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🥋 | 1 years after the shock received in the middle 13, to a clash with the "living legend" on the stage of the Olympics Ken Nishimura, a new competition karate


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1 years after the shock received in the middle 13, Ken Nishimura, a new competition karate, collides with a "living legend" on the stage of the Olympics

 
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Watch the world championship held at the "Sacred Place of Martial Arts" Nippon Budokan.
 

Karate, which will be held for the first time at the Olympics and is expected to be a rush to win gold medals by Japanese people, will be held at Nippon Budokan on the 5th to 7th. ... → Continue reading

 West Japan Sports

West Japan Sports (West Sports) is the first sports newspaper published in Kyushu in 1955.
Lots of detailed information about Fukuoka Softbank Hawks that can only be read in "West Sports"!
In addition to professional baseball and high school baseball, J-League information of Kyushu teams such as Sagan Tosu, V. Farren Nagasaki, Avispa Fukuoka and news of basketball, rugby, HKT48, bicycle races, boat information etc. will be distributed as needed.


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martial arts

martial arts(Grape) is in a broad senseAncient martial artsHowever, in a narrow sense, "based on the martial arts culture (old martial arts) that was originally developed in Japan.Modernbecome,Western EuropeTypicalSportsIt was established by modern reorganization against it while learning frommotionculture'[1]Is.When clearly distinguishing from KobudoModern martial artsCall.

"Hone your skills to kill and control peopleTrainingThroughPersonalityAiming for the completion of "roadWith the addition of the philosophy of[Annotation 1][Annotation 2]".However, the idea of ​​this "road" has already been established.Edo PeriodSince it was completed even though it was not called "martial arts" from before, it has been completed since modern times.physical educationIt is an interpretation of it from a point of view.It was inherited from the old martial arts,RemnantFrom common attitudes such as (Zanshin, Zanshin)traditional culture,GeidoHave a relationship with.

またFeudal systemBelowRuling class(Privileged class)samuraiDeveloped aroundHigh cultureFrom traditional old martial arts, after modernizationDemocratizationAnd open the doorMass cultureIt can be said that it has become a modern martial art[2].

The idea of ​​martial arts varies depending on the times, organizations and individuals, and even the opposite idea exists, but nine major martial arts federations are members.Japan Martial Arts CouncilIs "Martial artsBushidoDerived from the tradition ofJapanIn the movement culture of mental skills by training martial arts systematized injudo,karate,kendo,Sumo,Archery,Aikido,Shorinji Kempo,Naginata,BayonetTo train the mind and body as one,PersonalityPolish,MoralityAnd cultivate an attitude of respect for etiquette, national and social平和It is a way of human formation that contributes to prosperity.Is enacted[3].

History

The word "martial arts"BushidoI pointed to that, but since the late Edo periodAncient martial artsCame to point to[Source required]..Modern martial arts have evolved from this ancient martial art.Regarding the rise and fall of KobudoKobudo #History Please refer to.

Meiji RestorationKo-ryu is obsolete as old byMartial arts box officeI managed to keep my lifeline.In such a situationJigoro Kano TheJiu JitsuWas independently theorized and rationalizedKodokan JudoOpened and prospered.EducationThe thought of Kano, who was a person, had a strong influence on later martial arts artists.

MeijiFrom the endTaishoUntil then, martial artsCombat technologyIs not the main content, but the trend is to emphasize educational utility.[Annotation 3]..The advocate of the name change from martial arts to martial artsHiromichi NishikuboIs[4]..Nishikubo was in the Taisho eraDainippon BoutokukaiBecame Vice Chairman of the Martial Arts CollegeMartial arts vocational schoolRenamed to.

About the backgroundFukushima University教授Tamio NakamuraUniversity of TsukubaHonorary professorAccording to a study by Ichiro Watanabe et al., The name "martial arts" was used to mean serious training that is educationally useful in order to distinguish it from the fallen (considered) martial arts performed by performing martial arts. There is.At that time, the difference between old martial arts and modern martial arts was not so conscious, but nowadays they are often distinguished.

Main martial arts

The order of publication follows the Japan Martial Arts Council.For emerging martial arts that are not included in the martial arts defined by the Japan Martial Arts Council, follow the pseudonym order.


Taizi TheJapan Martial Arts CouncilMartial arts that are members of.
* TheEmperor's Cup(Empress's Cup) Martial arts.

Rank

Second World WarbeforeDainippon BoutokukaiFor judo, kendo, and archeryDan system(The rank system isKodokanBut the rank system isMetropolitan Police DepartmentHas been adopted in advance), and since then it has been adopted in other martial arts and continues to the present day.Each division has a historical background and is completely different depending on the martial arts.Also, regardless of abilityDonation,PropagandaAwarded for achievements such asHonorary rankThere are some martial arts organizations that exist.

XNUMXth grade, XNUMXth grade, XNUMXth grade, XNUMXth grade, XNUMXth grade, XNUMXth grade, XNUMXth grade, XNUMXrd grade, XNUMXnd grade, XNUMXst grade
  • segment
XNUMXst, XNUMXnd, XNUMXrd, XNUMXth, XNUMXth, XNUMXth, XNUMXth, XNUMXth, XNUMXth, XNUMXth

title

In the Meiji eraDainippon BoutokukaiFor those who have devoted themselves to martial artsRefining certificateOf the later hanshi, instructor, and renshititleIt has led to the enactment.Even now, the governing body of each martial art is awarded the title.

  • Hanshi --Equivalent to XNUMX steps or more
  • Priest --Equivalent to XNUMX steps or more
  • Renshi --Equivalent to XNUMX steps or more

Competitive

match-CompetitionThere are many martial arts entertainments that have introduced this, but originally, Jiu-jitsuRehabilitation trainingAnd swordsmanshipBamboo sword trainingOf martial arts as represented byTrainingThe method.

manySportsThe purpose is to win the match.
But martial artsbattlefieldSince it has a history of developing from martial arts, there is a strong historical tendency to think that winning the competition is not a proposition.On the other hand, of judoOlympicSince its introduction into competition, many martial arts have emphasized competition.Regarding the introduction of games, in addition to the above-mentioned judo, maintenance of mainland karate kumite games and swordsmanshipMeijiSubsequent competition (kendo),Kenji TomikiTrial and error has been repeated in the history of the introduction of games to Aikido.

Introduction of games and kumite

利 点

  • RandomizationOpportunity increases.
  • Prevention of the technique becoming a mere ghost.
  • Technique improvements and mistakesLoreIs easy to modify.
  • It's just for games, but you can quickly get a sense of correct appearance.
  • Improving mental strength and concentration by having a sense of tension.
  • Physical strengthIs easy to improve.

Disadvantage

  • Useful techniques are emphasized in the game rules, and other techniques tend to be neglected.Also, no matter what the game rules (even without prohibited techniques), it is assumed that the battle will start with a signal on a one-on-one basis, and sudden hitsHidden weaponIt is difficult to include technologies that assume such factors, and it transforms into an unrealistic form of technology.
  • It is easy to fall into a technical system that emphasizes physical strength such as muscular strength, instantaneous power, and stamina.
  • By sticking to victory or defeat, the purpose of aiming for personality formation is deviated and the significance of martial arts is lost.
  • Facilitate the ideology of conflict.
  • It induces physical trauma due to difficulty in performing it safely and excessive practice such as excessive repetition and weight loss of specific movements.

Introduction of form competitions and performance competitions

利 点

  • Match as a competitionKumiteIf you are only doingShape (type)-PerformanceIs easy to be neglected, so it can be prevented by conducting form competitions and performance competitions at the same time.

Disadvantage

  • The evaluation from the practical aspect of form and performance varies depending on the school, martial arts, etc., and it is difficult to objectively evaluate it. Will deviate from (Chinese Martial Arts #Martial Arts,Karatedo # type and kumitereference).However,"BeautyThere is also a counterargument that "" is one of the three major elements of martial arts, "use, beauty, and way," and is important.

Relationship with sports

GHQ TheSecond World WarPreviously, it was said that martial arts were used to raise the fighting spirit of the people.In connection with this, martial arts organizations were banished from public office, and martial arts were in danger of being abolished.laterOccupation Armyから民主TypicalSportsIt was recommended to carry out as.Therefore, postwar martial arts have a strong sporting color.

2000 era OfPublic interest corporation system reformPreviously,Japan Martial Arts Council9 federations that are members ofjudo,kendo,Archery,Sumo,karate,Aikido,Shorinji Kempo,Naginata,Bayonet) Is allMinistry of educationSports AgencyIt belonged to the jurisdiction of, and was classified as a sport administratively.

Although it is still treated as a kind of sports in fact, how to grasp the relationship with sports varies depending on the organization and individual as follows. "Sports" to "physical education"Or"Fighting sportsEven if it is replaced with "", there are similar ways of thinking.

  • Sports and martial arts are contradictory concepts, and as sports become more sporty, martial arts decrease.
  • It is possible that sports and martial arts are not confrontational concepts, but martial arts and sports.
  • There is only a sports part in a part of the martial arts, and no matter how many sports parts there are, it is just a martial art as a whole.
  • jogging,チ ェ ス,yogaEven so, martial arts are, of course, sports because they are sports.Therefore, martial arts are a sport no matter what form they take.
  • Physical acts that are carried out according to the rules are sports, and self-defense training without rules is martial arts.
  • SportsKinematicsIn addition, martial arts哲学It is derived from.

School education (physical education)

Dedicated to pre-school and extra curriculareducation(physical education) AtMeijiAlthough martial arts were considered difficult and harmful during the period,Kodokan,Dainippon BoutokukaiIn 44 (Meiji XNUMX) due to the improvement of teaching methods such as the establishment of basic techniques for unifying swordsmanship and group teaching methods.1898)Old junior high schoolSwordsmanship (swordsmanship) and jujutsu were introduced into the extracurricular lessons, and the names were martial arts, kendo, and judo, making them compulsory regular lessons.

Pacific War Ofdefeatrear,Allied Supreme Commander General Command(GHQ) bans martial arts professors at schoolShinai KyogiSuch sports were created.Showa25 years(1950)Ministry of EducationNew systemJunior high schoolJudo, 27 (Showa XNUMX)1952), The ban on kendo was lifted.Showa 28 (Showa XNUMX)1958) Middle schoolCourse of StudySo, judo, kendo,SumoMartial arts such asSkillA regular lesson was held under the name.The practice field for martial arts is "Martial arts gym"Or"Gakujo"In Although,Municipalities OfgymnasiumIn such cases, the notation "Gakujo" can also be seen.HeiseiNew Year (1989The name was changed from martial arts to martial arts in the new course of study.

24 (2012From April of junior high schoolphysical educationWith martial arts for both men and womenダンスBecame compulsory (junior high school martial arts compulsory).Martial arts are in principlejudo,kendo,SumoSelect from. Many schools practice judo, but in some areas other martial arts are also conducted.

A shrine closely related to martial arts

◼︎Aiki Shrine-AikidoEnshrines Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ "The purpose of martial arts is to improve personality, enhance insight, and develop talented people through the training of mind and body through martial arts." (Japan Martial Arts Council Martial Arts Charter Article 1)
  2. ^ "Budo is a traditional culture that originated from the ancient spirit of Shobu in Japan and has evolved from art to road through a long history and social transition."Japan Martial Arts Council Martial Arts Charter)
  3. ^ Sasaburo Takano ThekendoThe purpose of is stated as follows.
    Kendo was originally a law of war that kills enemies and protects oneself, and was developed from the Warring States period to the Tokugawa period. The law of war has changed from the past, and cannons, rifles, planes, iron nets, poisonous gas, etc. have been used to wage war, and the practical value of kendo as a law of war has narrowed considerably. ..Of course, even today, it is the most powerful combat technique for hand-to-hand combat and personal fighting, and it will always be practiced as a practical technique by military personnel and police officers, but today it trains the right external spirit and trains the body. It is recognized for its value as a method of training.In other words, the purpose of kendo is, in a nutshell, to train the mind and body.Above all, the emphasis is on mental training. — Akihiko Domoto "Sasaburo Takano Kendo Manuscripts", Ski Journal

Source

  1. ^ Takashi Uozumi"History and Spirit of Martial Arts" (International Budo University: Institute of Martial Arts and Sports Sciences, 2008) p.8
  2. ^ Munemitsu Shoko, 646 Years of Kendo, p. XNUMX, Jiji Press
  3. ^ Martial arts philosophy(Established by the Japan Martial Arts Council on October 20, 10)
  4. ^ Nishikubo martial arts training

References

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