Photo A stuntman that reproduces dangerous driving of a bicycle
Reproduced a classroom stuntman at Onuma High School in the wake of a bicycle accident
If you write the contents roughly
I want you to observe left-hand traffic, pedestrian priority, and lighting of lights at night. "
JA Aizu Yotsuba and Aizu Wakamatsu Station opened a bicycle traffic safety class at Onuma High School in Aizumisato Town on the 3rd.The stuntman spins ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Face-to-face trafficWhat is (Taimen Kotsuu)?SidewalkとroadwayOn the indistinguishable road,vehicle(Automobile,オ ー ト バ イ,BicycleEtc.) is on the left side,PedestrianMeans that vehicles and pedestrians pass on the opposite side of the road, that is, on the same side, facing each other (face-to-face), such as right-hand traffic...In countries where vehicles drive on the right side, pedestrians drive on the left side in the case of two-way traffic.
It is based on the idea that it is safe because vehicles and pedestrians can pass while recognizing each other.
Status of each country
Contrary to Japan, in countries where vehicles drive on the right side, pedestrians often drive on the left side, but in some countries there are no regulations and in some countries both sides are allowed. "Face-to-face traffic" is not legally required.
|Country||Passing side of the vehicle||Passing side of pedestrians on non-separated pedestrian roads|
|The United Kingdom||left||No provision (encourage the right side)|
|Hong Kong||left||No provision (encourage the right side)|
|Australia||left||By the road (both sides)|
|スペイン||Right side||By the road (both sides)|
|America||Right side||No provision (recommended on the left side)|
|Chugoku||Right side||By the road (both sides)|
On June 1900, 6, the Metropolitan Police Department enacted road control rules and adopted left-hand traffic for the first time...In Japan, vehicles and pedestrians were also on the left side, but fatal accidents occurred frequently immediately after the end of the war.[Annotation 1]Therefore, due to the enforcement of the revision of the Road Traffic Control Law, two-way traffic on the left side of vehicles and the right side of pedestrians was adopted on November 1949, 11.At that time, the traffic division of pedestrians is on the right side (sidewalk /Roadside belt(Limited to roads with no distinction between roads)[Annotation 2]But,Railway stationMany places on the premises still use left-hand traffic[Annotation 3]. Also,Guide dogIs trained to walk on the left side of the road, and the Road Traffic Act allows left-hand traffic..
Korean EmpireIn 1905 of the era, right-hand traffic was stipulated in the "Korean Empire Regulations",Japanese rule Of1921 ToInlandIt became a left side traffic according to. AndU.S. military administration periodIn 1946, the vehicle was changed to right-hand traffic and two-way traffic began...However, on October 2009, 10, pedestrians were also changed to right-hand traffic in public transportation facilities such as stations and airports and in public transportation.The long-standing face-to-face traffic in South Korea has been abolished.
Passing side of the vehicle
As a general rule, vehicles must pass on the left side of the center of the road.On the leftOn the contrary, as a general rule, vehicles must pass on the right side of the center of the road.On the rightThere is.
In Japan, as mentioned above, left-hand traffic is adopted.Road Traffic LawIn Article 17, Paragraph 4, "Vehicles are道路You must pass the part from the center to the left of. "Therefore, as a general rule, vehicles cannot pass all or part of the road from the center to the right.However, there are the following exceptions (Road Traffic Act, Article 17, Paragraph 5).
- The roadone-wayin the case of
- When the width of the left part of the road is not enough for the vehicle to pass
- When the vehicle cannot pass on the left side of the road due to some obstacle on the road (damaged road, road construction, etc.)
- When trying to overtake another vehicle on a road whose width is less than 6 meters on the left side of the road, except when it is legally prohibited to pass over the right side.
- When the method of passage is specified by a road sign, etc. near the corner of a steep road, and the vehicle passes according to the designation (Note that the road surface is used to specify the method of passage on such a road. The white arrow sign drawn above is "Orders for road signs, lane markings and road markingsIt is stipulated as a sign of "traffic on the right side" in the attached table of
There are various theories as to the reasons for hiring the passers-by.JapanFor left-hand traffic,Edo PeriodFrom aroundsamuraiEtc. are on the left hipKnifeThe theory that it was naturally left-handed, avoiding contactAnd the Meiji governmentThe United KingdomThere is a theory that it is because it is modeled after the system of.On the other hand, in continental European countriesRoman EmpireThere is a record that left-hand traffic was adopted in this era.For subsequent right-hand traffic,CarriageBecause the whip is swung with the right hand, the theory that it naturally became a right-hand traffic because it did not hit the oncoming carriage.French RevolutionAt that time, the church decided to go to the right side in opposition to the left side, and then to go to the right side.NapoleonThere is a theory that it became popular because it occupied various parts of Europe.The United States of AmericaThe right side of the road was in charge of road administrationOfficials NetherlandsThe theory that he was fromindependentThere is a theory that it was converted to a memorial to break away from British rule.However, none of the theories are decisive, and it is not clear why the traffic was left / right.
Operation of each country
Many countries are adopting right-hand traffic.In terms of population ratio, the ratio of left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic is 34:66, and the total length of the road is 27.5: 72.5.[Annotation 4].
On the left
- The United KingdomAnd some of the former British territories (アイルランド-Hong KongSuch)
- Except for someBritish CommonwealthMember countries (Australia-New Zealand-India-Pakistan-Malaysia-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Singapore-Kenya-South Africa-Cyprus-マルタ-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-ガイアナ-(I.e.Such)
There are many countries and regions influenced by the United Kingdom.
Also old NetherlandsTerritoryIndonesia-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu, OldPortugalTerritoryMozambique-東 テ モ ー ル-MacauChanged to right-hand traffic[Annotation 5]After that, it continues to maintain left-hand traffic.
On the right
- Except for someNorth American continentCountries (America-カナダ-メキシコ-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-パナマSuch)
- Continental europeCountries (Germany-France-スイス-イタリア-スペインSuch)
- Indochina Three Countries(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Laos-Cambodia）
- イ ス ラ エ ル-Saudi Arabia
- Chugoku(Hong KongとMacauExcept) ・Taiwan-Korean Peninsula( South Korea-north korea)・Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Myanmarand so on.
Even within the territory of one country, the traffic division may differ depending on the region.Hong Kong and Macau after the return to China (Later),United States Virgin IslandsIs the territory of the United States, but is on the left.Also in British territoryGibraltarIs on the right side.furtherOkinawaIt used to be on the right side (Later).
"Connecting Thailand and Laos with different left and right traffic divisions"Thai-Laos Friendship Bridge"Is the traffic on the left side, and the upper and lower lines are in front of the Lao side to reverse the traffic division.Level crossingIt has a structure that is replaced by.on the other hand"Second Thai-Laos Friendship Bridge"Is a traffic on the right side, and the upper and lower lines are switched by the level crossing on the Thai side.
Left-hand drive and right-hand drive
Automobile OfhandleThe position is usuallyOn the leftIn the countryWheel loaderRight-hand drive vehicles except for construction machinery such as(The driver's seat is on the right side in the direction of travel),On the rightIn the countryLeft-hand drive car(The driver's seat is on the left side in the direction of travel) is used.
That is, the positions of the driver's seats are inside the road.This is safety when passing vehicles and when turning left or right.passingThis is the result of considering the visibility of time and the ease of checking oncoming vehicles.De facto standardIt is also.Many countries have legal restrictions that do not allow the registration or driving of vehicles in the opposite position.Therefore, automobiles that export automobiles to foreign countriesManufacturerGenerally, the specifications of both the left and right steering wheels are designed and manufactured for the same model.A vehicle remodeling company may remodel an imported used car to change the steering wheel position (right).写真reference).
However, exceptionally in Japan, which is on the left side, it is mainly due to consumer taste.Imported carIn addition to being sold with the left handleAll terrain crane,Wheel loaderSuch asConstruction machineryThen, when you turn leftWidth adjustmentThe left steering wheel is exceptionally adopted from the viewpoint of preventing contact accidents at the time.Also, in the era of left-hand trafficスウェーデンThen, the left steering wheel car was the mainstream.
Even in areas with right-hand traffic, from countries with left-hand trafficSecondhand carThere is also an example that there are many right-hand drive cars because they imported.For example, on the right sideロシア(EspeciallyUral mountainsFrom eastPrimorsky TerritoryAnd the Far EastKhabarovsk regionEtc.), many used cars from Japan輸入It is used locally with the right-hand drive.There is also a similar phenomenon in some Asian countries,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Myanmar,north korea,アフガニスタンCountries such as.In Myanmar, there are many used cars with right-hand drive imported from neighboring Thailand (traffic on the left side), and most of the cars that run are right-hand drive cars.It should be noted thatUnited States Virgin IslandsIs a left-hand drive, but the car is a left-hand drive car that conforms to the specifications of the United States.
Even in cars in countries with right-hand traffic, there are cases where "only the right steering wheel" is used.Many of the early cars had a right-hand steering wheel regardless of the left or right of the traffic system.This is because it is convenient to operate the lever, and it is common for left-handed vehicles in countries with right-hand traffic.Ford Model TAppears1908 Because.Conservative after thatluxury carContinued to hold on to the right-hand drive..Even in recent years, in ItalyFerrari 250LM ,West Germany(At the timePorsche 935 Moby Dick,America'sFord GT40Is only right-hand drive.Those cars24 Hours of Le MansDesigned with the competition running in mind, the race course isclockwiseTherefore, the right-hand drive is more advantageous in terms of visibility.
Converting the traffic side of the vehicle
From the beginning of the 20th century to around World War II, there were cases where the traffic side of vehicles was changed from left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic.
- Canada was a British colony until 1867, and cars originally had left-hand traffic, but since it was connected to the United States by land, it changed to right-hand traffic in the 1920s.
- オーストリアOf the 1938Nazi GermanyAnnexation of Austria (Anschluss), The traffic was changed from the left side to the right side like Germany.
- PortugalWas changed from left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic in 1928.However, even in the former Portuguese colony, Mozambique, East Timor, and Macau are on the left.
- In British Gibraltar, on June 1929, 6, the left-hand traffic was changed from the same as in the home country to the right-hand traffic in accordance with neighboring Spain.Gibraltar Transportation #Roadsreference.
- In addition, in the European continentCzechoslovakia,ハンガリーHas a history of changing from left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic from the 1930s to the 1940s.
- Mainland ChinaThen,ShanghaiBritish concession and Japanese concession, etc.KantoJapanese leased land such as (Dalian),ManchuriaWas also on the left side, but after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the whole country was changed and unified to the right side.However, Hong Kong and Macau continue to maintain left-hand traffic after being returned to China.[Annotation 6].
- Taiwan·パラオ-フィリピン・ The Korean Peninsula (Korea / North Korea) used to be Japanese-style left-hand traffic when it was ruled by Japan, but it has been changed to right-hand traffic after the war.
- Myanmar changed the left-hand traffic, which is a system from the former colonial power of England, to the right-hand traffic in 1970.In the case of Myanmar, the border line is the country with right-hand traffic (China / Laos) and the country with left-hand traffic (Thailand, India,バングラデシュ), But there is little merit in changing to right-hand traffic because the distance to the country with left-hand traffic is much longer and the traffic volume is heavier.The reason for the change is that the Myanmar government hated the British style, and the leader saidHoroscopeIt is also said that he accepted the advice of his teacher.However, as mentioned above, the majority of vehicles in motion are right-hand drive vehicles.
- The conversion from right-hand traffic to left-hand traffic isNamibiaと(I.e.(Both 1918),Independent State of Samoa(2009), and 6 years after returning to mainland JapanOkinawaThere is an example (described later).
In countries and regions where automobiles are widespread and transportation infrastructure is well-developed, the shift of left and right traffic divisions should be thoroughly known to residents.traffic lights,road signFor total changes, road structure changes, and boarding door changesbusIt is extremely rare because of the great cost and risk of accidents such as renewal of.Nevertheless, in recent years there are the following examples.
- On December 1967, 9,スウェーデンThe traffic division of automobiles was changed from left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic.thisDagen HThat.
- Okinawa Prefecture in Japan after World War IIUnder US military ruleIt was placed in and was changed from left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic. In 1972Return to mainland JapanAfter that, on July 1978, 7, I returned to the left side of the road to match the mainland of Japan.this730 (Nanasanmaru)That.
- Independent State of SamoaOn September 2009, 9, the traffic classification of automobiles was changed from the conventional right-hand traffic to left-hand traffic.This is largely due to the fact that Australia and New Zealand, which drive on the left side, are geographically close to each other in the spread of automobiles in the country, so it is cheaper to import used cars with right-hand drive from those countries..
Camp FosterRoad inside.According to Japan, it is on the left side even inside the base.
- ^ For example, one in three traffic accidents in 1946 was fatal.In addition, the number of deaths has already risen to around 3 every year in the first half of the 1's, which is almost the same as the death toll of 20 in 4.
- ^ To take in this face-to-face trafficAllied Supreme Commander General CommandIt is said that there was a strong request from (GHQ), and GHQ requested the same "right-hand traffic of vehicles" as in the United States, but refused because the Japanese government required a huge budget, and pedestrians were to pass on the right-hand side. It is said to have changed.
- ^ It is said that this is because the guidance of GHQ did not reach the station yard where cars do not run..
- ^ A world map that shows at a glance whether you are passing on the right side or the left side --GIGAZINE
- ^ The Netherlands is 1906 and Portugal is 1928.
- ^ Even after the returnGeneva ConventionIt is the target area of.
- ^ "Face-to-face traffic』- Koto bank
- ^ a b Research on improvement of pedestrian and bicycle passage by thorough key preft See page 4, Table 5.
- ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department Public Relations Meiji 33
- ^ a b "Slang dictionary". Japan Broadcasting Corporation (September 2015, 7). October 2018th, 1Browse.
- ^ "Right side traffic?Passing on the left side? (XNUMX) -What are the pedestrian traffic rules that are said to be "cars on the left and people on the right"?”. Nisseikiso Research Institute (November 2016, 11). October 2018th, 1Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)". Hanyu. p. 8. October 2018th, 1Browse.
- ^ "Why change to" right-hand traffic "? ”. JoongAng Daily News(July 2009, 10) October 2018th, 1Browse.
- ^ “[Opinion] walking on the right side”. Toa Nippo(July 2009, 4) October 2018th, 1Browse.
- ^ "From today, pedestrians will also pass on the right side, and will be held at stations and airports.". Union News(July 2009, 10) October 2018th, 1Browse.
- ^ From Shota Kobayashi, "The Emperor's Car", page 46.
- ^ "Samoan cars ready to switch sides" (English). British Broadcasting Corporation. October 2017th, 1Browse.
- Kendo Ishii "Meiji Things Origin" (National Diet Library, Digital Library from the Meiji Era)
- Movie "Okinawa 730 Road Record" - Science picture museum(Science Film Museum Support Association) From the website <<→ YouTube version"
- Immediately before and after Okinawa, which had a US-style "car on the right" traffic policy under US rule, switched to the same "car on the left" as in mainland Japan when it returned to Japan. A short film that summarizes the state of the city of Okinawa.