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⚽ | [Tokyo Olympics] Men's soccer loses Japan to Spain in semi-finals America loses to women


[Tokyo Olympics] Men's soccer loses Japan to Spain in semi-finals America loses to women

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Midfielder Becky Lynch will be the first Olympic medalist to announce transgender.

Tokyo Olympic soccer had a men's semi-final on the 3rd, and Japan lost to Spain and missed the first final.Before… → Continue reading


From the news, readings, and feature articles of BBC journalists who interview in about 100 countries around the world, we select and deliver topics that are meaningful to Japanese users who are knowledgeable.

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Olympic medalist


Transgender(English: Transgender) Means when you were bornAssigned genderIs ownGender identityorGender expressionIs a comprehensive term for people who are different from[1][2][3][4].Sexual minorityCan be mentioned as one of[5].

Gender identity, also known as gender identity or gender identity, is one's own gender (gender) Is recognized.That is, a transgender woman is a person who has a female gender identity and is assigned to a male at birth, and a transgender male is a person who has a male gender identity and is assigned to a female at birth.Gender identity may not be female or male.Usually used in combination with nouns that refer to people, such as "transgender people" and "transgender women," as words that describe people.[6][7].. TransgenderTransformerIt may be abbreviated as.Corresponds to the translated wordGender identity disorderIs inappropriate, in JapaneseGender cross-borderMay be called[8].


Strictly transgender means more than oneGender identityIn addition to gender identity (trans women and trans men), which is the opposite of the gender assigned at birth, men and women (trans women)Gender binary system) Gender identity ()X gender, Non-binary,Gender queer, Gender, etc.)[9][10][11].. TransgenderThird gender (described later)May include[12][13].

Many transgender people feel gender dysphoria (gender dysphoria), so in order to eliminate the dysphoriaHormone replacement therapyAndGender-adaptive surgery,PsychotherapyMay use medical measures such as[14].. Some people do not want or need such measures, while others cannot choose for financial, medical or institutional reasons.[14][15]..Of the medical procedures, some who wish to have a physical gender transition (transition) may wish to be called transsexual.[16][17]In recent years, many people want to be called transgender with or without transitions.[18].

Typically,Gender expressionIs often associated with the person's gender identity, but this is not always the case.[19][20].. Reminiscent of or specific genderSex roleSimilar appearances, behaviors and attitudes do not necessarily mean having a gender identity that matches them.

Being transgender means that personSexuality (sexual orientation)Is an independent concept[21][22].. That is,Heterosexuality,Homosexuality,Bisexual,AsexualThere are transgender people with diverse sexualities, including. Also, a system that benefits the sexually oriented LGB does not always benefit transgender.[21].

For transgender people, those who have the same gender identity as the gender assigned at birth (non-transgender people)Cis genderDescribed as[23].

Transgender history

For non-traditional gender identity in non-Western societies,Third genderSee section.

As a medical conceptTranssexual(In Japan todayTranssexualThe parties to what is called their gender identity (equivalent to what is called)Gender identity) Is a term that the parties began to use as a self-proclaimed term in the late 1980s in order to avoid discriminatory labeling that it is a mental illness.Cross dresser,(English editionIt is sometimes coined by, but it is inaccurate. She contributed significantly to the spread of the term, but is not an advocate).

Transvestite and transsexual

Montreal DeclarationOr later,European Union,United Nations OfHuman rights issuesIn official documents dealing with, transsexuals that require hormone therapy or surgical treatment (gender transition,ICD-10 F64.0en: transsexualismEquivalent to) and does not require such treatmentGender identityPermanent or temporary byCross dress(ICD-10 F64.1en: dual-role transvestism(Equivalent to) are collectively referred to as "transgender." But these international organizationsGender-adaptive surgeryBecause the need for insurance coverage is stated in a series of official documents, transsexuals that require surgical treatment and legal gender changes,Gender identityDerived fromCross-dresser(Transvestite or Crossdresser) and others are not confused by the word "transgender."

The transsexual problem alone is extremely small in number of parties (minorities among minorities), despite being unfairly stigmatized and persecuted.Human rights issuesBecause it was difficult to officially pick up as, it is in a similar situationCross-dresserInclusively, the expression "transgender" has come to be used because of the need for human rights relief to be an issue in international public institutions.LGBTAt first glanceHomosexualityFor the same reason, expressions that give the impression of being confused with transgender have come to be used publicly.

Change of concept

Previously, it was a term that explained only one process of gender transition in the body as follows.

  • Suffering from gender identity and assigned gender mismatch
  • TV (=Transvestite.. By wearing clothes of the opposite sex, the discomfort of gender is alleviated)
  • TG (= transgender. Administering sex hormones to improve your bodyGender identity(State of cross-dressing, etc.)
  • TS (Transsexual.hormoneEven if the body changes due to administration, the problem cannot be solved, and surgical operationgenitalAppearance ofGender identityClose to the genitalsGender identityState of living by gender)

Today surgery (=Gender-adaptive surgery) Existence of unwanted gender transition (gender identity disorder) parties and medical care for gender transition (gender identity disorder) parties in JapanInfrastructureThere are many people who do not follow this process due to delays in maintenance, etc., and when living with a gender identity different from the assigned gender, these people in general are referred to as transgender. ..

However, in the Nordic countries, the expression "transgender" does not include transsexuals as a loan word meaning a cross-dresser and has a negative meaning.スウェーデン,ノルウェーInstead of "Transpelson" (SwedishThen.sv: TranspersonFormalLegal termAs "könsövers kridande",NorwegianThen.no: Transperson) Is used.なおフィンランド語にはトランスセクシュアルと異性装を包括する概念がなくTranssexualismのIn Finnish, there is no concept that includes transsexual and cross-dressing, and transsexualismFinnishThe shape "fi: TranssukupuolisuusPlease note that the expression "" is used.

X gender

Some of the transgenders are "X genderThere are also those who are.This mainly applies to those who have "amphoteric," "asexual," or "neutral" gender identity.There are various aspects, such as those who identify with different genders and those who identify with different genders in parts of their minds.Although there are individual differences, I feel confused because I don't know whether my heart is male or female, or I feel discomfort or pain in an environment where I am forced to be either male or female.However, this aspect of "X gender" is very similar to the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder in atypical cases with memorable switching (personality conversion), and the replaced heterosexual minds were divergent personalities. Therefore, it is premature to assume that it is a gender identity disorder.

For these X-gender people, it is medical (often considered that a person with gender identity disorder has identity to either male or female).Gender identity disorderAlthough it may be said that it does not meet the diagnostic criteria of, in the actual medical practice, the diagnostic criteria of "gender dysphoria" of DSM5 describes the alternative gender, so if you go to psychiatry, Gender and asexuality also fall into the category of psychiatric disorders.

Also, because the prefix "trans" has the nuance of "a complete transition from one gender to the other on the premise of the dualistic gender view of" male "and" female "in the world." For example, those who have their own gender, such as "X gender," or who deny gender as a social institution, (gender bender, Gender twister), (gender blender, People who mix gender),Gender queer(genderqueer, Who does not fit into the existing gender framework, or who is fluid).

Detail is,X genderSee.


Some transgenderGender identityMay not be male or female.Those who take the position of gender, which is not limited to either of these men and women, are especially called non-binary.People close to this in some non-Western cultures were traditionally recognized as the third gender.For exampleNavajoNadur,India OfHijra,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euGave Doche or Mathie Embla,ZambiaKwol Atumol,フィリピン-CebuBayot or Rakin On,IndonesiaWallia,TahitiMuffs, Filipino Bakura and Bakuran,IndonesiaVinci,ThailandKathoey or Saopla Passon,MyanmarAcolt,MalayAcne,OmanHannies,トルコCocheck,セネガルGoldiguna,モロッコHassasu etc.[24].アルバニアWill live as a man from the day the woman applies until she diesOath virginThere is a culture[25].

Transgender pride flag

The most prominent of the transgender flag designs[26]Is known as the "Transgender Pride Flag," a symbol of transgender pride and diversity, and transgender rights.

Transgender Pride Flag is an American trans woman(English editionCreated in 1999 by Arizona, USA in 2000PhoenixFirst announced at the Pride Parade[27][28].

The flag represents the transgender community and consists of five horizontal stripes (two light blue, two pink and one white) in the center.

Helms describes the meaning of the transgender pride flag as follows:[29][30].

"The upper and lower horizontal stripes are light blue, which is the traditional color of baby boys, and the stripe next to them is pink, which is the traditional color of baby girls. The middle stripe is white.IntersexFor those who are in transition, or who believe they have a neutral or undefined gender.No matter how you raise this flag, it is always right and means finding accuracy in our lives. "

In the UK(English editionThe councilTransgender Day of RemembranceThis flag is displayed on[31].Transport for LondonAlso in 2016(English editionToLondon Underground Of(English editionThe flag was raised from the headquarters.

For the first time on November 2012th and 11th, 19 in San FranciscoCastro districtLarge public flag hoist (usuallyRainbow flagIs displayed)[29][32][33].. To commemorate Transgender Day of Remembrance, the flag-raising ceremony was held locally.Drag QueenPresided over by La Monistat[33][34].

On August 2014, 8, Monica Helms donated the Transgender Pride Flag to the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.[35].

2016 years,Santa Clara CountyBecame the first county government in the United States to raise the transgender pride flag[36].


  1. ^ Akiki Nishino 2018, p. 36-37.
  2. ^ Altilio, Terry; Otis-Green, Shirley (2011). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social Work. Oxford University Press. p. 380. ISBN 978-0199838271. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of December 1, 2016.. https://web.archive.org/web/20161201182734/https://books.google.com/books?id=XS3XJL_RGIgC&pg=PA380 2016/4/12Browse. "Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and / or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation [GLAAD], 2007). " 
  3. ^ Forsyth, Craig J .; Copes, Heith (2014). Encyclopedia of Social Deviance.. p. 740. ISBN 978-1483364698. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of December 1, 2016.. https://web.archive.org/web/20161201105833/https://books.google.com/books?id=NAjmBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA740 2016/4/12Browse"Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identities, gender expressions, and / or behaviors are different from those culturally associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth." 
  4. ^ Berg-Weger, Marla (2016). Social Work and Social Welfare: An Invitation. Routledge. p. 229. ISBN 978-1317592020. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of December 1, 2016.. https://web.archive.org/web/20161201170448/https://books.google.com/books?id=Fx7NCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA229 2016/4/12Browse"Transgender: An umbrella term that describes people whose gender identity or gender expression differs from expectations associated with the sex assigned to them at birth." 
  5. ^ "What Sexual Minority Means”. Verywell Mind (November 2020, 11). 2021/6/16Browse.
  6. ^ German Lopez (February 2015, 2). “Why you should always use "transgender" instead of "transgendered"". Vox. 2020/7/3Browse.
  7. ^ G. Balend (November 2019, 11). “Transgender is an Adjective". Medium. 2020/7/3Browse.
  8. ^ https://www.chuo-u.ac.jp/usr/kairou/programs/2006/2006_05/
  9. ^ Forsyth, Craig J .; Copes, Heith (2014). Encyclopedia of Social Deviance.. p. 740. ISBN 978-1483364698. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of December 1, 2016.. https://web.archive.org/web/20161201105833/https://books.google.com/books?id=NAjmBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA740 2016/4/12Browse"Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identities, gender expressions, and / or behaviors are different from those culturally associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth." 
  10. ^ Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "GLAAD Media Reference Guide – Transgender glossary of terms" Archived 2012-06-03 at WebCite, "GLAAD", USA, May 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-24." An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and / or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth. "
  11. ^ Bilodeau, Brent (2005). “Beyond the Gender Binary: A Case Study of Two Transgender Students at a Midwestern Research University”. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education 3 (1): 29–44. two:10.1300 / J367v03n01_05.  "Yet Jordan and Nick represent a segment of transgender communities that have largely been overlooked in transgender and student development research – individuals who express a non-binary construction of gender [.]"
  12. ^ Susan Stryker, Stephen Whittle, The Transgender Studies Reader (1-135-39884-4), Page 666: "The authors note that, gradually, in social science literature, the term" third gender "is being replaced by or conflated with the newer term" transgender. "
  13. ^ Joan C. Chrisler, Donald R. McCreary, Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology, volume 1 (2010,1-4419-1465-X), page 486: "Transgender is a broad term characterized by a challenge of traditional gender roles and gender identity [. ...] For example, some cultures classify transgender individuals as a third gender, thereby treating this phenomenon as normative."
  14. ^ a b Victoria Maizes, Integrative Women's Health (2015,0190214805), page 745: "Many transgender people experience gender dysphoria—distress that results from the discordance of biological sex and experienced gender (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Treatment for gender dysphoria, considered to be highly effective, includes physical, medical, and / or surgical treatments [...] some [transgender people] may not choose to transition at all. "
  15. ^ "Understanding Transgender People FAQ". National Center for Transgender Equality (February 2009, 5). As of February 1, 2016オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/4/20Browse.
  16. ^ Thomas E. Bevan, The Psychobiology of Transsexualism and Transgenderism (2014,1-4408-3127-0), page 42: "The term transsexual was introduced by Cauldwell (1949) and popularized by Harry Benjamin (1966) [...]. The term transgender was coined by John Oliven (1965) and popularized by various transgender people who pioneered the concept and practice of transgenderism. It is sometimes said that Virginia Prince (1976) popularized the term, but history shows that many transgender people advocated the use of this term much more than Prince. "
  17. ^ R Polly, J Nicole, Understanding the transsexual patient: culturally sensitive care in emergency nursing practice, In the (2011): "The use of terminology by transsexual individuals to self-identify varies. As preferably, many transsexual individuals prefer the term transgender, or simply trans, as it is more inclusive and carries fewer stigmas. There are some transsexual individuals [, ] However, who reject the term transgender; these individuals view transsexualism as a treatable congenital condition. Following medical and / or surgical transition, they live within the binary as either a man or a woman and may not disclose their transition history. "
  18. ^ "Terminology and definitions". Transgender Care. University of California, San Francisco (June 2016, 6). 2020/7/2Browse.
  19. ^ Summers, Randal W. (2016). Social Psychology: How Other People Influence Our Thoughts and Actions [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. P. 232. ISBN 9781610695923. https://books.google.com/books?id=5nF1DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA232 
  20. ^ American Psychological Association (December 2015). “Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Transgender and Gender Nonconforming People”. American Psychologist 70 (9): 861. two:10.1037 / a0039906. PMID 26653312. http://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/transgender.pdf. 
  21. ^ a b Akiki Nishino 2018, p. 38-40.
  22. ^ "Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality”.. June 10, 20 Viewed.
  23. ^ "Definition of CISGENDER" (English). www.merriam-webster.com. 2019/3/26Browse.
  24. ^ Vanessa Baird, "Basic Knowledge of Sexual Minorities," p132-143, Sakusha, 2005,ISBN-4 86182 012-X-
  25. ^ Albanian woman "Oath Virgin" who chooses to live as a man and vows to be single for life: Karapia
  26. ^ A Storied Glossary of Iconic LGBT Flags and Symbols Matt Petronzio, 13 June 2014.
  27. ^ Brian van de Mark (May 2007, 5). “Gay and Lesbian Times”. As of May 2012, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2016/11/3Browse.
  28. ^ Fairyington, Stephanie (November 2014, 11). “The Smithsonian's Queer Collection". The Advocate. 2015/6/5Browse.
  29. ^ a b "Transgender Flag Flies In San Francisco's Castro District After Outrage From Activists" by Aaron Sankin, HuffingtonPost, 20 November 2012.
  30. ^ "The History of the Transgender Flag". point5cc.com (February 2015, 4). As of February 23, 2015オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/7/9Browse.
  31. ^ Council flagpoles now celebrate diversity and druids; The Daily Telegraph, 4 April 2011.
  32. ^ Wilkey, Robin (October 2012, 10). “Controversy Erupts Over San Francisco's Famous Rainbow Flag”. Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/23/castro-rainbow-flag_n_2007257.html 
  33. ^ a b "USA --Transgender Pride flag raised for the first time in the Castro”(May 2012, 11). 2018/6/21Browse.
  34. ^ "FOF # 991 – La Monistat Keeps it Fresh!". Feast of Fun (September 2009, 5). 2018/6/21Browse.
  35. ^ "A Proud Day at American History Museum as LGBT Artifacts Enter the Collections”. Smithsonian Institution. 2014/8/28Browse.
  36. ^ "The Bay Area Reporter Online --Santa Clara is first county in US to raise trans flag". Bay Area Reporter (September 2015, 5). 2018/6/21Browse.


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