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⚾ | In MLB, the rules that fans should follow are clearly stated. Racial discrimination and color schemes are "permanent expulsion"


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In MLB, the rules that fans should follow are clearly stated. Racism and color schemes are "permanent expulsion."

 
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From now on, we will be permanently banished from all major league baseball stadiums. "
 

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Major league baseball

Major league baseball(English: Major League Baseball, English pronunciation: / méɪdʒɚ líːg béɪs b`ɔːl /Abbreviation: MLB) IsThe United States of America29 teams andカナダ1 team located, 30 teams in total,世界The highest peak inProfessional baseballThe league,4 major professional sports leagues in North AmericaIs one of[1].. Strictly speaking,1903 Was established inNational leagueAmerican leagueIt is a joint venture organization of the two leagues and manages both leagues uniformly.JapanThen "Major League""Major LeagueIt is also called. The name of "Major League" is the alias of the Major League, "Big League (Big league) ”Is a translation.In English reading, "Major League Baseball" is close.

Major League Baseball (MLB) consists of two leagues, the National League and the American League, and consists of 2 teams based in the United States and 29 team based in Canada, all 1 teams. Each team belongs to the east, middle, and west districts for each league. From outside the United StatesMontreal ExposToronto Blue Jays, Both Canadian teams were participating,2005 To ExposWashington DCDue to the relocation of its headquarters (at the same time the team name was changed to the Washington Nationals), there is currently only one Blue Jays team outside the United States.

Match format is regular seasonPost seasonAnd finally the winning team in each leagueWorld seriesThe world champion is decided by performing the championship determination game called. In the regular season, each team plays 4 games from the beginning of April to the end of September to compete for the regional championship. The post-season will be held in tournament format from the beginning of October. At each stage in the tournamentDivision series,League championship series, Crowned the World Series.

History

Birth of "Major League"

Late 1850s,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クThe style of "baseball" isCivil WarIn timeAmericaWidely spread around the northeast, becoming the first baseball amateur leagueNational Baseball Players Association(NABBP) was born. NABBP lasted 12 years, with more than 1867 teams in 400, when it expanded most. In the first half of the 1860s, it is said that the so-called professional players who started playing baseball with paid rewards were starting to appear. The formal rules for professional athletes were enacted in 1868 and formed in 1869.Cincinnati Red StockingsBecame the first professional team consisting of only professional players, and made a name for himself by touring local cities.[2]..Following the success of Red Stockings, professional teams were born one after another in each city, but gradually there was an internal division between professional players and amateur players, and the National Association of Base Ball Players became an amateur organization and a professional organization. It was decided to divide.Thus, in 1871, the first professional baseball league,National Association of Professional Baseball Players(National Association, NA) was founded[3], League management went bankrupt in 5 years[4]..At this time, the remaining team, Chicago White Stockings (later)Chicago Cubs) And Boston Red Stockings (laterAtlanta Braves) Is born[5][6].

Next day1876 , Continues to the presentNational league (NL) is established. This league is the first major league. April 1876, 4PhiladelphiaIt is inJefferson Street GroundsThe first match was played in.The National League enforces contracts for its players to prevent them from leaking to rival leagues due to high rewards, eliminates the frequent cancellation of teams that missed the championship, and keeps all schedules on schedule.・ Improved the shortcomings of the association[7][8]..There was a conflict with the players at the beginning by setting a "transfer prohibition clause between leagues" in the contract, but as a result this was successful, and the rival leagueUnion association(UA,1884 ),Players League(PL,1890 ) And both were short-lived. Most successfulAmerican association(AA,1882 - 1891 What is1884 から1890 The competition between the National League and the league winning teams (currentWorld series) Was done.

The teams in the two disbanded leagues1892 Was integrated into the National League, but there were 12 teams in the National League1900 From 8 to XNUMX teams,Baltimore,Cleveland,Louisville,Washington DCThere will be no baseball team. On the other hand, a minor league called Western League was established in 1900.American league Renamed to (AL) and advanced to cities where major baseball teams have disappeared due to national league baseball team reductions except Louisville. Next day1901 The American League has declared itself as a "Major League", but the National League has repelled it, and a meeting with other minor leagues was held at the Leland Hotel in Chicago. At this conference, the American League was accepted as the Major League, and a new National Association was established to summarize the many existing minor leagues. National AssociationMinor league baseball Continues to this day as (MiLB)[9].1902 , National League, American League, and National Association have signed new agreements that have both independent management and joint management. This agreement will beBrunch RickyIt has also established a classification system that is the basis of today's more sophisticated and maintained minor leagues. From the following year onwards by both league winnersWorld seriesWill be done[10][11].

Some of the later short-lived minor leagues were officially considered major leagues, with statistics and records included in those of the current two major leagues.1969 On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of American professional baseball, a "baseball record special committee" was established by the designation of the MLB organization, and it was decided that the following six leagues including the leagues that had disappeared in the past would be recognized as "major leagues". ..

Regarding the record of players with professional careers in other baseball leagues, based on this ruling, it is currently categorized as to where the major league record is. However, some researchers disagree with this ruling,National Association(1871-1875)[17],African AmericanOperated mainly by (black people)Nigro LeagueAmong these, the operating base was particularly established1920 - 1948 Period of[18], Was the predecessor of the current American League and was a minor league.Western leagueWas renamed the American League and was a member of the National League.1900 There is an opinion that the American League should be treated as a major league. On December 2020, 12, the MLB Organization announced that it would give Major League Baseball status for the following seven league records included in the "Negro League":[19][20][21].

Dead ball era

1900 から1919 Generally,Dead ball eraIs called. Games in this era tend to score low,Walter johnson,Sai Young,Christy matthewson,Mordecai Brown,Grover alexanderThe pitchers ruled the game. There are several reasons for this, but one is due to the ball called the "dead ball (ball that does not fly)" used in this era, which is so loose that the thread will fray enough to throw and the flight distance will not come out. was there[22]..On top of that, the owners hated buying a new ball for $ 3 (currently worth about $ 40), so foul balls were rare at the time, and fans had to throw back even home run balls. ..The ball was reused in the game until it became soft and sometimes the leather turned up.for that reasonChewing tobaccoWas always dirty with tar, grass, mud, etc.[23].

In addition, although it was a very small number of players, it changed the pitch by chewing on the ball, scratching it, or intentionally soiling it.Spit ballThere were pitchers to control this is1921 It continued until the use of spit balls was banned. further,Chicago Cubs OfWest Side Park,Boston Red Sox OfHuntington Avenue GroundsThere is a stadium whose center is about 200 feet (61 m) wider than the current stadium, as represented by, so home runs are rare.Single stroke,Sacrifice,Steal,Hit end runSuch asSmall ballWas the cornerstone of the strategy at the time[24].Uchino HitsTo earnBaltimore ChopTactics such as[25].. Baltimore Chop was to hit the ground without dared to fly forward and run through the first base while bounced high enough to hit the ball.[26]

The foul strike rule was adopted in the early 20th century. This drastically reduced the match time, but it reduced the number of high-scoring games as it used to be, making it harder to score one. By the rules of the 1th century, foul balls were not counted as strikes, sostrikeIt was a great advantage for the batter because he could let the pitcher throw the number of balls without being counted. Since 1901, the National League has adopted the foul strike rule first,1903 Was also adopted by the American League. However, it was a dissatisfaction among fans that this rule would reduce the number of scoring games.[27]

To strike up1917 , AmericaWorld War IIf you participate in the, you will continue to hold the tournament1918 The regular season was shortened.1919 ,Chicago White SoxCincinnati RedsIs the worst scandal in the history of majors in the World SeriesBlack socks caseHappened and Major Leagues lost their social credibility[28].. Was a White Sox player,Joe Jackson,Eddie Secot,Lefty Williams,Chick Gandill,Fred McMarin,Swede lisberg,Happy Felsch,Back weaverWas criminally accused of receiving a bribe and intentionally losing the match[29].. These eight players are from the major leaguesPermanent exileWas disposed[30].

The appearance of Babe Ruth

The popularity of baseball that fell in the 1910s1920 It recovered by the tragedy that came in and the appearance of one player. August 1920, 8Cleveland Indians OfRay ChapmanWas hit by a batter's box on his head and died a few hours later. Chapman became the only MLB player to die during the match. This tragedy was partly due to the fact that players at that time did not wear helmets, but in the end it helped end the "dead ball era." Until then, in the latter half of the game, the ball became soft and showed irregular movements, making it difficult to see dirt, but the rule was to replace the ball every time it became dirty. By changing the ball, the flight distance was dramatically increased. From this timeLive ball era"Has begun.

same year,Boston Red SoxThanNew York YankeesToBabe RuthIs transferred. Although Ruth had been active as a pitcher until now, he recorded 29 home runs in the previous year, which was the MLB record at the time. In the Yankees, if he concentrated on the batter, he shot 54 homeruns, which was considered impossible and drastically set his own homerun record.1921 Broke the record for homeruns for the third consecutive year with 59[31][32].. The Yankees with Ruth won the first league title in 1921.1923 Win the world series for the first time[33].1927 Ruth updates home run record to 60Lou GehrigBy the end of the 1930s, the Yankees, who became a strong hit with the rise of, will participate in the 11th World Series and win the 8th victory.[34].. The score per game also increased in this era. Fans supported this batting game, and audience mobilization increased[35].

World Depression and World War II

1929 Started aroundGreat DepressionUnder the influence of, the popularity of baseball began to decline again.1932 By then, only two MLB teams were profitable. A 2% entertainment tax was levied on baseball ticket prices, and spectator mobilization declined. The owner reduced the number of contract players from 10 to 25, and even the best players reduced wages. The team is trying to surviveNight gameRehabilitation, live broadcasting on radio, free admission for women, etc., but before the Great Depression, I could not stand my teeth[36].

As if to hit the ground1939 ,Second World WarStarted the war. In MLB, more than 500 players belonging to the team were forced to send out, causing a serious shortage of professional baseball players. Many of them played on a service baseball team that entertains the troops sending in. The MLB team at this time consisted of youth and senior players who were not subject to military service. Some were mentally and morally ineligible. On the other hand, it was decided to give an opportunity to physically handicapped players. Outfielder who had no armPete GrayPlayers such as were able to advance to the major leagues. But blacks were never included in the MLB roasters[37].. Black players were not allowed to participate in the MLB, despite the lack of manpower in the war,Nigro LeagueI could only play[38].. The first blacks to appear in MLB in 1947Jackie robinson.

WartimeLight controlMade it difficult to play night games because the outdoor lighting had to be dim.[38].1942 , The theory of cancellation of the event was spreading in Japan, but on January 1, the first generationcommissionerIsKennesaw Mountain LandisIt is,Franklin RooseveltA letter was sent to the president, pleading for the start of a new Major League season and the continuation of baseball during the war. The president replied, "I honestly think it's best to continue playing baseball. There are few unemployed people and everybody will have to work harder than ever before." All the people should have the opportunity of recreation more than ever before." This letter is called the "Green Light Letter."American Baseball Hall of FameStored in the museum[39].

With the approval of President Roosevelt, the game continued during the war.Stan Musical,Ted Williams,Joe DiMaggioThe star's career has been interrupted, but the team continues to play in MLB[40].. However, the serious shortage of players due to the succession of players in each team has not changed,1945 MLB All-Star GameWas canceled.

Breaking down the "color line"

There were also black players in the Major League Baseball in the 1880s, but due to the strong repulsion of the players and the league, they disappeared in a short time. Since then there have been no rules prohibiting contracts with black players, but until the mid-1940s black players could not play in Major League Baseball. However, even with the same colored race, non-black Hispanic and Native American players could play[41].

1945 ,Brooklyn DodgersPresident ofGeneral managerIsBrunch RickyMoved to join a professional baseball league with black baseball players in earnest. HeNigro LeagueFrom the list of promising playersJackie robinsonI chose. Ricky asked Robinson to "sign in with courage" for the discrimination against him and agreed to sign a $600/month contract. Robinson is a Dodgers farm clubMontreal RoyalsTo1946 Participated from season, continued from 1880sInternational leagueBecame the first black baseball player in 57 years[42].

The following year, Dodgers called Robinson to the Major League Baseball.1947 April 4th RobinsonEbett's FieldHe made his major league debut in a crowd of 14,000, including more than 26,623 blacks. Black baseball fans abandoned their previous Niglo League teams and flooded Brooklyn to watch the Dodgers. The majority of newspaper and Caucasian Major League players were against the Robinson sale. Director'sLeo drawerSaid to the team, "I don't care if the player's skin is yellow or black, I like the Yankee stripes. I'm the manager of this team. If you do, you'll be trading out."[43].

Opponent'sPhiladelphia PhilliesAnnounced that Robinson will refuse the battle if he competes with the Dodgers. For it,Happy ChandlerCommissioner supports Dodgers,Ford flickThe National League chairman announced that he would impose suspensions if he refused the match, and tried to calm the problem. Robinson was encouraged by several players and his teammatesPee Wee ReeseShook hands with Robinson in front of his teammates. When Robinson was slandered at the stadium, Reese walked up to Robinson in defense and silently crossed his shoulders and looked around the audience. In this scene, the slander of the audience gradually decreased. Robinson always behaved like a gentleman and was accepted by teammates and press at the end of the season[44]..Robinson was enacted from this yearBest New Player AwardWon[45].

Within three months,Larry Dobby Cleveland IndiansContract with the American League to accept black players[46], The following year, many other black players entered the major leagues.Satchel pageSigned Indians and Dodgers was a star catcherRoy CampanellaDon NewcombeWas added.Don NewcombeAfterSai Young AwardWon[47].

Prohibition of contracts with female athletes

1952 , MLB has banned the contract with female athletes. The prohibition clause is1992 However, there are no contracts with female players until now.[48].

Organization and expansion

From 19011953 Until then, the two major leagues consisted of a league of eight teams. 2 teamsNortheastern United StatesMidwestWere concentrated in 10 cities.ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIn 3 teams,Duffel Bag,Chicago,Philadelphia,St. LouisThere were 2 teams each. At that time, St. Louis was the southernmost and westernmost points. The farthest distance from Boston to St. Louis was about 24 hours by rail.

1953 Was sluggishBoston BravesIs based inMilwaukeeThe number of spectators has increased from 28 to 182 million. After that, the relocation of the headquarters will occur.1954 ,St. Louis Browns TheBaltimoreMoved to.1955 ,Philadelphia Athletics TheKansas CityMoved to.

It is considered by baseball experts to be the "most influential owner of the early expansion period around this time"Brooklyn DodgersThe owner ofWalter O'Malley The[49],1958 Before the season, he is on the West Coast of Brooklyn DodgersLos AngelesMoved to[50].. OmaryTEAMIt was such a big deal that it became the cover of the magazine[51].. A New York fan who was said to be the most enthusiastic in the United States said,Hitler,StalinWas accused of "and O'Malley"[52].. In addition, O'MalleyNew York GiantsToSan FranciscoTo move to. Giants entered the 1950s, and their performance and audience mobilization fellPolo GroundsIt was when the team executives were thinking of escaping from New York, partly due to the aging of the team.If the Dodgers moved west alone, the closest team would have been St. Louis Cardinals 1,600 miles (2,575 km).[53][54].. The purpose was that it would be more economical for the visiting team to move on the West Coast if they moved from two teams to one team.[55].. O'MalleyGeorge Christopher・Invited the Mayor of San Francisco to New York and owned the GiantsHonas StonehamI met him. Stone hamMinnesotaI was considering moving to1957 Finally decided to move to the West Coast. This meeting isFord flickIgnored the request of[56].. As a result, the two-team move was a huge success for both the franchise and the MLB. The Dodgers mobilized 2 spectators in a single match, setting the record for the most mobilization in one MLB match[50].. On the other hand, in New York, which lost 3 out of 2 teams, the momentum to regain the baseball team increased, which triggered the expansion of the league.[52].

Changes in the number of teams in the league
年度American league(AL)National league(NL)OUR TEAM
Total number
to East MalaysiaWestto East MalaysiaWest
19018816
196110818
1962101020
19696-66-624
19777-76-626
19937-77-728
199455455428
199855456530
201355555530

1961 ,Washington Senators MinneapolisIt became Minnesota Twins. same year,Los Angeles AngelsNewly made in place of the Senators who moved withWashington Senators2 teams joined the American League. Next day1962 , In the National LeagueHouston Colt 45'sNew York MetsIs a member. Colt 45's (renamed Astros from the 4th year) in 1899Louisville KernelsFor the first time sinceSouthernBecame a team based in. Mets received great expectations as a team that revived in the big city of New York, but disappointed the fans that they made a useless team by losing 40 wins and 120 losses in the first season. Even after that, the lowest place was becoming a fixed position, but in the 8th year since the foundation1969 Suddenly won the league for the first time with 100 wins and 62 losses. The world series has been won as it is. As a result, Mets became the first team to win the World Series title with four teams that joined in the first half of 1960.

1966 , MLBMilwaukee Braves AtlantaMove toDeep SouthAdvance to.1968 ,Kansas City AthleticsFurther westAucklandMoved to.1969 , Both leagues welcomed an expansion franchise of two teams. The American LeagueSeattle Pilots(SeattleMoved to Milwaukee after a devastating season inKansas City RoyalsWas added. The National LeagueSan Diego PadresAnd the first overseasカナダBecame a franchise,Montreal ExposWas added. As a result, both leagues have grown to 12 teams, and since this year, they have moved to an east-west 2 district system. As the winning team became two teams because it was divided into two districts, as an outpost of the World SeriesLeague championship seriesHas begun.

1972 ,Washington Senators TheArlingtonMoved to Texas Rangers.1977 , American League expanded again,Seattle MarinersAnd Canada's second team,Toronto Blue JaysWas added. After that, no new teams were added for a while, and no teams were relocated until the 1990s.1993 , The National LeagueMiami OfFlorida Marlins,Denver OfColorado RockiesWas added. Next day1994 , East, west and west three districts system was changed.1998 , The National LeaguePhoenix OfArizona DiamondbacksIn the American Leagueフ ロ リ ダ-Tampa OfTampa Bay Devil RaysWas added. At this time, Brewers moved to the National League to balance the league. The first move between leagues took place.

2001 After the season, an owner meeting was held to consider the reduction of the league and the abolition of some teams, and many owners voted for the reduction. Among them, Montreal Expos and Minnesota Twins were the two teams closest to the abolition. But the Twins2002 Following a court order demanding play of the season, MLB's plans to curtail have ceased. MLB owners agreed not to shrink the league until at least 2006[57].. Expo's financial difficulties caused the team management to stagnate, and the headquarters were relocated for more than 30 years,2005 Became the Washington Nationals. As a result, the team, which had been absent for 33 years since the Senators relocated to Texas, has returned to the US capital. on the other handMontreal TheFederal LeagueExcept for 1901, it is the only city in which the MLB was headquartered since XNUMX and currently does not run a team.

2013 ,InterleagueWas reviewed, and areas where the number of teams was unbalanced due to the schedule of the match were sorted out. Houston Astros moves to American League. This will result in an even distribution of 5 teams in all districts.

July 2018, 7, MLB OrganizationRob ManfredIn the TV program,32 teamsHe showed his intention to expand to. As a candidate siteLas Vegas,Portland,シ ャ ー ロ ッ ト,Nashville,MontrealVancouver6 cities are listed. Moreover,メキシコAlso said, "It's possible in the long run"[58].

High pitched low and revised rules

In the latter half of the 1960s, baseball, which once had an advantage for batters, was once again an advantage for pitchers. The score per game during this period dropped to the lowest level in the latter half of 1[59].Boston Red Sox OfKarl YastremskyIt is,1968 The lowest in Major League Baseball history. With an batting average of 301Leading batterBecame[60].Detroit Tigers OfDenny McrainRecorded 31 wins,1934 OfDizzy DeanSince then, he has become the only pitcher to win 1 wins in one season.[61].St. Louis CardinalsPitcherBob GibsonIs a littleDefense rateAchieved a similar feat by achieving 1.12[62].. In the league as a whole, the average defensive rate of all pitchers is the second point since 1919[63][64], The average batting average in the American League was .230 and the highest MLB record.[65].

December 1968, MLB's Play Rules Committee to balance throws1969 From the season, we decided to lower the traditional shoulder-to-knee strike zone from shoulder to armpit and lower the pitcher's mound height from 15 inches (38.1 cm) to 10 inches (25.4 cm).[66].

1973 The American League, which suffered from a much lower participation rate than the National League, aims to reduce the burden on the batter and double the score.Nominated batter(DH) system introduced[67].

Stadium rush and the trend of artificial grass

From the 1960s to the 1970s, there was a rush of construction of a new baseball stadium, which was created by rebuilding the aging baseball stadium and expanding the league. The fashion around this time was multipurpose stadiums and dome stadiums.

Baseball is growing in popularityNFLIs also developing rapidly,American FootballIn many cities with both professional teams, it was more economical to build a facility that could do both1953 Opened inMilwaukee County StadiumMany multi-purpose stadiums were built starting with[68].. The multipurpose stadium had an elliptical design that needed to accommodate both baseball and football, making it a more distorted baseball field than the old stadium. In the distorted and wide ground, outfields of a normal size often hit a home run and were just outfield flies, or fouls became flyouts. These characteristics changed the essence of professional baseball, and resulted in a higher defensive rate than home runs and batting power.

1965 World's first all-weather covered stadiumAstrodomeIs open. The idea to put a roof on the stadium is the home of AstrosHoustonHowever, the idea was to create a comfortable environment that is not affected by the climate, where summer is hot and humid, and there is a lot of rain, which causes a lot of mosquito outbreaks. At the beginning of the opening, it had a transparent acrylic roof so that it could be played in the same environment as an outdoor stadium, but since the light caught the eyes of the players and hindered play, it was immediately replaced with a panel that did not allow sunlight. At this time, there was a problem that the grass in the stadium died due to the light being blocked. World's first fiber to eliminate itArtificial grass"Astro Turf" was developed. Astroturf has been used in many baseball fields because it has a low maintenance cost and can be easily converted from natural grass. Artificial turf has the characteristic of hitting balls faster, and stealing and speed have become more important than ever. On the surface of artificial grass, the ball moved faster and bounced higher, which made it easier to pass through the "holes" between Sanyu and XNUMXth base, making it easier to steal. The team changed to a structure centered on pitchers. To keep the pitcher's ball speedRelayHas become more important. for that reasonStarting pitcherIs a matchComplete pitchYou no longer have to.It was enough for the starting pitcher to throw 6 to 7 innings and connect them to the middle pitcher.Around this time, the number of home runs decreased in inverse proportion to the increase in stolen bases.Home runsWillie MaysAfter hitting 1965 in 52, it was over 50 until 1990George FosterWas only reached in 1977.

In the 1980s, it was an artificial turf that was adopted at many stadiums, but it is now said that the ground is concrete or asphalt and the players' legs and waist are strained.1989 Of the world's first retractable covered stadiumSky domeWill open, it will be possible to grow natural grass even though it has a roof.[69].1992 , Of natural grassOriole Park at Camden YardsIs opened,RetroReturning neoclassical baseball stadiums became mainstream, and artificial turf stadiums gradually decreased.

Modern baseball and drug problems

1994 ,Salary capWith management on the introduction of the systemAthletes' associationSide-by-side confrontation, during the season from August to the following April 8Longest strike in MLB historyOccurs. The strike lasts 232 days,1994 World SeriesWas also canceled.Athletes' associationAs a result of discussions with the company, the introduction of the salary cap system was postponed, but a levy system (luxury tax) was introduced for baseball teams with relatively high total player compensation. This strike resulted in a temporary large fan departure.

1995 To the DodgersHideo NomoJoined the group.Although it was a minor contract (a contract outside the 40-person quota), he was promoted to MLB in May, and when he made his debut, he played an active part with 5 wins and won the rookie king.This activity of the Japanese became an opportunity to develop overseas markets, and many overseas players later made their major debut.1997 , Other than MLBProfessional sports leagueHas been actively done inInterleagueIntroduced. So farSubway seriesSince the match between the teams in the city represented by the New York Yankees vs. New York Mets could only be achieved in the World Series, the good card was seen in the regular season, which was well received by the fans.

1998 OfMark MaguireSammy SosabyThe most home run record battle of the seasonThe number of spectators recovered to the level before the strike. From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, a home run mass production boom occurred,2001 ToBarry BondsBroke 73 home runs and set a home run record for the current season. However2007 Announced on December 12Mitchell ReportIn a report called, 89 real names were listed, including Barry Bonds,Alex Rodriguez,Manny Ramirez, Mark Maguire,Rafael Palmeiro,Jason Giambi,Jose CansecoFrom many MLB hittersAnabolic steroidsWas later found to be using.

As the number of hitters has increased, pitchers have to develop a variety of pitches to counter the power of the batter.Gyro ball[70] New ball types such as were able to restore the balance of power to the defensive side. 1950s-1960ssliderAnd from the 1970s to the 1990sSplit finger fastballThe baseball game has changed depending on the type of ball. In the 1990sChange upWas revived,Trevor Hoffman,Greg Maddux,Jamie Moyer,Tom Gravin,Johann Santana,Pedro Martinez,Tim LinscumCleverly thrown by such pitchers. In recent years, rinse cam,Jonathan Sanchez,Uvaldo JimenezPitchers such as throw change-ups with a split grip, now throw "split change"[71][72][73][74].

2008 ToVideo judgmentWas introduced,2014 From that, the range was expanded and the challenge system was adopted.[75][76][77].

Team

American league

地区OUR TEAMFounding yearMember yearHeadquarters
East districtBaltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles (BAL)
18941901United States flagMaryland State Flag MarylandBaltimore
Oriole Park at Camden Yards
Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox (BOS)
1901United States flagMassachusetts flag MassachusettsDuffel Bag
Fenway Park
New York Yankees
New York Yankees (NYY)
1901United States flagNew York State Flag New York Stateニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク-Bronx
Yankee Stadium
Tampa Bay Rays
Tampa Bay Rays (TB)
1998United States flagFlorida State Flag FloridaSt. Petersburg
Tropicana Field
Toronto Blue Jays
Toronto Blue Jays (TOR)
1977Canadian flagOntario Flag OntarioToronto
Rogers Center
Middle districtChicago White Sox
Chicago White Sox (CWS)
18941901United States flagIllinois flag IllinoisChicago
Guaranteed Rate Field
Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians (CLE)
18941901United States flagOhio flag OhioCleveland
Progressive field
Detroit Tigers
Detroit Tigers (DET)
18941901United States flagMichigan State Flag ミ シ ガ ン 州Detroit
Comerica Park
Kansas City Royals
Kansas City Royals (KC)
1969United States flagMissouri flag MissouriKansas City
Kauffman Stadium
Minnesota Twins
Minnesota Twins (MIN)
18941901United States flagMinnesota State Flag MinnesotaMinneapolis
Target field
West areaHouston Astros
Houston Astros (HOU)
19622013United States flagTexas State Flag TexasHouston
Minute Maid Park
Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Angels (LAA)
1961United States flagCalifornia State Flag CaliforniaAnaheim
Angel Stadium of Anaheim
Auckland Athletics
Oakland Athletics (OAK)
1901United States flagCalifornia State Flag CaliforniaAuckland
Ring Central Coliseum
Seattle Mariners
Seattle Mariners (SEA)
1977United States flagWashington State Flag State of WashingtonSeattle
T-Mobile Park
Texas Rangers
Texas Rangers (TEX)
1961United States flagTexas State Flag TexasArlington
Grove Life Field

National league

地区OUR TEAMFounding yearMember yearHeadquarters
East districtAtlanta Braves
Atlanta Braves (ATL)
18711876United States flagGeorgia State Flag GeorgiaCumberland
Truist Park
Miami Marlins
Miami Marlins (MIA)
1993United States flagFlorida State Flag FloridaMiami
Lone Depot Park
New York Mets
New York Mets (NYM)
1962United States flagNew York State Flag New York Stateニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク-Queens
City field
Philadelphia Phillies
Philadelphia Phillies (PHI)
1883United States flagPennsylvania flag PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia
Citizens Bank Park
Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals (WSH)
1969United States flagWashington DC Flag Washington DC
Nationals park
Middle districtChicago Cubs
Chicago Cubs (CHC)
18701876United States flagIllinois flag IllinoisChicago
Wrigley Field
Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds (CIN)
18821890United States flagOhio flag OhioCincinnati
Great American Ball Park
Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers (MIL)
19691998United States flagWisconsin State Flag WisconsinMilwaukee
American family field
Pittsburgh Pirates
Pittsburgh Pirates (PIT)
18821887United States flagPennsylvania flag PennsylvaniaPittsburgh
PNC Park
St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals (STL)
18821892United States flagMissouri flag MissouriSt. Louis
Bush stadium
West areaArizona Diamondbacks
Arizona Diamondbacks (ARI)
1998United States flagArizona State Flag ArizonaPhoenix
Chase field
Colorado Rockies
Colorado Rockies (COL)
1993United States flagColorado State Flag ColoradoDenver
Coors field
Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers (LAD)
18831890United States flagCalifornia State Flag CaliforniaLos Angeles
Dodger Stadium
San Diego Padres
San Diego Padres (SD)
1969United States flagCalifornia State Flag CaliforniaSan Diego
Petco Park
San Francisco Giants
San Francisco Giants (SF)
1883United States flagCalifornia State Flag CaliforniaSan Francisco
Oracle Park

League composition and transition

Currently, 30 teams belonging to MLBThe United States of AmericaWith 17 statesDistrict of Columbia,カナダHeadquartered in 1 state. 15 teams belong to both National League and American League. Furthermore, the teams belonging to each league are divided into three districts on the map, east, middle, and west.

Each district consists of 5 teams. From the beginning when it increased to 30 teams, there was a plan to divide it into the same number for each 5 teams in each district, but until 2012, the InterleagueNPBInSep-pa Exchange Battleと同様に、特定の期間(MLBでは5月から7月の間)のみの集中開催だったため、各リーグ15チームの奇数になった場合試合を組めないチームが必ず1チームでき、年間の試合スケジュールを組むのが困難だったため、当初はアメリカンリーグ(中地区)の1チーム(ミルウォーキー・ブルワーズ)をナショナルリーグ(中地区)に配置しアメリカンリーグを14(東5・中5・西4)チーム、ナショナルリーグを16(東5・中6・西5)チームとしていた。その後、2013年からインターリーグを年間通じて行う方式に改正し、アメリカン・ナショナル両リーグ内の試合を組めない1チーム同士で常に試合が行われることによりこの問題は解消され、同年にナショナルリーグ(中地区)の1チーム(ヒューストン・アストロズ)がアメリカンリーグ(西地区)に配置され、各地区が5チームずつに分けられた。

Annual schedule and match system

Spring training

From mid-February to late March before the season beginsSpring campSpring training is performed. During the period when this camp is held, there are still areas with low temperatures and snow,ArizonaFloridaIt is inMinor leagueHas been selected as a campsite. With a team that makes Arizona a campsiteCactus league(Cactus League Cactus), a team that camps in FloridaGrapefruit league(Grapefruit League) Is formed and in the same format as the official gameOpen battleHowever, records during this period are not official records.

At the start of spring training,26 people roaster(MLB registration frame) has not been finalized,40 people roaster(MLB registration expansion frame) players and outside the roasterInvited playersVeteran calledFAFrom players and promising players belonging to the affiliated minor teams, screening will be done by the opening roaster frame by the start of the regular season. Since there are more players on the bench than in the regular season, split the team into two and play against different teams on the same daySplit squadIn some cases, such a method is adopted.

Regular season

4 team from early April to late SeptemberInterleagueThere will be a regular season of 162 games, including.As mentioned above, the Interleague has become an odd number of 2013 teams in both leagues since 15, so the remaining teams will play games, and a total of 20 games will be played throughout the regular season. Before 2012, it was scheduled to play several games between mid-May and mid-June every year, then return to the cards in the league and then play several games again between early June and mid-July. There were about 5 games in total.Since 6, there will be a total of 6 matches with 7 teams in the same district, and a total of 18 matches with 2013 teams in 4 other districts of the league.Matches are played almost evenly between the baseball stadium of your team and the baseball stadium of the other team, but depending on the interleague match, all three games are played at one of the baseball stadiums and the other baseball stadium. In some cases, it is not done.However, the balance of the games has been adjusted so that the number of home games and away games of each team is equal to 76 games.

Both leaguesAdvance noticeThe system is adopted. Starting pitchers will be announced for each match card, not for each match. Incidentally, in the American LeagueDesignated batter system(DH) will be adopted (National League will be adopted only in 2020).The match will be played for an unlimited amount of time without a draw.If it becomes a "Thai game" due to rainfall etc.SuspendedIs declared, in which case the game will be resumed from the point of interruption after the next day and played until the settlement is reached. In that case, two games will be played, one on the move day or one scheduled on that day and one that has been postponed.Double headerIs digested with. If you cannot continue the match due to a great scuffle, or if the opponent team does not arrive in the first place and you can not play the match,Forfitted games(Forfeited game,Confiscation game). However2020 As a special rule, start the attack from the 10th extension with the runner on the second baseTie breakAdopt a system.

Athletes who are diagnosed as having difficulty competing due to injury or illnessInjured listRegistered in (IL)Active roasterIt will not be possible to recover until the specified number of days have passed since the departure. Other,Appeal,Childcare leaveThere is a system where you can leave the roaster temporarily for such purposes. Meanwhile, substitute players can be replenished from the affiliated minor leagues.

During the regular season, 40 players in the roastertradeIs available until July 7st. Therefore, there are many last-minute trades involving main players, especially just before the trade deadline.

September 9st,Active roasterThe number of people (who can enter the bench and participate in the game) will be expanded from 26 to 28. By 2019, the number had expanded to a maximum of 40 (commonly known as "September Callup". Call up means "selected (for the team)". According to this rule, players who have been waiting for the minor teams under the umbrella since September will be added to the MLB bench, and a wide range of players can be appointed. Many young players make major debuts at this time. However,Post seasonOnly 26 roster players can participate in the race, and players who are not registered as 8 roasters of the team as of 31st August can not be registered as post-season roasters in principle.[78][79].

MLB will not be affected by weather due to neoclassical stadium boomDome StadiumThere is a tendency for the number to decrease, so there are many cancellations due to rain.However, the regular season game schedule is overcrowded, and there are not a few schedules of 20 to 30 consecutive games.[80], It is not uncommon to have a match even after a few hours of interruption. In addition to this, in Japanjet lagHas 3 hours[81]In order to move across the vast mainland US/Canada, which has large differences in climate, each team has a dedicated plane for movement, which is most convenient regardless of the schedule of the airline regardless of late night or early morning. It is possible to move at a good time[82] However, the physical burden is very heavy. The total distance traveled in one season is about 1 kilometers, which is地球Equivalent to 1.8 laps[83].. Therefore, even if the regular fielder of the main axis is often removed from the starter to recover from fatigue, players who participate in all 162 games are only counted in the league every year.

Unlimited time and overcrowded schedules such as those mentioned above, games where the defeat was decisive due to a large difference, or when the pitcher ran out during the overtime ButReliefOccasionally, there is a situation of ``climbing as a pitcher'', for example in 2015IchiroA total of 27 fielders, including[84].

It is a rule that each team basically consumes all 162 games, but not all 162 games are necessarily played. A team in an area where the decision to advance to the playoffs has been completely decided and the ranking has been decided is basically the same even if the rematch of the game postponed due to rain cancellation etc. may be related to some title or record of the player or the team. Not to be done. On the other hand, if there are 2 or more teams that meet the postseason advance conditions, such as when the same rate is reached in the district or wildcard second place at the end of the entire schedule, it may be over 6 games. In that caseOne game playoff(1 game championship match) to determine postseason advance teams[85].. Note that this one-game playoff will be treated as a regular season, and records such as the defensive rate and number of home runs will also be incorporated in the regular season. In any case, there will be no adjustment of player results between teams due to inconsistent number of games.[86].. It is often said that it is unfair that the number of games increases or decreases from the players (teams) aiming for the title or record, but personal records are only secondary in games where the teams compete for the rest of the game. It is based on the management rationalism that it will not be a match that is unlikely to have box office revenue regardless of the winning team decisionDigestive matchThe occurrence of is suppressed as much as possible. In rare cases, the regular season itself may be shortened (1918, 1981, 1994, 1995, etc. 1918World War I, Other years due to strikes).

Until 1960, there were 22 games in each league round robin (7 rounds x 154 teams). American League1961 From the National League1962 から現在の162試合(18回戦×9チーム)になり、1969年に始まった2地区制時代は12球団時は同地区5チーム×18試合=90試合、他地区6チーム×12試合=72試合の計162試合であったが、アメリカンリーグは1977 From the National League1993 には14球団に増えたことから、同地区6チーム×13試合=78試合、他地区7チーム×12試合=84試合の合計162試合になった。その後、1994年に3地区制となった上、地区によって所属チーム数が違っていたためばらつきがあるが、同地区と60試合程度、同リーグの他2地区と各45試合程度、その他インターリーグが数試合の合計162試合になった。両リーグ15チームずつとなった2013年以降は同地区4チーム×19試合=76試合、他地区10チーム×6または7試合=66試合、インターリーグ20試合の合計162試合である[87].

All star games

In 7 monthAll star gamesIs done. Initially it was a celebration of all-star players, but from 2003 to 2016 the league wonWorld seriesIs the priority to hold the headquarters inHome advantageSince it was given, the draw game was lost and the game became more serious than before.

Post season

World Series wins and appearances
PlaceWinning teamWinParticipation
1New York Yankees2740
2St. Louis Cardinals1119
3Auckland Athletics914
3Boston Red Sox914
5San Francisco Giants820
6Los Angeles Dodgers721
7Cincinnati Reds59
8Pittsburgh Pirates57
9Detroit Tigers411
10Chicago Cubs311
11Atlanta Braves39
12Baltimore Orioles37
13Minnesota Twins36
14Chicago White Sox35
15Philadelphia Phillies27
16Cleveland Indians26
17New York Mets25
18Kansas City Royals24
19Toronto Blue Jays22
19Miami Marlins22
21Houston Astros13
22Arizona Diamondbacks11
22Los Angeles Angels11
22Washington Nationals11
25San Diego Padres02
25Texas Rangers02
27Milwaukee Brewers01
27Colorado Rockies01
27Tampa Bay Rays01
30Seattle Mariners00

In October, based on the results of 10 games in each league, with the three teams with the first place winning rate in each districtWildcardTournament battle will be held by 4 teams each. If two teams are lined up in the first place of the district and are not eligible for the wild card, or if two teams are lined up as a candidate for the wild card, the play-off team will be decided by the playoff of one match between them. This match is considered one of the regular season matches and individual results are included in the season results. If two teams line up in the first place in the area and both teams can play in the playoffs, the team that has won the direct competition in the regular season will be the first in the area. From 1, the number of wild cards has been increased to two teams, and a new playoff between both teams has been established.

Wild card games

Established from 2012Wild card games"Division seriesIt is a match for the right to participate in and is a preliminary match for the actual playoff. With the exception of the winning team in each district, the two teams with the highest winning percentages will decide the wild card teams that will advance to the Division Series by completing one match in the home game of the team with the higher winning percentage of the two teams.

Division series

Division series(District series) will play a combination of the wild card that won the above-mentioned "wild card game" and the team with the league winning rate of 1st place, and the team with the winning rate of 2nd place and the winning rate of 3rd place. Until 2011, when the highest winning team and the wild card team were in the same area, the combination of the wild card and the league winning second place team, the winning first place team and the winning third place team (from the wild card perspective , The opponent will always be the one with the higher winning percentage out of the two teams with the first winning percentage in another district)[88].. The game is scheduled for 5 games, and if there is a team that wins 3 games, the series will end and that team will advance to the League Championship series.

In 1981, due to a strike, the previous and second term systems were adopted, and a regional championship determination series was held by the first-half winning team and the second-half winning team.

League championship series

League championship series(リーグ優勝決定シリーズ)は、ディビジョンシリーズを勝ち上がった(1969年 - 1993年は東西それぞれの地区優勝を果たした)各リーグの2チームの対戦となる。試合は7戦4勝制(1969年 - 1984年は5戦3勝制)で行われ、4勝(1969年 - 1984年は3勝)したチームが出た時点でシリーズは終了し、リーグ優勝となりワールドシリーズ出場権を獲得する。

Before the introduction of the district system, when two teams lined up in the first place, the American League had a one-game system and the National League had a three-game system.

World series

World seriesThe winning teams of the American League and National League will play against each other. It will be held in 7 races with 4 wins, and the team with 4 wins will become the World Series champion. As an exception1903 1919 から1921 The four times were held with 4 wins and 9 wins.

Currently, 30 out of 24 teams have ever been World Series Champions, and the remaining 6 teams have never won the World Series Champion. Above allSeattle MarinersWon the league title. The most participating teams so farNew York YankeesThe Yankees have defeated all eight National League teams that existed before 40 in the World Series. The Yankees have won 1960 times, the highest number of 8 teams.

Draft and minor leagues

ド ラ フ トWas introduced in 1965 for the purpose of balancing forces.[89]..Held annually in June or July for students andIndependent LeagueTarget playersComplete Weber methodDozens of new players are nominated per team.Minor contract with nominated player (40 people roasterSince only (outside contracts) can be concluded, almost all players will be promoted to MLB after several years of training in minor leagues.

Also off-season December (Winter meetingOn the final day), 40 active players from other teams who are outside the roster and have been under the umbrella of MLB for more than a certain number of years can be nominated and acquired.Rule Five Draft(Rule 5 Draft) will be held.This system is implemented to prevent the murder of athletes.

Minor league baseball(Minor League Baseball, MiLB) Refers to the North American professional baseball leagues that are operated on an independent basis and have an agreement to be under the umbrella of MLB.[90].. The teams belonging to MiLB are divided into 5 classes, with the highest AAA class at the top, and each class forms a league and conducts official games. MLB teams have their own sub-organizations by directly managing MiLB teams in each class or by signing a player development contract (PDL) with existing independent capital teams in each region to dispatch players and coaches. ..

In addition to the promotion of baseball in each franchise, MiLB is drafted by the MLB team.International FA-FAIt serves as a place for training and coordination of the players acquired in, the players belonging to MLB who have broken down, and the players independently acquired by the MiLB team, and also plays the role of supplying these players to MLB.

Commissioner system

Successive Commissioner
commissionerTerm of office
1Kennesaw M. Landis1920 1944
2Happy Chandler1945 1951
3Ford flick1951 1965
4William Eckert1965 1968
5Bowie Kuhn1969 1984
6Peter Huberos1984 1989
7Bad Giamatti1989
8Faye Vincent1989 1992
9Bud selig(1992-1998)[91]
1998 2015
10Rob Manfred2015

In 1920Black socks caseWas discovered, and the popularity of baseball was sluggish. In 1920, a commissioner system was introduced as a neutral decision-making body in which the owners, who were forced to make medium- to long-term visions, strategies, and swift decisions to restore popularity, discussed with each other. And was a federal district judgeKennesaw Mountain LandisBecame the first commissioner. After the introduction of the system, the three-headed system of the commissioner and both league presidents had been in place for a while, but at the end of 1999, the positions of both league chairmen have been abolished.

management

Top 50 Sports Team Asset Values ​​(2021)[92]
RankingleagueNumber of teams
1NFL26
2NBA9
3MLB6
4Premier League5
5La Liga2

6

Bundesliga1
League Ann1

MLB is a cartel in business, which is exempt from antitrust by special exceptions in US law. Therefore, it is legally possible to limit the total number of teams, systematically share revenue, and draft system that normally limits individual free economic activities. In particular, the draft system and the distribution of profits are increasing the number of spectators and the audience rating of television by equalizing the ability of each team and enhancing the content of the game. On the other hand, management of professional baseball in Japan is usually in the red, and the propaganda of the owner company of the team is the basis of economic activity. For this reason, there is no merit in that the strong team (owner company) purposely balances the weak team (owner company). This is because the management of the baseball team is nothing more than a secondary activity of the public relations activities of the owner company. Each team in MLB is usually an independent organization and is in the black, but on the contrary, multiple companies are sponsors in search of the advertising effect of the team's prestige. Also, the number of MLB teams is set smaller than the number of American cities that want to attract professional baseball teams as a status of large cities. This will allow American professional baseball teams to withdraw various economic incentives from the host city. Most importantly, the stadium used by the team can be built and used free of charge by the local municipality, which alone amounts to millions of dollars each year. Although it is difficult for the Japanese professional baseball team to maintain the second army, the American professional baseball team can maintain up to the fifth army because of such structural differences in management itself.

MLBの2006年の観客動員数は前年比1.5%増の7,604万3,902人と3年連続で増加し過去最高を記録している。30チーム中24チームが200万人を超え、8チームが300万人を超えており、年々入場券の平均価格が上がっているにも拘らず観客動員数は増加傾向である。現在までの年間観客動員数最多チームはNew York YankeesWith 420 million 518, the smallest teamFlorida MarlinsThe total number is 116, and the average of all teams is 5,120. Also in 253Minor league baseballの観客動員数は4,171万357人で、MLBと合わせた観客動員数は1億1,775万4,259人となっている。入場券の売り上げだけで巨額なものとなっており、放送権収入、商標権収入、スポンサー収入、グッズ収入なども含めたMLB全体の総収入は1995年に約13億8,499万ドル、1996年に約17億7,517万ドル、1999年に約27億8,687万ドル、2005年に約47億3,300万ドルなどと年々増加し、2006年には約52億ドル(約6,130億円)に達した。これは、NFLIt is the second largest after about $60 billion.

Since then, MLB's total revenue has continued to increase due to soaring broadcasting rights, and it has continued to increase, recording $2014 billion in 90 and $2018 billion in 103.

In addition,Asset value of the teamIs also increasing year by year, American economic magazineForbesAnnounced in April 2014, the average asset value of each MLB team is $ 4 million. First place is the New York Yankees at $ 8 billion, as of August 1,000NFL OfDallas CowboysNew England PatriotsThis is the third largest US professional sports team after. MLB 3th (lowest)Tampa Bay Devil RaysIs estimated to be worth $ 4 million.Also, according to 8500 statistics, 2014 out of 30 MLB teams are in the black.There are also Yankees and Dodgers in the deficit team, but due to the surcharge system described later, the Yankees and other high-income teams pay a large surcharge, which is one of the causes of the deficit.In addition, the Yankees are on the income of each teamYES networkRevenue from Cubs does not include revenue from WGN, so it is actually said that each team has more revenue. In addition, the team's earnings are increasing faster than the player's annual salary growth, increasing overall operating profit from $2004 million in 1 to $3,200 million in 2005. The average annual salary of athletes has also increased year by year, surpassing $3 million for the first time in 6,000, and the average annual salary in 2001 was $200. In addition, the total annual salary of all 2006 teams in 269 reached a record high of $9,292.[93][94].. Eight years later, in 8, the total annual salary exceeded $2016 billion, and the average annual salary also reached a record high of $40 million, which is also increasing year by year.

MLB problems and their solutions

Drug problems

In recent years, in major league baseballBarry Bonds,Mark MaguireHome run mass production,Jose Canseco OfExposed book "Forbidden physical remodeling』Due to publication of confession of drug use, sudden death of formerly active athlete, etc.dopingSuspicion is drawing attention. It has long been said that it is not suitable for drug use, but in recent years, unannounced inspections have been conducted every year. Since 2005, we have introduced rules regarding drug testing, and the content of the violation is 1 days for the first violation, 10 days for the second violation, 2 days for the third violation, suspension for one year for the fourth violation, and a commissioner for the fifth violation. It was to give down. However, at the beginning of the introduction, there was also an escape way that you could enter the game if you pay a fine,US House of RepresentativesWas pursued by the Government Reform Commission. In addition, even with this, criticism that sanctions are still weaker than other sports, since 2006 the more stringent new rules of suspension of 1 games in the first violation, 50 games in the second violation, and permanent expulsion in the third violation Introduced. However, bailouts are in place for this permanent exile.

MLB drug use survey on December 2007, 12Mitchell ReportIs announced, and the names of 89 athletes are listed regardless of whether they are active or retired. Barry Bonds,Roger Clemens,Andy Pettit,Miguel Tehada,Eric GagneAnd big players,Alex Cabrera,Jeff WilliamsIt also includes players with experience in Japanese professional baseball.

strike

1972 SinceLabor contractEach time thestrike5 times the ownerLock outHas occurred three times. Both were problems with profits.1981 To50-day strikeDue to the influence ofSplit season systemIs being held in.Strikes from 1994 to 1995 TheSalary capIt was a repulsion to the introduction of the system and the period was 232 days, the longest time ever,1994 World SeriesWas also canceled. In addition to this2002 Although there was a strike plan, the negotiation was concluded just before.2013 At the time, there was no strike after the strike from 1994 to 1995.

Force balance measures

I was a commissioner until 2014 (January 2015)Bud seligWas once less profitable and less crowdedMilwaukee BrewersAfter serving as the commissioner, he has been active in introducing force balance measures since he was the owner of the company for many years and had a difficult time managing the team. We have introduced interleague (interchange battle), wild cards in playoffs, and a levy system that imposes a luxury tax on teams whose annual salary exceeds a certain amount. In addition, introduction of salary cap system and complete distribution of profits is also being considered. Including the complete Weber draft that was introduced in 1965, the winning teams of the World Series have been replaced every year since 2001. However, if you compare the annual salary of the players who belong, there is a clear difference in the strength of each team, and even if the system is enhanced, it is said that some teams are active in reinforcement and some are not.

Revenue sharing system

There are two MLB revenue sharing systems. The first is called the Base Plan, which taxes 2% of each team's net income (total income less stadium costs), and three-quarters of the tax collected from each team is applied to all teams. It is evenly distributed, and one-fourth is distributed proportionally to the amount below the average income of all teams (split pool method). Introduced in 1 following the 20 strike mentioned above, and thereafter, in a labor-management agreement signed in August 4, the tax rate is 3% and all taxable amounts are equally distributed to all teams (straight pool Method). The second is called Central Fund Component, which is to tax high income teams and redistribute them to low income teams according to certain rules (split pool method).[95].

The purpose of this system was to improve the balance of payment by promoting more distribution by distributing more distribution to the team with lower income. However, when the team can not advance to the postseason, the team side will release powerful players, reduce the annual salary of the team as a whole and receive a large distribution, and as a result, the balance of strength is achieved. could not.

Therefore, in the labor-management agreement signed in August 2002, if the baseball team's annual salary paid to players exceeds a certain amount, a "Luxury Tax" will be levied on the excess amount. Was done. It is said that the tax rate will be raised according to the number of times it exceeded a certain amount in four years, and in 8, the team whose total annual salary of 4 people exceeded $ 2003 million is taxed 40% of the excess amount Was done. Since then, in 1, it was $1,700 million for the first 17.5% and the second 2004%, in 1 it was $2,050 million for the first 1%, the second 22.5% and the third 2%, and in 30 it was 2005 million. The first tax 1%, second 2,800%, third 1%, and fourth 22.5% will be taxed at $2 million to control the annual salary soar and balance the forces (posting system bid However, the levy system does not apply). As a result, since 30, the winning teams of the World Series have changed every year, and have achieved certain results.

In addition, the new labor-management agreement signed on October 2006, 10 changed the tax rate in the Base Plan from 24% to 34%, and in the Central Fund Component, 31% of the total amount redistributed in the Base Plan. The amount was changed to be redistributed from the paying team in the Base Plan to the receiving team separately from the Base Plan. As for the burden on the paying team, 41.066% of the Base Plan is prorated according to the excess of each team's income over the average income of all teams, and the collected amount is split by the receiving team. It is redistributed in a pool manner. At the same time, the definition of the team's income was changed from "the average value for the past three years (variable system)" to "the actual value for 41.066-3 and the average value for sales forecast for 2005-2006 (fixed system)". ..

By changing the definition of team income from the variable system to the fixed system, the increase or decrease in income of each team does not affect the distribution amount. As a result, the marginal tax rate for all teams is unified at 31%, and the release of easy leading players is suppressed, making it easier to balance forces.

A fixed amount of the annual salary of the levy system and the minimum annual salary of athletes are determined with a certain amount of span by labor agreement.[96][97].

In addition, it is reported in the Japanese media that "the surcharge collected by the luxury tax system will be distributed to the team with a low annual salary", which is a mistake confused with the above Central Fund Component. The surcharge is not subject to revenue sharing. The luxury tax levied on the first $250 million is retained and beyond that, 75% is for the benefits of athletes and the remaining 25% is for the “Industry Growth Fund” (IGF). Fund) will be used as a financial resource. The IGF was established in the 1996 labor-management agreement to spread baseball all over the world, including the United States and Canada.[98][99][100].

Baseball team with luxury tax and its amount[96]
OUR TEAMYearsTotal tax amount
Yankees2003 2017$ 319.6 MM
Dodgers2013 2017$ 149.7 MM
Red Sox2004-2007, 2010-2011, 2015–2016, 2018$ 34.5 MM
Tigers2008, 2016-2017$ 9.0 MM
Giants2015 2017$ 8.8 MM
Cubs2016$ 2.96 MM
Nationals2017 2018$ 2.65 MM
Angels2004$ 927,059

TV broadcasting right

Teams with their own channels and broadcast rights[101]
OUR TEAMBroadcast feeProfit year
Yankees$ 9000 million2011
Mets$ 6500 million2012
Red Sox$ 6000 million2012
Orioles$ 2900 million2012
Nationals$ 2900 million2012
Teams whose dividends are included in the contract and broadcast rights[101]
OUR TEAMAgreement
Angels$25 billion in total
2013-2028, 25% stake
Rangers$30 billion total ($1 million contract bonus included)
2015-2034, 10% stake
Astros$32 billion in total
2013-2032, 45% stake
Padres$14 billion in total
2012-2031, 20% stake

MLB's TV broadcasting rights are under the jurisdiction of national broadcasting only by the MLB organization, and local broadcasting is controlled by each team.FOX Sports NetIt has direct contracts with Regional Sports Network (RSN, a channel specialized in local sports) represented by (FSN) and local broadcasting stations. However,WAnd until September 2007TBS[102] Like (with terrestrial local stationsSimul broadcastingFor the United StatesCable TVTeams (WGN isChicago CubsChicago White Sox, TBSAtlanta BravesBecause the game will be available nationwide as a result, the broadcaster will have to pay a so-called "super station tax" to the institution apart from the broadcasting rights fee paid to the team.

Since the income of the team is large if it is based in a large city and the income is small if the team is in a small city, it has jurisdiction over the broadcasting rights of all regular season and postseason games.NFLUnlike, the revenue from the broadcasting rights varies greatly depending on the team. 1984,Boston Red Sox New England Sports Network (NESN)Starting with the establishment ofNew York Yankees(Yankees Entertainment and Sports Network (YES)),New York Mets(SportsNet New York (SNY)), there are also cases where the team itself establishes a local channel. This is because the tax is not levied until the money enters another company, and if the broadcasting right fee paid to the team by that other company is kept low, the tax amount from the league will be reduced, which is a great advantage.

It should be noted that in the United States, where the program specializes in sports-only channels in this way, even from the contract, live TV will not end in the middle of the match.

In the United States, restrictions on commercial law activities were originally strict, and monopoly and oligopoly contracts have not been made under the collective control of the organization. But,1961 Banned by the enactment ofNFL CBSSigned an exclusive contract with (AFL (established in 1960American football league, Merged with NFL in 1970)ABCIt started with a five-year long-term contract with NFL and became a threat to the NFL.) It was The amount of the broadcasting rights contracted by the organization will be distributed evenly among the 5 teams, excluding the pool for the commissioner secretariat.

Current broadcast rights contract

FOX and TBS 2006 broadcasting rights contract details
FOXRegular Season Saturday afternoon match
All star games
Odd league american league championship series
National League Championship Series for even years
World series
TBSRegular Season Sunday afternoon match[103]
All division series games
National League Championship Series for odd years
Even-numbered American League Championship Series
One-game playoffs to determine district wins and wildcards

Traditionally, nationwide broadcastingESPN(Regular season.2005 Up to $6 million for six years)FOX(Post season etc.2006 Up to $6 billion for 25 years).

ESPNAlthough in September 2005, it reached a new contract of $ 9 million for eight years from 2006, but FOX insisted that the advertising revenue was below the broadcasting right fee due to a decline in MLB viewing rate, negotiations were difficult Was. ESPN primarily broadcasts regular season weekday and Sunday night matches.

On July 2006, 7, a contract was signed with FOX and TBS. Broadcast fees2007 Total of about 7 billion dollars (FOX 2 billion dollars, TBS 30 million dollars)[104].. The contract details of both companies are as shown on the right.

In addition, on March 2006, 3, the European TV station "North American Sports Network"(NASN, joined by ESPN in 2007) has signed a contract to air MLB games for five years from 2006." 5 games a year from the open game to the World Series,The United Kingdom,アイルランド,Germany,スイス, NetherlandsBroadcast in 7 European countries.

Broadcast in Japan

Dentsu has the right to broadcast to Japan2004 Contract for $6 million for 2 years. In TV broadcasting,Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK)TBS TV(TBS)Fuji TelevisionIs being broadcast on. Until 2008SKY Perfect JSAT(SKY PerfecTV!,SKY PerfecTV! e2),Moba HO!But it was broadcasting.

NHK, TBS, and Fuji TV are doing live broadcasts centered around games that Japanese players will participate in, and all-star games and post-season. Initially, the above 3 stations decided monthly rotation for terrestrial broadcasting, but then it was changed to weekly rotation. Most of the relays are BSs in series, especially the number of relays in NHK BS is large, which is one of the factors that push up the number of households receiving BS digital broadcasting. The attention card may be relayed by terrestrial waves. The 2006 World Series was broadcast as a digest on Fuji Television. Also, the major league opening game in JapanTokyo DomeWhen holding atNippon TVWas in charge of the relay (depending on the year, it may be relayed on Fuji TV).

SKY PerfecTV!Sukachan(OldPerfect choice), In addition to live broadcasting of 500 to 600 games, it was rebroadcast.At SKY PerfecTV! E2, about one or two games were broadcast live every day at Sukachan (formerly Sukachan!). 1-2J sports Plus(Currently J SPORTS 4) was also being broadcast (2007 is one game recorded on Monday night).

2007 year 4 month,Mobile broadcasting(Moba HO!) acquired the mobile broadcasting right, and from May of the same year, it was broadcasting one game every day in principle on "Channel ONE" (video cooperation, SKY PerfecTV!). In addition, from July of the same year to September 5, it broadcasted about two games a month on "Mobile.n" (video cooperation, NHK).

In 2009, Dentsu agreed to extend the contract until 2015. In the new contract, in addition to NHK, TBS, Fuji TV,TV Asahi,Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.,J SPORTSBut it was supposed to be broadcast[105].. Meanwhile, commercial broadcastingKey stationOf these, only Nippon TV has not acquired the broadcasting rights and has not received the match video.[106].

Regarding J SPORTS, in addition to the exclusive broadcasting rights for CS broadcasting, broadcasting rights for BS broadcasting (J SPORTS 2011 started in October 10, J SPORTS 1 started in March 2) ( (Non-monopoly) also acquired, has started broadcasting in June of the same year.

In the radio broadcast,Nippon Broadcasting System, Inc.Has an exclusive broadcasting right from around 1996,Major League BroadcastIs broadcast while the regular program is paused, or only the Japanese player pitching part is broadcast within the regular program.

Internet distribution

  • MLB.tv
Distribution started in 2002. As of 2012, it is divided into MLB.TV Premium (1,2MB or 800k) and MLB.TV (400k). There are monthly and yearly contracts, and you can watch all games when you contract. Prior application is required for cancellation because it will be automatically renewed. Initially it was only a PC, but recently it is compatible with Android terminals, iOS terminals such as iPhone / iPad, PS3, XBOX home game consoles.
MLB.TV also has broadcasting rights, and like TV broadcasting, it may be blacked out in some areas like other sports broadcasts such as the NFL.
From 2010 year 8 month 30 dayYouTubeDistribution of video footage of matches, etc. has started.[107].
Announced that it will exclusively distribute one game per week from the 2018 season[108].
2021 seasonカナダ,Germany,イタリア,スイス,オーストリアIt is delivered at. It was also distributed in Japan from 2016 to 2019[109].
A distribution site started by LIVE SPORTS MEDIA. Exclusive distribution to Japan will start in 2020 instead of DAZN[109].. In the 2021 season, we will deliver up to 1 games a day, including all games against the Angels.
Regular season broadcast started from July 2021, 7 in partnership with SPOZONE[110].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

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  103. ^ The 2007 season was broadcast from the Atlanta Braves game, so it will be applied from the 2008 season.
  104. ^ http://www.tv-asahi.net/html/a_media/439.html#4 Archived August 2007, 9, at the Wayback Machine.
  105. ^ Major League Baseball International renews four broadcast agreements and signs one new television deal
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