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Wheat flour(Kumugiko,English: wheat flour) IswheatMade by grindingFlourIs. It is mainly used for food and is used as a material for various foods such as udon, bread, pasta and cakes.Udon powder,Meriken powderSometimes called.. Most of the grains in EnglishmillingIt is often called simply flour because it is processed. Human useAncient egyptIt was widely used in the western world, and was used in Japan in the late Middle Ages along with grain foods.
There are different names depending on the nature of the wheat used as the raw material, the part used, and the method of grinding, and the suitable application also differs. The main thingglutenDepending on the amount and nature of the, it is classified into strong flour, medium-strength flour, soft flour, etc. Strong flour is suitable for bread and noodles, medium strength flour is suitable for udon, okonomiyaki and takoyaki, and weak strength flour is suitable for confectionery and tempura.Whole grainUses wheat that has not been refined, and is rich in nutrition.Graham flourIs also whole grain, but the purification method is different, and the epidermis and germ parts are coarsely ground.
Ancient egyptThe history of human beings and wheat is so old that the pattern of wheat harvest is drawn on the mural painting, and it is considered to be one of the first crops of human beings.
Harvested seeds are basically ground and used as flour..Early wheatPorridgeIt was eaten like this, but it had to be heated for a long time to make the grains hard and soft, and the flour dough had a peculiar stickiness and elasticity, and the texture was favorable. , Epidermis bran (Fu, Fusuma = Rice)Bran) Is hard, so if you try to remove it, the endosperm inside will break, so flour aliment was the basis..
Industrial revolutionOr later,Steam engineWith the use of milling, the milling became larger and distributed worldwide, and it is still used in the 19th century.Flour millWas born and improved due to both efficiency and quality.
History in Japan
Japanese archipelagoThen.Jomon PeriodToStone plate-Polished stoneUsing plants andnutA powder eating habit of crushing and eating was practiced.Yayoi PeriodToRice cultivationWhen farming starts, the stone plate and polishing stone disappear, and rice andbarley-MilletGrains such as have changed to grain foods that eat as they are. Wheat has been introduced to the Japanese archipelago since the Yayoi period, and in ancient times noodles貴族Are eaten between. In the early Middle Ages, processing tools such as kneading bowls and mortars appeared again.Stone millAppeared, and the eating habits of priests, samurai, and ordinary people were revived. Udon and soba are eaten in the Edo period.
In the modern era, it was called as a measure to prevent food shortages after the war, but the American wheat strategy provided the surplus as relief goods., The eating habits of bread meals have spread because of the introduction of bread meals at school lunch.
Use of fabric
In English, dishes that apply dough are thinly stretched and wrapped with bean paste (Dumpling, Dumpling) and dishes (noodles, noodles) molded by cutting, stretching, tearing, extruding from holes or molds, etc...On the other hand, the Chinese character "noodle" originally refers to wheat flour itself, and later came to refer to foods made by kneading wheat flour...The Japanese word "noodle" has come to refer to the equivalent of Chinese noodles and udon noodles in English..
Also, a loose dough mixed with twice as much water or eggs as flourAnd is used for tempura clothes and cakes. Add 5-20 times more water and mix while heatingpasteAnd,PlywoodIt is also used to bond (gradeLow powder is suitable). The same amountバ タ ーRoast withRouxAnd,ソ ー スUsed to thicken stews and stews.
Characteristics of nutrition
7 to 8% of the ingredientsStarchOccupied byproteinAlso includes about 1%. The main proteins areGliadinとGluteninAnd these areWedAbsorbs, stickyglutenBecomes This gluten produces unique dishes and is transformed into various foods. The one that took out only this gluten,wheat branIt is (fu).
Like other grains, wheat protein is essential for humansEssential amino acidsDue to the lack or deficiency of some of them, wheat alone causes various health problems. They can be eliminated by consuming the deficient amino acid from another food. The regions of the world that are the main sources of grain are the traditional combinations of wheat and beans, as well as recipes and ingredients to avoid health problems.
Processing and purification
From whole grains to pericarp and germBranAs removed, only the part of the endosperm is ground, 100 kg of whole grains yields about 72-75 kg. A pure white product can be obtained by completely removing the pericarp and the germ, leaving only the endosperm part, but when using it for bread making, it is not always good to completely remove the bran part in order to give it a flavor. Wheat bran and whole ground flour are also used to create a rustic taste and flavor..
Carotenoid pigmentHas a lighter cream color.. Particle diameter is 150micronsAs detailed below,Dust explosionTherefore, some local governments, such as Tokyo, have designated it as a designated combustible substance... It's easy to mix with other powders. Mix powder seasoning etc.PremixIt is also applied to the addition of vitamins. It easily sticks to things that have water on the surface,MeunierSuch asclothesAlso used as a flour for noodles.smellTheadsorptionIt is easy to do and can be processed to add fragrance, but it may have an offensive odor depending on how it is stored..
Formed with the percentage of protein (mainly gliadin, glutenin) containedglutenIt is classified into soft flour, medium flour, and strong flour according to the properties of. The product obtained by purifying the residue without the protein content is called floating powder. Just made of starchpotato starchWill be something like.
The amount of gluten varies depending on the variety and whether or not it rains during the flowering and harvesting seasons. At this time(I.e.This is because wheat is less likely to form gluten when the content is high.
Powerful flour is made of 12% or more protein,Bread-Chinese noodle・It will come out at school lunchSoft noodlesIn addition to being used for, etc., partially dried domesticallypastaIs made with coarsely ground strong flour. Hard wheat mainly from the United States and Canada (Bread wheat) Is used. It is not suitable for Western confectionery because it will be a hard finish when baked. In English classification, bread flour is close to this.
Churyukiko has a protein content of around 9%.TakoyakiUsed for etc. Mainly uses intermediate wheat produced in Australia and domestically. Mixing strong flour and weak flour makes the properties intermediate, so it can be used as a substitute for medium-strength flour.
Soft flour (Hakurikiko) has a protein content of 8.5% or less.cakeSuch asConfectioneryKind・tempuraUsed for. Mainly American soft wheat is used. The more you suppress the protein content, the more delicate the finish becomes, so there are some products that are sold under the product names such as "Confectionary soft flour" and "Super Violet" that have a lower protein content ( It is also called "ultra-thin flour", but it is not sold under such a brand name). Also, although sometimes misunderstood due to the association of dried pasta ingredients, soft flour is used when making raw pasta using eggs. In the English-speaking world, cake flour is similar to this.
Floating powder (Ukiko) refers to the remaining starch content obtained by separating gluten, which is also used as a raw material for fu, from the dough. To separate gluten, the kneaded dough is rinsed with water, but when soaked in this water, it is called dust. mainlyAkashiyaki,Japanese sweets,Hong KongOf transparent skinShrimp dumplingsIt is used as a raw material.
"Zenryuko, Zenryufun". The epidermis, germ and endosperm of wheat are all powdered. Compared to purified productsDietary fiber,mineral,vitaminRich in. mainlyBread,Biscuit,Cereal foodIt is used as a material.
Graham flour(Grahamko) is a type of whole grain flour. After dividing wheat into endosperm, epidermis and germ, the endosperm is ground to the same fineness as the normal product, and the epidermis and germ are roughly ground and mixed. It's rougher than whole grain.
SemolinaPowder (semolina) refers to powder with coarser particles (residual residue on a 210 µm cloth sieve) than regular products... The English word Semolina comes from the Italian word Semola, which comes from the Latin word Simila (flour).CouscousUsed to make suchDurumIt is refined from flour and has more protein and less gluten than strong flour. Used in dried pasta, cereals, puddings, etc.
It is graded using the ash content as an index. Classified into special powder (0.3-0.4%), first-class powder (around 0.4%), second-class powder (around 0.5%) third-class powder (around 0.8%), powder (1.5-2.0%)... The higher the grade, the less mineral it has, and the light cream color with less dullness... Combined with the type, it is written as "strong first grade" or "medium third grade".
Depending on the dish you make, choose the one that has the right proportion of protein, andFlour,baking powder,Milk powder,shortening,seasoning,spices,ColoringSuch as原料There are various types of products (prepared powder, premix) prepared by mixing.
- OkonomiyakiMix flour
- Hot cake mix
- Plain breadMixed
- Steamed breadMix flour
- sponge cakeMix flour
- donutMix flour
Foods made as main ingredients
- Strong flour
- Medium flour
- Floating powder
- Whole grain
- Bread, cookies,Biscuit
Difference between Meriken and Udon
Japanese wheat flour was called udon flour, and wheat imported from the United States was called meliken flour... Meriken is American, because English sounds like that. This remnant is often still called in Kansai and other places.
Around the Meiji era, domestically produced products were brown and had coarse grain and were unsuitable for making bread (the refinery technology (mill milling) at that time did not produce pure white). Therefore, they imported white refined products from the United States.
In Japan, soft flour (such as tempura flour) is widely used for cooking in Japan, but it is often called udon flour other than strong flour (meaning soft flour or soft flour).
Previously, it was released under the names of "Udon flour" and "Meriken flour", but now it is almost unified under the name of "wheat flour" or "soft flour" "strong flour" ("thin flour" and "strong flour" are Because they are different, different names are used depending on the quality). Souvenir shops for tourists andAntenna ShopAlthough some stores still sell it under the name of "udon powder", there is no product already sold under the name of "Meriken powder". The manufacturer that was released until the end under the name "Meriken powder"KumamotoKumamoto-shi OfItsuki food.
For early childhood education粘土There is a flour clay made from flour as the main ingredient in.. Although there is a risk of wheat allergy, safety is high compared to oil clay etc... You can also make it yourself from flour or salad oil, but it also has the drawback of perishing easily..
- ^ [which one?]USDA Food Ingredient Database (English)
- ^ #Meriken powder and udon powderreference
- ^ a b c d e f Munehiro Yoshida. “History and classification of udon noodles". Kansai University. October 2020th, 11Browse.
- ^ "History and Culture of Flour, Encyclopedia of Flour'' Nisshin Seifun Group, viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ "Classification of mills focusing on crushed parts, history of millingKinoshita Milling Co., Ltd., viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ "History of school lunch, school lunch"National School Luncheon Federation. Viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ "A Japanese table that became "bread rather than rice"Nippon Putcom. Viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ Minoru Toyoda "About the recent noodle situation"Cooking Science," Vol. 24, No. 1, 1991, p.36-42, two:10.11402 / cookeryscience1968.24.1_36
- ^ a b c Seiichi Nagao "Flour Book Written by Flour Mills" Sanmizusha, 1994.ISBN 4-915607-68-2.
- ^ Jeffrey Hamelman 2009, pp. 36–38.
- ^ Tokyo Fire Prevention Ordinance
- ^ Seiichi Nagao, "Wheat Science," Asakura Shoten, 1995, p.62.ISBN 978-4-254-43038-7.
- ^ "Product knowledge of wheat and flour, story of flour"Milling Promotion Association. Viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ "The story of flour, the story of wheat and flourKinoshita Milling Co., Ltd. Viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ "What is a premix?"Japan Premix Association. Viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ Seiichi Nagao "The Science of Wheat" Asakura Shoten, 1995, pp.187-188,ISBN 978-4-254-43038-7.
- ^ "Kojien 1998th Edition" Iwanami Shoten, XNUMX.ISBN 978 4000801119.
- ^ "10th Meriken powder, the world of Western confectionery"Japan Western Confectionery Association. Viewed May 2017, 5
- ^ a b c Itsuki Fujiwara. “A Study on Teaching Method for Clay Play”. Yasuda Women's University. October 2019th, 11Browse.
- Jeffrey Hamelman, Yoshifumi Inoue, Chiho Kaneko "BREAD-Bread lover theory and authentic recipes", Asaiya Publishing Co., 2009.ISBN 978 4751108130.