japan at that time, there was no certainty that wheelchair users could safely complete the marathon distance, so it was experimental. As a marathon, I had to hold it alone. The Oita International Wheelchair Marathon, which started in 1981, has made it widely recognized that wheelchair users can complete the marathon distance and that they will not harm their health if they do not overdo it. Since around 1990, similar wheelchair-only competitions have been held all over the country.

Solo tournament held in Japan so far

Recent trends

In the 1980s, the welfare implication of social participation of persons with disabilities was great, but wheelchair marathon competitions were held in various parts of the country.ParalympicThe competitiveness has increased, such as being added to the official event of, and some professional athletes have been competing in overseas races. From around the 2010s, even when the Japanese won the Boston Marathon, it was reported as a competitive sport.

Laws of the Game, etc.

The basic part is performed according to the rules of the Japan Athletics Federation, but the special part as a sport for the disabled (classification according to the standard of the competition wheelchair and the degree of disability, etc.) is the scale of the competition and the competition. Depending on the purpose, it will be held in accordance with the "World Para Athletics Competition Rules" and the "Japan Para Athletics Federation Competition Rules".In addition, in order for the records to be officially recognized by these organizations, it is necessary for the tournament itself to be officially recognized and for the players themselves to be registered as players.

Classification

It is divided into T51, T52, T53 / 54, etc. according to the degree of disability. T is track, 10 in tens place isSpinal cord injury, 1's place is represented by 1 to 4 in descending order of disability. The abdominal muscles function in the T54. Abdominal muscles do not work in T53. The T51 has weak grip strength and arm extension force, and runs with almost only arm bending force.

Record

In the early 1970s, it wasn't as fast as it could be, but in 1980 Curt Brinkman (USA)Boston Marathonにおいて、1時間55分00秒で優勝し、健常者の記録を抜き去った。現在の世界記録1時間20分14秒(1999年 ハインツ・フライ/大分国際)は、平均時速31.7kmであり、100mを11.4秒のペースで走り続けたことになる。

Transition of men's world record

YearRecordplayerConventionRemarks
October 1983th, 112 hours 22 minutes 20 secondsYukifumi YamamotoOita InternationalJapan's highest record (at that time)
October 1984th, 111 hours 48 minutes 25 secondsAndre Vige (Canada)Oita InternationalBreak the 2 hour wall for the first time

(Excluding Boston Marathon)

October 1984th, 112 hours 00 minutes 47 secondsYukifumi YamamotoOita InternationalJapan's first marathon boy (healthy person) to break the world record and Japan record
October 1986th, 111 hours 50 minutes 05 secondsYukifumi YamamotoOita InternationalBreaking the two-hour barrier for the first time as a Japanese
October 1999th, 101 hours 20 minutes 14 secondsHeinz FreiOita International

Changes in women's world records

YearRecordplayerConventionRemarks
October 1984th, 112 hours 38 minutes 14 secondsNaoko Kozuka(Ishikawa)Oita InternationalJapan's best (at that time)
October 1990th, 92 hours 35 minutes 34 seconds(Hyogo)The 2nd National Wheelchair MarathonJapan's best (at that time)
October 1990th, 101 hours 51 minutes 31 secondsNaomi Hasegawa (Hyogo)Oita InternationalJapan's best (at that time)
It is the first Japanese female athlete to break the world record and the highest record in Japan for marathon girls (healthy people), and at the same time, it is the first Japanese female athlete to break the two-hour barrier.
October 1997th, 111 hours 39 minutes 40 secondsKazu Hatanaka (Hyogo)Oita InternationalIt surpasses the men's world record (at that time)
October 2001th, 111 hours 38 minutes 32 secondsWakako Tsuchida (Tokyo)Oita InternationalThe best in the world

About the handling of Boston Marathon records

Two world records

In the world of "sports for the disabled", in the pastInternational Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Competition Federation(ISMWSF = International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation) is now "International Paralympic Committee(IPC / Established in 1989) ”controls the rules of competition and records, but the new world record at the Boston Marathon is not an IPC-approved new world record.

Therefore, there are two world records for the Wheelchair Marathon.One is the record of the IPC official competition, and the other is the record of the Boston Marathon.

This is easy to understand if you think of it as a flat race and a downhill race.For example, in tennis, on the grass courtWimbledon ChampionshipAnd the clay coatFrench OpenJust as you can't compare and in the same line, you can't simply compare records between the Boston Marathon and other marathons.[8][9]

Reasons for not becoming an "official world record"

2004 years,International Athletics Federation(International Athletics Federation = IAAF) unified the standard of the course with different conditions for each tournament and set the standard of the marathon to facilitate the comparison of records, but the content is the straight line distance between the start point and the finish point. It was less than half of the total length (21.0975km in the full marathon) and the height difference was within 1/1000 (42.195m or less in the 42km marathon), but the Boston course was almost straight and there was no turning point, so the starting point. The finish point is 140m lower than the downhill.[10], Was not applicable to the Boston course[11].

It has existed for decades before the birth of sports for the disabled, and has already existed.authorityIt is not hard to imagine that the Boston Marathon, which has a short history, will recognize that there are not many benefits to obtaining official recognition such as IPC.

Handling of winners and records

However, even if it does not become an official record, it just says "it will not be treated as a new world record in the same category as other competitions", it does not mean that there is no record, and the victory is disregarded. Not really.In fact, the records made in Boston will be included in the annual ranking published by the IPC.[12]

It's also the first great event in history for the Boston Marathon to officially recognize wheelchair users as "runners."[13]It's still the most traditional and prestigious marathon event, so even if it's not an IPC-sanctioned world record, it's praised with the greatest compliments for breaking the Boston Marathon record. Does not change.

Current world record

  • IPC official world record
    • 1 hour 20 minutes 14 seconds / Heinz Frei (Switzerland) / October 1999, 10 Oita International[14]
  • Boston Marathon World Record
    • 1 hour 18 minutes 25 seconds / Joshua Cassidy (Canada) / April 2012, 4[15]

Main players

Japanese player

Boys

woman

Wheelchair for competition

Shape and size

Get in a position to sit or sit upright.The car body is completely made to order[16]Carbon fiberDisc wheel[17] For professional players rather than wheelchairsRoad bikeIt is a three-wheeled version of.

The rear wheels are 26-27 according to the physiqueinch, 20 inches are mainly used for the front wheels.The total length is about 1700 mm to 1850 mm.WheelbaseIs about 1200 mm.In general, the longer the wheelbase, the easier it is to go straight and the harder it is to bend (higher straight-line stability), so you can take the plunge and row, which makes it easier to speed up.

In addition, in order to push (hit) the hand rim for turning the wheel by friction, make and use gloves according to the individual's strength.

進化

The evolution of wheelchairs in the wheelchair marathon is as follows.

  • 1970 era
    • Wheelchair for daily life
      It is made of iron and weighs about 14 kg, so it is not suitable for long-distance running.
  • C. 1980
    • Smaller diameter of hand rim
      The hand rim of a wheelchair for daily use is only about 2 inches smaller than the size of a tire, but if it is made smaller, the wheels can be turned greatly by the principle of leverage, and although a large force is required when starting, speed can be achieved once. It is suitable for long-distance running because it can maintain high-speed running.
      However, the front wheels have a small diameter and are independent.Caster (moving parts)Since it is a type and can move freely, straight-line stability is low.Therefore, if you do not row while adjusting the force transmitted to the left and right rear wheels during acceleration, you will not be able to transmit a large amount of power because it will shake significantly to the left and right.
      (World record of 1984: 1 hour 48 minutes 25 seconds / Andre Vigee (Canada) Oita International)
  • C. 1985
    • Larger diameter of front wheels
      Since rolling resistance is reduced and the direction of the front wheels can be fixed, straight-line stability has increased slightly.However, a mechanism was needed to adjust the angles of the two fixed front wheels to be the same.
      As a result of the larger front wheels, the wheelbase has been extended, and the front wheels can be placed in front of the feet by slightly shifting the feet backwards, which increases the degree of freedom in design and the conditions for three wheels. It's in place.Also, by narrowing the width of the upper end of the rear wheel, it became possible to close the side and extend the arm, so it became possible to turn the hand rim greatly.As a result, the mounting angle of the rear wheels has tilted slightly in the "H" direction.
      (World record of 1986: 1 hour 45 minutes 36 seconds / Andre Vigee (Canada) Oita International)
  • C. 1986
    • Three-wheeled (caster type)
      It is an early model of three wheels.By reducing the number of front wheels by one, the weight was reduced, but the front wheels are still casters, and they cannot steer themselves, they only adjust freely in the direction of travel of the main body, so straight-line stability is still available. Was low.There was also a device to fix the direction, but after going around the corner, it was necessary to fix it straight again.
      In addition, the inclination of the rear wheels toward the "H" shape has also increased.
  • 1988
    • According to the rules, there are no regulations regarding the length of the wheelbase, and the range of choices for how to attach the front wheels has expanded.
      (World record of 1988: 1 hour 38 minutes 27 seconds / Paul Clark (Canada) Oita International)
  • C. 1989
    • Adoption of front fork
      It is an evolution of three wheels. By making it one wheel, it is the same as a bicycleFront forkA wheelchair with high straight-line stability was born.The tip of the front fork is bent, and the hub position is shifted forward from the extension line of the rotating shaft fixed to the vehicle body. (Called caster offset).As a result, when the front wheels are straightened, the car body is closest to the ground (when the steering wheel is turned, the car body is lifted), so when overloaded, it naturally stabilizes in the straight-ahead position. (Because of this property, it is possible to go straight even if you let go of the steering wheel on a bicycle.)
      In addition, with a device that instantly fixes the rudder to the curve of the track, it is possible to hit the hand rim without worrying about cornering, so if you ride a "new" racer, you can compete in the track. I was able to gain an overwhelming advantage.
      In addition, it has become possible to attach brakes to the front wheels.It is said that top end, an Australian venture company, adopted the front fork for the first time.
  • C. 1990
    • Long wheelbase
      Conventionally, the frame was made of iron, stainless steel, or chrome molybdenum steel, but a single frame made of aluminum has been adopted, and the wheelbase has become longer.
      The longer the wheelbase, the more straight-line stability it has and the less need to adjust the left and right forces, allowing more power to be transmitted to the wheels.In addition, the larger the area of ​​the triangle connecting the grounding points of the three wheels, the more difficult it is to fall, and the frame in front of you makes it possible to lean forward with peace of mind.By taking a large forward leaning posture, it became possible to reach the lower part of the hand rim, and it became possible to row the hand rim larger.
    • Weight saving
      By using aluminum, the weight has been reduced, and 7-9 kg has come out.In addition, the layout of the wheels and frame is approaching the completed form, and custom-made products that match the individual's physique and muscular strength have progressed, making it possible to transmit power to the road surface more efficiently.
      Even on road bikes, aluminum frames have become the mainstream for professionals since this time.
  • 1991
    • The regulation regarding the limitation of the total length was deleted, and the diameter of the front wheel was set to 50 cm or less.
  • C. 1993
    • Adoption of disc wheel (rear wheel)
      The large wheels (rear wheels) of wheelchairs were originally used for bicycles, but when disc wheels (plate-shaped disks) were developed for bicycles, they were also adopted for competition wheelchairs.In the case of conventional spoke-type rear wheels, the force to turn the hand rim is a lateral force with respect to the spokes, so it bends (bends), but if it bends 1 cm each time, a loss of 1 cm will occur each time it is rowed. It will be.By making the entire wheel a disk, the rigidity was improved and the power loss was almost zero.
      Mainly for disc materialsCarbon fiber reinforced plasticIs used, and Corima wheelchairs are often used for competition wheelchairs.Since carbon fiber reinforced plastic is hard and light, it has the property of easily producing sound due to vibration, so when a wheelchair racer runs, the sound of hitting the hand rim called gongon reverberates loudly.
      (1999 World Record: 1 hour 20 minutes 14 seconds / Heinz Frei (Switzerland) Oita International)
  • C. 2005
    • All carbon frame
      Honda R&D Laboratories"Full carbon (carbon fiber reinforced plastic)" jointly developed by Honda R & D TaiyoMonocoque"Body" racers are being developed.It is a custom-made product, and it needs to be baked evenly in a large pot, so the main unit price will be about 150 million yen.[18][19].. 2009Tokyo marathonThe top Japanese racer who won the wheelchair sectionHiroyuki YamamotoAthletes are using this type of racer.
      Even on road bikes, carbon frames have become the mainstream for professionals since this time.
  • 2010s-
    • Further evolution
      Titanium,magnesiumThe development points have shifted to the adoption of new materials such as, improvement of frame rigidity, reduction of air resistance, etc., but the design has also been greatly improved.
    • About frame rigidity
      One frame has the drawback of being vulnerable to lateral forces.If the frame bends each time the hand rim is rowed, the paddling force will be used as the force to bend the frame.Therefore, it can be said that the more resistant the frame is to twisting, the more efficiently power can be transmitted to the road surface.

Consideration

Weight balance dilemma

Ideally, the weight balance between the front and rear wheels should be 50:50 in order to improve athletic performance in a vehicle that travels on wheels, but in a hand-held competition wheelchair, it is located extremely close to the rear wheels. There is.Therefore, it has the disadvantage that the front wheels are lifted when starting or accelerating suddenly, and the straight-line stability is extremely reduced. However, when the riding position is in front, the hand rim is behind the body, making it difficult to apply force.dilemmaHave a

Comparison of 3 wheels and 4 wheels

Comparison3 wheels4 wheels
Difficult to fallThe area of ​​the shape (triangle) connecting the ground points of the tire is small, and it is unstable and easy to fall, which is disadvantageous for cornering.The area of ​​the quadrangle that connects the grounding points of the tires is large, and it is difficult to fall, so it is advantageous for cornering.
Weight savingWith only one front wheel, the structure can be simplified and the weight can be reduced.It is necessary to have a mechanism to make the angle of the front two wheels the same, which is disadvantageous in terms of weight reduction.

Votes

Straight-line stability depends on the length of the wheelbase and is not affected by the number of front wheels.Four wheels are overwhelmingly advantageous in cornering performance, but in a marathon, most of the straight parts are straight, so it can be said that three wheels are generally advantageous in a marathon.

The reason why the rear wheel is in a V shape

Wheel alignmentInCamber angleAlthough it is in a state with (negative camber), it was adopted for marathon competition wheelchairs from a different starting point from the idea of ​​so-called wheel alignment (originally, the purpose of negative camber is to improve turning performance).[20]..In other words, it was not aimed at "tilting" from the beginning, but as a result of narrowing the width of the upper part of the tire to fit the waist and widening the width of the lower part of the tire to stabilize it, it became a "H" shape.Therefore, there are individual differences in the easy-to-use angles and widths.

Outline

  • Background 1
    • The wheelchair for daily life is made slightly larger so that anyone can use it.Normally, the width of the wheel is about 60 cm.
  • Background 2
    • The width of the waist varies from person to person, but the hand rim (ring for moving the wheels) is easy to handle at the position just beside the waist.If it is wider than the waist, your hands will be caught between the waist and the wheels, and you will have to open your sides, so it will be difficult to apply force.Also, if it is too large, the position of the waist will shift and it will not be stable.Therefore, the width of the upper part of the wheel is made to be the same as the width slightly above the waist. (To the extent that it cannot be pulled out unless the waist is slanted)
  • Background 3
    • If the wheels are as wide as the waist and vertical, they will be too narrow and will fall easily.Therefore, the grounding point needs to be widened.

From the above three things, if custom-made is promoted, it will inevitably become a C shape.However, even though it was a coincidence, each competition had different merits.

Race competition

In the early 1980s, the wheels were mounted vertically to minimize rolling resistance, but when the wheels touch the upper arm, the skin rubs and bleeds, so taping to protect the skin is used to race. There were many players.However, as wheelchairs became more custom-made, the result was a C-shape.

The drawback of increasing the contact patch and rolling resistance is covered by increasing the air pressure and reducing the deformation of the tire.

  • Benefits of the letter "H"
    • Since it is next to the waist, when pushing (striking) the hand rim from above, the arm can be swung straight down, making it easy to apply force.
    • Since the hand rim is slanted, it is easy to get friction when pushing from above.The more you lower your arm, the more you feel as if the hand rim expands and approaches your hand.
  • Demerit
    • Since the inside of the wheel is low, it is easily damaged by steps.
    • Since the outside of the wheel is high, the tire easily comes off to the outside when a load is applied.

* It is considered that the diagonal rotation of the wheels does not generate a force that hinders straight running. (""Earth sesame"reference).Therefore, it is a misunderstanding that the wheels are mounted diagonally to make it easier to bend.

(Reference) Wheelchair basketball

  • Easy to change direction with a small force.
    The width of the contact patch of the rear wheel of a wheelchair for daily use is about 60 cm, but that for a wheelchair basket is about 90 cm.When the left and right wheels are turned in opposite directions, the contact patch of the tire draws a circle, but it becomes a circle with a radius of 30 cm for a wheelchair for daily use and a radius of 45 cm for a basket.The distance between the contact patch of this tire and the center of gravity is plus 15 cm.Leverage principleThis leads to the ease of changing direction.
    In other words, it is possible to turn with a small force (when rowing a boat, it is the same theory that if you row with only one oar, it will rotate on the spot. Also, the thicker the part to grip the screwdriver, the less force it has. It's the same as doing it.)
  • There is also the advantage that when you make contact, you do not get your hands caught in your wheelchair.

(Reference) Wheelchair tennis

  • Easy to change direction with a small force.It can rotate quickly like a wheelchair basketball.
  • The rotation angle can be finely adjusted.

If it is a sensitive setting that moves a lot just by moving it a little, it will turn too much than expected, and it will be difficult to reach the ball at the desired angle.

However, as mentioned above, the circumference drawn by the ground contact point of the tire is longer in the shape of a C than in a wheelchair for daily use.That is, in order to obtain the same rotation angle of the body, it is necessary to increase the amount of rotation of the wheels as compared with the wheelchair for daily use.On the contrary, even if it is moved a lot, it rotates only a little, so it is possible to avoid excessive rotation.In other words, it is easier to fine-tune the angle than a wheelchair for daily use.

More

About the notation "wheelchair"

Hiragana notation "wheelchairIs often used in the tournament name in the past.Regular kanji tableThis is because "" does not have the character "chair" and could not be used in official texts."Chair" was added to the Jōyō Kanji table on November 2010, 11.

TV / radio / net broadcast

TV relay

  • Until 2015, the entire race hadn't been broadcast live yet,Tokyo marathonWas broadcast nationwide, and wheelchair players were occasionally projected between general broadcasts, and at the 2012 tournament, the start of the wheelchair section was broadcast live for about 10 seconds. At Oita International on October 2016, 10,Oita BroadcastingTerrestrial (OBS alone) and BS (OBS alone)BS-TBS) Was the first live broadcast.

Radio relay

Online relay

  • Since 1997, the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon has been broadcast live by the event secretariat.

Books and dramas about the wheelchair marathon

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Kota Hokinoue, Japan's Paralympic team, says it will be over 60km". October 2012th, 10Browse.
  2. ^ "Jun Hiromichi, the Japanese representative of the Paralympics, has put out 45km in the adjustment practice.". 20127-10-07Browse.
  3. ^ The wheelchair has a speedometer so you can check it yourself.
  4. ^ http://www.geocities.jp/arinokey/TOP/memories/2004/para/para.HTM Lecture at Japanese Community School of Athens
  5. ^ "After 20 seconds, while driving downhill at high speed, it is photographed that he loses balance and falls.". October 2012th, 10Browse.
  6. ^ "After 1 minute and 10 seconds, there are bad conditions such as a wet road surface, but many wheelchairs who can not control the speed on the downhill of the Boston Marathon have fallen.". October 2012th, 10Browse.
  7. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wwoabUcvKxs&feature=related At 1 minute and 46 seconds, the player who noticed the straight line is seen holding the fixing bracket with his right hand.
  8. ^ The official website of the New York City Marathon introduces the following two world records. "Heinz Frei has the fastest time of 2:1:20 that no one could have done on a flat marathon course. Ernst van Dyck has a record of 14:1:18 in a high-speed downhill race. It's a living legend of the Boston Marathon. (The Boston record was updated for 27 seconds in 2012.) "
  9. ^ http://www.ingnycmarathon.org/pro_wheelers.htm
  10. ^ http://www.johnhancock.com/bostonmarathon/mediaguide/courseelevations.php
  11. ^ Since the Boston Marathon course hasn't changed much since more than 100 years ago, it can be said that the Boston Marathon did not meet the criteria, but rather set the criteria that could not be met without changing the current course.
  12. ^ http://www.paralympic.org/sdms/web/at/ranking.pdf.at.php?xml=0&rkt=RKTWR&rkd=87&ps=&pe=&spec=out&gen=&evt=ATMAR&cls=T54
  13. ^ http://www.baa.org/races/boston-marathon/boston-marathon-history.aspx
  14. ^ http://www.paralympic.org/sdms/web/at/record.pdf.at.php?xml=0&rct=RCTWR&spec=road&gen=M&evt=ATMAR
  15. ^ http://www.baa.org/races/boston-marathon/boston-marathon-history/course-records.aspx
  16. ^ If there is a gap in the waist position, it will interfere with the arm that runs the wheel, so it will not be possible to transmit force well.
  17. ^ Support the rim with a disc-shaped plate instead of spokes.It is also used in bicycle track events.
  18. ^ http://www.honda-sun.co.jp/products/racer.html
  19. ^ http://www.wheel-chair.jp/nissinpdf/nissin-info-nxh.pdf
  20. ^ The camber angle in automobiles is such that the width of the tire is wide (about 10 cm or more), the deformation of the tire becomes large due to centrifugal force when turning, and it is necessary to change the direction of the tire by steering, etc. Is completely different.

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