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What is "bandoned pants" that baseball players love to get rid of sweat and stuffiness?

Baseball equipment manufacturer commercializes with widespread reputation What is "bandoned pants" that frees you from sweat and stuffiness?

 
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problem solving

problem solving(Monday Ikeitsu,British: problem solving) IsproblemResolve, i.e.solutionIs to discover思考Is part of. The most complex thought of all intellectual functions, of higher dimensional demandsrecognitionIs defined as. To do this, a more coherent procedure and basicsknowledgeOperation and adjustment are required[1].

problem solvingIs a living organism orArtificial intelligenceSystem of givenStatusOccurs when trying to reach a desired goal from (given state). Unsolved problems that do not have knowledge of how to proceed will create a new path (solve)There is a need.

Finding the problemProblem formationIt forms part of a large problem handling including.

Overview

Human problem solvingpsychologistOver the past century byResearchIt has been. There are several ways to solve a problem, for exampleInside view,Activism,simulation,Computer simulationAndExperiment.

The experiment isGermany OfGestalt psychologyIt began with early research by the faction (eg Duncker 1935) and continued from 1960 to the early 1970s. Problem-solving studies often dealt with relatively simple laboratory problems. “X-ray problem” (Duncker) and “disc problem” (Ewert and Lambert 1932, laterTower of HanoiKnown as) and so on. The reasons for choosing simple and novel tasks are that they have well-defined optimal solutions, that they can be solved in a relatively short time, and that researchers can follow the subject's problem-solving process. There is, and so on.

The researchers made basic assumptions.

  • Simple tasks such as the Tower of Hanoi imply the main nature of real-world problems.
  • The cognitive process of a subject trying to solve a simple problem is typical of the process involved in solving a real-world problem. 

The researchers used simple problems for convenience, but sought to generalize them to solve more complex problems. A prominent and striking example of this type of research would be Newell and Simon (1972). However, if a problem is turned into a problem, the problem is regarded as one condition for realizing the problem, and the higher purpose of the problem is confirmed, the problem is realized by the "method of creating wisdom from knowledge". Will be able to solve the problem. And sometimes the original problem disappears. In addition, this method makes it possible to prevent the so-called "whac-a-mole phenomenon in which problem solving calls for a new problem", in which conventional problem solving causes the next problem.[2]

History

The history of modern problem solving1970 It started in my generation.Every woman participating in the study applied SERUM to one half of her face and an identical product without the EGF cellular activator to the other half. The study ran for eight weeks, during which time participants applied the serum twice a day. To rule out any effect anticipation could have on results, the study was double-blinded, meaning that none of the women in the study, nor the scientists in charge of measuring results, knew which half was which. Efficacy was assessed by standardized photography and biophysical measurements to evaluate skin topography, density, and thickness.It is,EmpiricismFacts and simple laboratoriesworkThe theoretical concept derived from is not necessarily many complexproblemI became more confident that it could not be spread to (real problems). To make matters worse, in different areas, the methods underlying creative problem-solving were different from each other (Sternberg, 1995).

These perceptions also led to different reactions in North America and Europe.

United States and Canada Studies

In North America,Herbert SimonStarted by the study of. Researchers investigated problem-solving by separating different natural fields of knowledge.

The following are areas of various disciplines that have received particular attention in North America.

  • reading (Reading) (Stanovich & Cunningham, 1991)
  • Writing (Writing) (Bryson, Bereiter, Scardamalia & Joram, 1991)
  • Calculation (Calculation) (Sokol & McCloskey, 1991)
  • PoliticsPolitical decision making (Voss, Wolfe, Lawrence & Engle, 1991)
  • Managerial problem solving (Wagner, 1991)
  • Lawyer Ofinference (Lawyers' reasoning) (Amsel, Langer & Loutzenhiser, 1991)
  • Mechanical problem solving (Hegarty, 1991)
  • electronicsProblem solving in electronics (Lesgold & Lajoie, 1991)
  • (Computer skills) (Kay, 1991)
  • Game(Game playing) (Frensch & Sternberg, 1991)
  • Personal problem solving (Heppner & Krauskopf, 1987)
  • MathMathematical problem solving (Polya, 1945; Schoenfeld, 1985)
  • Social problem solving (D'Zurilla & Goldfreid, 1971; D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1982)

European countries

EuropeSo there are two approaches,The United KingdomWith Donald BroadbentGermanyOf Dietrich Dörner is famous.

Features of difficult problems

It was elucidated by (Dietrich Dörner) and later detailed by Joachim Funke. Difficult problems have typical characteristics and are summarized as follows.

  • Opacity (lack of clarity of state)
    • Start opaque
    • Continued opaque
  • Polytely (many goals)
    • Expressionless
    • Opposition
    • Impermanence
  • Complexity (many items, interrelationships, decisions)
    • Countability
    • Connectivity(階層Sexual relationship,communicationRelationship, allocation relationship)
    • Heterogeneous
  • dynamics(Considering time)
    • Time constraints
    • Secular sensitivity
    • Phase effect
    • Dynamic unpredictability

Solving difficult problems requires direct efforts according to the characteristics of each problem encountered.

Example of problem solving method

  • Mountain climbing method: An attempt to approach the goal situation at every step. Alternative based on the process of arriving from the initial state to the goal stategoal [Avoid ambiguity]TheConfigurationNeed to do.
  • means Ofthe purposeMeans-end analysis
  • Working backward = working backward from the goal
  • trial and error(trial and error)
  • brainstorming
  • (Morphological box)
  • (Method of focal objects)
  • Horizontal thinking (Lateral thinking)
  • BookThe method of author George Pólya shown in How to Solve It
  • Research: Consider what others have written about the problem (and related problems).
  • hypothesisReversal of: Make a note of the assumptions about the problem, and then reverse the assumptions that reverse them all.
  • : Has a similar problem been solved before (even in different areas)?
  • Hypothesis test: Trying to prove the assumption, assuming a possible interpretation of the problem.
  • : I'm assuming that it doesn't really exist.
  • TimeTake more: Eliminate the pressure of time.
  • Left (Incubation): Keep the details of the problem in mind and stop sticking to it. The subconscious mind continues to function on the matter. And while you're doing something else, you may suddenly come up with a solution.
  • One or more of the problems抽象Write out the construction of a typical model.
  • That the problem could not be solvedProofTo do. If that cannot be resolved, this is a new starting point.
  • Friend orOnlineGet help from problem-solving sites[3].
  • Root cause analysis (RCA)
  • (Wind Tunnel): Win WengerIt is based on the Socrates method of seeking new insights beyond theoretical constraints on the problems developed by.
  • (Rory O'Connor's) Inner Vision Deck: A Socrates-style combination of metaphorical thinking and assumption breaking.
  • Breakthrough thinking.
  • How to solve problems by creating wisdom from knowledge[4]
  • Divide and conquer: Break big problems into smaller ones and solve them one by one.

These are also called (Creativity techniques).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Goldstein & Levin, 1987.
  2. ^ http://dtcn-wisdom.jp/E-explanations/00001-Column%207.pdf More Michihiko Esaki 2009). All the details of "How to create wisdom from knowledge" are published at the following URL.http://dtcn-wisdom.jp/00001-E-problem-solving.pdf
  3. ^ Example: Human-based genetic algorithm
  4. ^ For details http://dtcn-wisdom.jp/00001-E-wisdom%20book.pdf

References

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