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🏉 | Rugby-All Blacks Captain Supports US World Cup Bid


Rugby-All Blacks Captain Supports US World Cup Bid

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Watching a professional basketball and ice hockey game in the United States, White Rock notes that fans are experiencing more than just watching teams play against each other.

[Reuters] – Sam Whitelot, captain of New Zealand national rugby “All Blacks”… → Continue reading


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Ice hockey

Ice hockey(British: ice hockey) Is of natural or artificial iceSkating rinkAbove,skateIt is a group sports competition held with shoes.Performed on landhockeyIt is the one that brought the form of. Two teams made a rectangle (oval)Linksamong, (Ice hockey stickA flat columnar shape made of hard rubber using (a cane-shaped tool with an angled and curved tip of a long handle) packAnd the other party's (Goal (ice hockey)It is a game where you can score points by putting them in and compete for the points. "On the iceFighting sportsIs also called[1]..Guess the kanjiIce hockeyIt is written as (Hyokyu).

Because skating is used, the speed is much faster than similar competitions on the ground and the game is thrilling, but since there is a high risk of contact etc., it is obligatory to wear armor on the whole body and play. There is.

As a country where ice hockey is popular, in the worldCanada,The United States of America,Russia,Sweden,Finland,Czech Republic,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu(1993 Previously, the former two countriesCzechoslovakia),ベ ラ ル ー シ,ラトビア,SwitzerlandAnd so on.Oversee this competition at the Winter Olympics, etc.International Ice Hockey FederationAs of 2015, there are 74 member countries (or regions) of (IIHF).


There are various theories about the origin of ice hockey.

16th century NetherlandsPaintings (eg Romeyn de Hooghe) Hendrick Avercamp The work) depicts a citizen playing a sport similar to hockey on a frozen canal.However, the sports depicted in these paintings arehockeyRather thanGolf,PoloThere is also a theory that it is close to.

Originating in ScotlandShinty), Originating in IrelandHarlingSome believe that sports such as (Hurling) and Native American Chippea-played Baggataway are the origin.The main differences between these sports and modern ice hockey are in Shinny and Hurling.GoryIs absent,SkatesThere is a point that you do not wear it, and there is a point that there are many participating players in the baguette way[1]..Other hockey prototypes include Bandy and Field Hockey in England, Shinny and Ricket in Canada, and Ice polo in the United States. Can be mentioned.

1763 ToFranceWon Canadian territory fromUnited KingdomThe soldiers had experience in field hockey and the competitions played by the indigenous people of Nova Scotia.LacrosseIt is said that the combination of frozen rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. was a long winter comfort in Canada.The field hockey ball was so dangerous that it flew too much, so it was devised to make the ball smaller so that it would not fly.There was also a time when icicles could be used instead of goals, as in soccer and field hockey, and games could be played if both teams had an equal number of players.

Even if it is limited to the origin of modern ice hockey, in addition to the theory that it is Montreal, Canada, Kingston, Windsor, Nova Scotia, etc. have also made a name for themselves as their birthplace.

The roots of indoor ice hockey as it is today are in the 19th century.CanadaでField hockeyIs said to be in a play on the ice (the Montreal City Bulletin states1875 May 3There is a record that the first indoor match was held in.)

1877 IsMcGill UniversityJames Cryton, Henry Joseph, Richard F. Smith, WF Robertson, WL Marie, Frank Patrick, and others who were students of the group, to make sense in the messy gamerugbySeven rules were prepared with reference to the rules such as, and announced in the local newspaper.[2]..Ice hockey becomes more popular as the game is refined by rule-making1883 Has been incorporated into the events of the Winter Carnival in Montreal.

Around this time, ice hockey began to be held in various parts of Canada.1887 ToOntarioAn ice hockey league match was also held at.further1896 Official game is also held in the United States1897 Ice hockey has established itself as a leading winter sport in North America, with the current rules being enacted in Montreal, Canada.

1888 At the timeGovernor General of CanadaThere is a theory that Sir Stanley was impressed with the competition when he saw this winter festival and decided to give the best team a victory cup (although his wife and children are more enthusiastic about the competition). The theory that it was was also influential.)This is stillNHLAwarded to the winning teamStanley cupIs the origin of.In addition, Sir Stanley's child is from his home country.United KingdomIt is said that he brought back his knowledge about ice hockey and spread this competition to Europe.

The world's first league match with professional playersNational hockey league(NHL) started in Canada in 1917, and since then every year from November to June of the following yearAmerica, Has held a number of fierce battles called martial arts on ice in various parts of Canada.Also1997 The season opening game was the first overseas performance in Tokyo (Yoyogi No. 1 Gymnasium) in Japan.Vancouver Canucks vs Mighty Ducks of AnaheimThe match was held.

OlympicThe first ice hockey competition was held in 1920Antwerp(Antwerp) Tournament.At that time, the Winter Olympics had not yet been held, but it was held at the Summer Olympics.Because the Winter Olympic Games were held from the next 1924 GamesAntwerp Olympic Ice Hockey CompetitionIs the only competition held at the Summer Olympics.

18 timesNagano Winter OlympicsHas been allowed to participate in professional athletes, and is still listed as one of the main competitions in the Winter Olympic Games.

Game overview


The match isHockey rinkIt is held in a dedicated stadium with ice on the surface called.

LinksIn the center"Red"Therecenter line(OrRed line) And the two that sandwich ittagThereBlue line(OrOffside line), There are three thick lines, and othersGoal lineThere is also a thin red line.Blue lineAs a boundary, the enemy goal sideAttacking zone, Ally goal sideDefending zone, In the middleNeutral zoneThat. Face-off spotIn addition to the center of the link, there are 9 locations in total, which are provided on the left and right in front of the offside line, in the attacking zone, and in the defending zone.Offside, icing the pack, and centerline pass are determined based on this line.In addition, the outer circumference of the dedicated link is covered with a fence-like enclosure called a board, and unless the pack crosses this board, it will not be out of bounds, so play will not be interrupted unnecessarily, and the board It is also possible to make a pass using repulsion.

In ice hockey, it is possible to play behind the goal, which is a major feature not found in other competitions.It is a very important area that is a key point of offense and defense.


Number of players

The maximum number of players that can be on the ice at one time is six (including one keeper) for each team.At that time, the playersSkatesTo wear.Also, due to dangerous competitions, armor must be properly worn to participate (note that in the latter half of the 19th century, when modern ice hockey rules were in place, the number of players was initially nine for each team. There was. In Montreal in 9Figure skatingThe number of hockey players decreased to 7 after receiving a voice from a player saying, "If the number of hockey players is too large, the link is painful and dangerous", and then it became 6 people).

A team usually consists of 1 to 2 roster (registered) players, including two goalkeepers, including players on the ice and on the bench.Substitute player (Substitute,coach,directed byEnters the box on the link side.Since the amount of exercise is large and fatigue tends to accumulate, the offensive team and defensive team (excluding goalkeepers) form a group called a set unit line in advance.Due to the characteristics of the competition, it is difficult to continue playing for a long time, so the game is played while changing groups as needed in about 40 to 50 seconds.


RefereeIs basically done by 2 referees, 2 referees and 4 linesmen, and in addition to this, one goal judge is placed in the box directly behind the goal outside the link and it is done by 1 people.Referees and Linesmen wear black and white striped sweaters and black helmets.Only referees wear orange armbands on their sleeves.It is basically the referee's authority to take the penalty.On the other side of the bench is a penalty box that accommodates foul players, and the penalty bench attendant opens and closes the entrance and manages the foul time.There is an official box in the middle, a timekeeperscorer-announcerTakes charge.The official box and goal judge box are usually sealed with walls and roofs such as transparent acrylic boards.This is mainly for protection against the cold.

Player change

Players can be changed at any time, any number of people, and any number of times.There is no need to inform the referee at that time.

Player changes during play are usually not done when the opponent team is attacking, and the team that secures the puck effectively decides whether or not to change players.The process of player change is to see that while the player on the team side who secured the puck is defending the camp pack behind his own goalkeeper, the player change starts from the side who secured the puck and the player change has started. It is normal for the other party to start changing players.In addition, even if the player is changed, the play is still ongoing, so if you are not careful or take time to change the player, the opponent may attack, so you can quickly end the player change while monitoring each other's movements. It will be.

If the clock is stopped, there is no such restriction, and by notifying the referee of the player change, you can wait until the change is completed.However, the visitor team must finish the change before the home team.

Fouls and penalties

The following penalties will be applied to the player or team who commits the offense according to the weight of the offense.If multiple offenses occur at the same time, one player may be penalized multiple times or both teams may be penalized.The referee will send off the offending player and put him in the penalty box.The exit time is as follows.

  • Minor Penalty 2 Minutes-Most often seen as this usually applies.
  • Double minor penalty 4 minutes
  • Major Penalty 5 Minutes-Automatically misconduct when applied twice.
  • Misconduct Penalty 10 minutes-You can put in a substitute player. Automatically game miss conduct when applied twice.
  • Game Miss Conduct Penalty Until the end of the game-Exit from the bench.However, a substitute player can be introduced.
  • Match Penalty Until the end of the match-Exit from the bench. Prohibition of substitute players for 5 minutes.In the case of official competition, participation will be suspended until the relevant authorities decide to dispose of it.

In the case of misconduct penalties, game misconduct penalties, and match penalties, minor penalties and major penalties are often imposed at the same time.In that case, another player will enter the penalty box instead. (Substitute digestion)

The person who commits the foul enters the penalty box, but in the case of a foul that is imposed on the entire team, called a bench penalty, anyone other than the goalkeeper may enter.Also, in the case of a goalkeeper's foul, another player will enter the penalty box instead.However, the goalkeeper will be sent off if the offense is greater than the game miss conduct penalty.If there is no replacement goalkeeper, any player can change his armor (given 10 minutes of change time) to act as the goalkeeper.

There are the following rules only for minor penalties.

  • One person will be released from the penalty box when a goal is scored
  • Penalty box containment does not apply if the opponent scores before the referee blows the horn even if there is an offense

Also, even if multiple penalties are imposed, the number of players who can play on the link will not be less than three.If the same team has three or more sent off, the undigested penalty will be applied when the first penalty is exhausted in order and the first one is finished.Therefore, depending on the situation of the penalty, even a minor penalty may be on the penalty bench for 3 minutes or more.

If the goalkeeper interferes with the attack by a foul against a player near the goal or during a shooting motion (even if the defending player is penalized)Penalty shot May be (PS). As for PS, all players pull up to the bench, leaving any one player (captain nominated) on the offensive side and GK on the defensive side (even if they leave the foul, they can participate if there is no substitute goalkeeper).Place the puck on the center face-off spot and refereewhistleThe attacking player carries the puck to the goal and shoots.You can only hit once, and you cannot rehash the puck that the goalkeeper has flipped.Also, if you break the goal line without hitting a shot, you will fail.If you succeed in the goal, 1 point will be added.In the middle of the match, the face-off will be at the center face-off spot regardless of success or failure.

There are many types of penalties, each with its own umpire gesture.The exit time applied for each type of penalty is set, but if it is judged to be intentional or if the opponent is injured, it is one rank higher (two ranks or more if it is judged to be particularly malicious) (Also) the exit time applies.

Types of penalties

Battle with hands.However, it is conditionally acceptable for matches in North America (see below).
Hook the blade of the stick or the foot on the opponent's foot.
Overreaction to tripping and hooking (falling on purpose).
El Boeing
Hit the 肱.It will be easier to apply depending on the position you hit at the time of the check.
Hit the knee.
Grab the opponent's body, uniform, etc. (Holding an Opponent) or grab a stick. (Holding the Stick)
Hook the opponent with the blade of the stick.
Hit the opponent's body with the stick, or hit the opponent's stick strongly.Even if you don't actually hit it, you can swing the stick for the purpose of scaring the opponent.If you swing around during a brawl, the game is out.
Hit the opponent player against the fence by checking.It is easy to apply if you check so that it is sandwiched between the fence.Minor and misconduct penalties will be imposed.
High sticking
The act of raising the blade of the stick higher than the shoulder.It will be a penalty if you do it at the time of check.There is no penalty if the opponent is not nearby, but if you touch the puck with a raised stick, the game will be interrupted and you will face off from a disadvantageous position.
Bat ending
Hit the end of the stick (opposite the blade).It does not occur as long as you hold the stick correctly.It is more likely to occur in pediatric ice hockey because they often have long sticks because they grow quickly.Double minor just trying to go.If you actually go, the game is out.
Poke the opponent player with the tip of the blade of the stick.Double minor penalty.
Jump or check with momentum.Checks for players who do not hold the puck will be charging or interference.
Cross checking
Check to hit the stick against the opponent.You can prevent this by pointing the stick at the opposite side of the opponent when checking.
Interfere with the movement of players who do not hold the puck.To interfere with Goalie (goalkeeper)Gory InterferenceThat.
Interfere by sliding in front of the opponent.It is easy to apply to the player who holds the puck.
Checking from behind
Check from the back.
Fifty cufflinks or ruffing
Check your opponent with more force than necessary or very roughly.It also applies when you hit an opponent during a brawl.Misconduct if the gloves are removed for a fight.Match penalty if hit voluntarily.Game misconduct for the player who first helped it.It is a minor penalty if you fight back, but if you go out of the link while fighting, you will misconduct.
Two Many Men
A foul with more than 6 players on the link.A foul that occurs when an unexpected situation occurs and confusion occurs during a member change.The only penalty that can be taken by Linesman.
Unsportsman-like conduct
It is applied when you utter abusive words or do something that is not like a sportsman to the opponent player, referee, or spectator.Misconduct if you use nasty words.Hate speechIf you did a game miss conduct.Match penalty for violence against the referee.
Delay of game
Delayed act.Out of bounds from the defending zone to other than on the bench.
Head batting
The act of head-butting.Match penalty.
The act of kicking the opponent.Skates are extremely dangerous because they have blades.Match penalty.

Power play

In a penalty box due to a foul, if one of them is small, the attack of a large team is generallyPower playIt will be a big chance to score.Especially when there are two fewer opponentsTwo Men AdvantageIt is the biggest scoring chance.Also at this time, the state of the team with the smaller number of peoplePenalty Killing (Kill Play)That said, it is usually devoted to defense.Previously, it was called shorthand, but it is no longer called because it is associated with short arm disease.

Icing is not applied to teams with few players sent off due to foul play.For this reason, teams that are in a disadvantageous situation due to penalties often use a strategy of launching a puck to the enemy side in order to protect themselves and save time.On the other hand, if the number of players is the same as the opponent, icing will be applied to both teams, and even if there are players sent off, icing will be applied to the team with many players on the link.

Scoring during power play is called "power play goal", and if there are many power play goals, it is easy to lead to a win.In addition, it is possible to attack even in the state of penalty killing, and it is rare that a counter attack is scored due to an opponent's mistake.It used to be called a "short hand goal", but recently it is called a "kill play goal" for the reasons mentioned above.

At the end of the period

Athletes who have completed the period with time left due to a penalty will be able to return to the bench during the interval, but will return to the penalty box at the start of the next period and carry over the remaining time to play.


The composition of the positions of the six players is two on the left and right on the attacking team.forwardTo the defensive teamdefenseTwo people, one center who attacks and defends, and heavy equipmentGoalkeeperIt is common to have one person, and if the team commits a foul, the number of people will decrease and the possibility of an attack will decrease, so in many cases, one person will be lacking in the forward position and the team will focus on defense.However, empty (attack by 1 people), in which the goalkeeper is lowered to the bench and an attacking player is thrown in instead, is also allowed by the rules, and the team losing the score at the end of the game may pursue. Often done to increase.


The goal is always1 points, Basically it is necessary to use a stick to put the puck into the goal,Own goalMay be accepted in other cases.Unless you put the puck directly into the goal, you are allowed to use your hand to knock the puck in the air or kick the puck with your skates.

Game time

The match is officially a 20-minute unit called a period, which is played three times in total.Between each period there is a 3-minute intermission as a break.During the interval, to clean up the surface of the link that was rough in playIce resurfacer, Commonly known as "Zamboni" may appear.[2]

In each period, the centers of both teams face each other, put the sticks on the ice surface in the order of the visitor team and the home team, and then play the puck dropped by the referee with the sticks.Face offStarted by.In addition, face-off is performed at a specific face-off spot if there is a score, foul, etc., but in rare cases when the puck jumps over the fence and comes out of the link (out of bounds), it is not at the face-off spot. It may be done.In addition, if the goalkeeper holds down the puck or the puck gets caught in the player's armor, face off is performed.

If the third period ends and there is a tie, the game goes into overtime.

extra innings

If there is a tie at the end of the third period, extra time will be entered.Extended battles are also called overtime or extra periods.There is no intermission between the third period and the overtime (3 minute in the NHL, 3 minutes on the bench for matches in the Asian League and IIHF rules) and no links.

The extended game is basically 5 minutes, and the one who scores first wins.sudden death(So-calledGolden goal (V goal)Method) is adopted.In the regular league of the Asian League, overtime is performed with 3 to 3 people (so-called 3on3) except for the goalkeeper. If both teams do not score after 5 minutes, a draw, re-extension or penalty shot shootout will be applied by regulation.

In the NHL playoffs and the Asian League playoffs, there will be a 15-minute extension period after a 20-minute intermission as a re-extension.This is repeated until either team scores a goal.Therefore, if it is not settled in the first 20 minutes, it will be followed by the second extension period and the third extension period.

Penalty shot shootout

Penalty Shot Shootout (PSS) if overtime is not settled[3]And decide the winning team. Also called simply shootout in the NHL. PSS is given three chances for both teams in much the same way as a regular penalty shot. The one with the most goals scored in three chances will be given one point to win.Therefore, the game in which PSS is played will always be a one-point difference game regardless of the point difference in PSS.Participants in the penalty shot shootout, and the order will be declared by each team.

If there are three chances and the same number of goals, one person will be in a sudden death system.

Interruption of the match

If armor is destroyed (or removed) or injured during the match, the match will be stopped immediately to prevent danger.To prevent secondary danger, we will not restart until all the pieces of armor have been collected.

If the stick breaks during play, you must immediately release the hangnail handle that remains at hand.This is to avoid danger, and if you do not comply, you will be penalized.At that time, it is possible to use a new stick in the form of being handed over from the bench.[4].

Game captain

The captain is on the left chest of the uniform (or right chest depending on the team)CPut on the mark.Also, acting captain (alternate)Captain)APut on the mark.As a general rule, the claim against the judgment of the referee is a right given only to the captain, but if the captain is not on the ice, the acting captain will make this right on his behalf.NHLIn the rotation captain (formerlyMinnesota Wild), 3 alternate captains (currentMontreal Canadiens,Toronto Maple Leafs) Is also accepted.


If the score, foul, etc. become invalid, the referee willbaseballActs like a safe.This is called washout. Sometimes they say "safe".

Body contact

To hit the opponent and flick it awayCheckThat is.Basically, it is allowed only for the player who holds the puck (the player who holds the puck can repel the opponent), and the penalty (described later) for the player who does not hold the puck.It is supposed to hit on the shoulders, upper arms and buttocks.It is not allowed to use below the elbows or legs.It is easy to take a penalty if you do it too close to the board.

Home Ice Advantage

In other competitions, the advantage of the home team is only indirect parts such as local cheering, but in ice hockey, the home team has an advantage as a rule such as setting out and face-off posture.This is a unique thing not found in other competitions.[5]

Main rules

The rules are so-called international rules as major ones[3]And NHL rules[4][Broken link]There are two, and there are various differences in the details.

Basic rules for game progress

In the attacking zonepackIf the attacking player enters before the player enters, or if the attacking player there touches the puck, it will be offside.Offside application even if you step over the line while holding the puck (wash out if you just step on it, described later).If the puck goes into the neutral zone It also applies if the puck is brought to the attacking zone by the attacking player before all the attacking players go into the neutral zone.Face off at the face-off spot in front of the line and restart the game.Since the line is fixed, it is relatively easy to prevent, but the defense side can also use it as a strategy.In the case of pass offside Face off at the point where the pass was issued.
Icing the pack
Often abbreviated as icing.This refers to the case where a puck is released from the front of the center line toward the opponent's goal side and it crosses the goal line without touching anyone's hand.It is a rule to prevent the act of throwing the puck toward the enemy team and getting out of the crisis when the team being attacked by the own team regains the puck.
In addition, when one's own team continues to be attacked and the player on the defensive side is very tired, it is often seen that the recovered puck is intentionally thrown to the enemy's side to take icing, and the player is replaced in the meantime. In the case of the NHL, the team that caused the icing cannot change players in order to eliminate such interruptions in the match.
When icing occurs, the match is interrupted, and the match is resumed after being returned to the face-off spot in the fencing zone on the side where the icing occurred, which is an offensive for the opponent and an opportunity for a goal (scoring on the opponent side).
Icing is not applied to teams in penalty killing (kill play), and you can shoot a puck close to your own goal deep into the opponent's team to earn time.
There are two types of icing, "automatic" and "one-touch". For example, international rules are automatic, but NHL has one-touch.The difference is that the moment the cleared pack crosses the goal line, it becomes icing unconditionally.On the other hand, if the player of the cleared team touches the cleared pack, the icing is invalidated, and the icing call is made at the moment when the player of the cleared team touches it.In other words, in the case of one-touch, even if the cleared puck crosses the opponent's goal line without touching it, if the puck is used as a dump-in and the team touches it first, the icing can be cleared and the play continues as it is.Even in the case of one touch, if the goalkeeper touches it, it will not be icing.
If it is determined that the opponent player can touch the puck but avoids it without touching it, it will be a washout and icing will not be applied.However, only the goalkeeper does not have to touch if it is clearly in time but cannot be reached without leaving the goal crease.
If the puck enters the goal crease, continue playing without applying icing (including the crease line, just a brief glance).However, this means that there is a possibility that a puck will enter the goal, so it is unlikely that it will occur except when there is no goalkeeper in a 6-person attack (normally the goalkeeper will definitely stop and hit back).
Line path
Also called center line pass or two line pass.It is applied when a pass is established by straddling two or more of the above-mentioned thick lines toward the enemy goal.Face off at the place where the pass was issued and restart the game.It was not applied by international rules and was only used in the NHL-affiliated North American hockey league, but has been abolished since the 2-2005 season.
According to international rules, no player other than the goalkeeper can enter a rectangular or semicircular part called a crease (or goal crease) in front of the goal.The goal with the attacking player is invalid.Penalty shot if the defensive side enters and prevents the attacking side's shot. The NHL rules used to be applied, but they haven't been applied since there was a problem with the decision.By the way, regardless of whether Increas is applied or not, the goalkeeper is allowed to eliminate the attacking player who entered the crease, and can not take a foul unless it is a very malicious method.On the other hand, the attacker is not allowed to prevent or counterattack this, and if it does, it will be subject to a penalty.
Out of bounds
If the puck jumps over the fence and jumps out of the link, the clock will stop immediately and the match will resume at a nearby spot. If you deliberately put out a puck when clearing in the DF zone, you will be sent off for 2 minutes with a minor penalty because the match was delayed.


Violence is tolerated under certain conditions in hockey games in North America.

  • One player quarrels with the opponent, and if the opponent accepts it, a brawl is established.Always one-on-one
  • Place the stick and take off the gloves with your bare hands.
  • The brawl ends when both fall and both are exhausted.
  • Major penalty for both after the brawl

The institutionalization of brawls is a feature not found in other sports, and it may occur strategically to increase motivation rather than accidentally.For this reason, the team may hire players specializing in brawls called enforcers.[6]


Various equipment is required to play ice hockey.In addition, skates and armor for ice hockeyIce crossBut also used.


There are right-handed and left-handed sticks depending on the direction of blade curvature. The shape of the stick for GK is quite different, such as the height of the blade part is high.


Equivalent to a ballpackIs made of hard rubber and has a thin cylindrical shape.Diameter 7.62 cm, height 2.54 cm, weight 156-170 g.It is cooled in advance during the game and placed on the ice during the game, so it becomes very hard, and there is a risk of fracture if it hits a living body. In the NHL match, March 2002, 3,OhioColumbusMade inColumbus Blue JacketsversusCalgary FlamesIn the war, a shot shot by Espen Knutsen went out of bounds, and Puck jumped into the spectator's seat, hit the spectator girl directly, and died of a skull fracture.


The shoes are sturdy enough to protect your feet and ankles from rough play.Durability and small turning power are more important than speed, so short and thick blades are installed. GK shoes are not very visible because they have armor attached to the shin, but they are different from those for players.It's designed to be less likely to get injured than other skates, but it's definitely heavier.However, it is suitable for skating practice because it has the strongest property of reducing danger and it is relatively difficult for beginners to develop bad habits.[7]

The use of non-ice hockey shoes in competitions is dangerous and is prohibited.Worn or rusted blades are disadvantageous and dangerous to play and need to be sharpened regularly.The basic method for preventing rust is to dry the blade.If you sharpen it incorrectly, you will end up with shoes that have a bad habit.In rare cases, even if it is new, it may be sharpened badly, so when you change shoes, you should not use it for games suddenly, but first try gliding and then use it.


Although the competition is dangerous, many players in the former professional leagues play without wearing a helmet, and there are still pictures of players with missing front teeth.Currently, the rules require that you wear armor.Some helmets have a visor to protect their eyes, and in high school and younger games, it is mandatory to protect the entire front of the face (wear a full face mask).In addition, there are padding around the shoulders, hips and elbows, a neck guard that protects the throat and neck, and a thin guard that protects the shins.Shoes also play the role of armor on the feet and ankles.To prevent oral damage and impact on the brain due to tooth clenching in some groupsMouthguardMay be obligatory to wear.

The goalkeeper wears a helmet that protects his face, wears special pads on the back and feet of his hands, and wears gloves to catch the pack on the hands that do not have a stick (for the first mitt used in baseball). Similar, but larger in size).Basically, both armor and shoes are made stronger for the GK, but due to the nature of the GK that does not show the back, the rear part is made stronger for the player.

Women's ice hockey

Ice hockey is said to be one of the most rapidly popular sports competitions among women.It does not reach the systematic league organization as seen in men's hockey, but it is at the highest level.1999 Founded in  (National Women's Hockey LeagueAnd Olympic teams can be seen as recreational teams.

The difference between women's and men's competitions is that the former does not allow body checks.Regarding this, it is said that since the 1990 Women's World Championship, measures have been taken to ban this due to the physical disparity of participating athletes in each country, but it makes the real pleasure of ice hockey called physical contact lost. Some criticize it.

By the way, Manon Rheaume is a female player NHLIn the pre-season matchTampa Bay LightningThere is a record that he kept his goal (the opponent isSt. Louis Blues).Also, in 2003Hayley WickenheiserHowever, he has signed a contract with Kirkkonummi Salamat in Finland's Suomi-sarja league and has participated in the league with male players.

Japan's ice hockey situation

From the background that it developed as entertainment for workers in cold regions in JapanPapermakingCorporateBusinessmanThere are many.The oldest team1911 , Nikko Copperworks (Furukawa ElectricThe ice hockey club (predecessor of the Nikko Plant). As of 2021HC Tochigi Nikko Ice BucksSurviving as.

Hokkaido OfTomakomai,KushiroIce hockey is especially popular, and the majority of Japanese ice hockey players come from both cities.Other,Obihiro City, Hokkaido,Sapporo,Hachinohe City, Aomori Prefecture,Nikko City, Tochigi PrefectureIt is also a thriving area.

Due to the prolonged recession from around 2000, the working teams have been abolished one after another.[8].

Winter Olympics

The number of appearances in this tournament is 8 for boys and 3 for girls (2018 Pyeongchang OlympicsUntil).

Held yearWinter OlympicsBoyswoman
1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Olympics9th Thailand
1960 Olympic Valley Olympics8 bit
1964 Innsbruck Olympics11 bit
1968 Grenoble Olympics10 bit
1972 Sapporo Olympics9 bit
1976 Innsbruck Olympics9 bit
1980 Lake Placid Olympics13 bit
1998 Nagano Olympics13 bit6 bit
2014 Sochi Olympics-8 bit
2018 Pyeongchang Olympic6 bit

* Women are official competitions from the Nagano Olympics

Top league

As the top league of Japanese ice hockeyJapan Ice Hockey LeagueExisted from 1966 to 2004.

From the 2003-2004 season, apart from the Japan League South KoreaTeam,Harla WiniaIn 5 teams (4 round robin) includingAsian League Ice HockeyWas held.Taking the NHL that straddles two North American countries (US and Canada) as an example,AsiaAiming for a tournament that brings together the strongest teams from each country, the Japan League has been suspended due to the expansion of the scale of three new teams joining the Asian League from the 2004-2005 season.

As of the 2009-2010 season, from JapanPrince eagles,Nippon Paper Cranes,HC Nikko Ice Bucks,Tohoku Free BlazeAre participating in the war.

For further information, please read Asian League Ice HockeySee the item.

Lower league

From the 2005-2006 season, the Japan Ice Hockey League has revived as a regional league in Hokkaido and Western Japan.

Japan Ice Hockey League Hokkaido(Commonly known as: J-ice North)Sapporo Ice Hockey Club(Former Sapporo Polaris),Kushiro Welfare Company,Tadano Ice Hockey Club, 05-06 season only (Yon H.com) From 06-07 seasonSettle Blaze4 teams have joined. The 05-06 season is a round robin, and the 1-06 season is a home and away round robin league match.

In addition,Japan Ice Hockey League West Japan(Commonly known as: J-ice West)Kagawa Ice Fellows(Former Surpass Anabuki → Surpass Kagawa), Hyogo prefecture selection, Fukuoka prefecture selection 3 teams are members. The 05-06 season was a round-robin round-robin tournament, and the 2-06 season was reduced due to suspicion of unclear money from the host organization. The winning team in this league match was the Asian League, Japan's top division 07- Participated from the Kansai area while double franchising until 1Nikko (Kobe) Ice BucksI was able to play against.Currently, it is not done due to expenses.

As of the 2015-2016 season, there will be a league match that divides the country into six divisions, and the winning team in that division will compete.J Ice PlayoffIs being held.

In addition, there are adult leagues in each prefecture.

College ice hockey

The ice hockey league at universities is organized by regional university teams that are members of each prefectural federation.

The tournament that decides the best university in Japan1926 Started byJapan Student Ice Competition Championship.

Other than this tournament, league games and tournament games are held in each region.However, since the universities in Kanto have won the Japan Student Ice Championships almost every year, (1st division league) and (Group A) are virtually the best universities in Japan.If you win the Japan Student Ice Hockey Championship, Kanto University Ice Hockey League Match (1st Division), and Kanto University Ice Hockey Championship (Group A), it is often reported in sports newspapers as "University Triple Crown". ..

College men's ice hockey has been around since the dawnWaseda UniversityとMeiji UniversityIs moving as the center, and these two strongest strongholds are high, and the situation that other universities can not be destroyed continued.From the latter half of the 2s against this early-light two-strong systemHosei UniversityHas emerged and moved to the top 3 of the Meihochu High School, since 1996Toyo UniversityHowever, when the Japanese student ice competition championship is achieved for 6 consecutive years, it has become a 4th strong system.Currently in addition to MeihochuChuo UniversityThe top five are by far the best.Following this, lead one head to the second groupDay university,the followingKeio-Daily life-Senshu University-Daito UniversityUniversities such as these continue to compete for hegemony (the best in Japan). The result of 2015 was the championship Chuo University runner-up Nippon Sport Science University 3rd place Meiji University 4th place Toyo University.

The leading schools in KansaiDoshisha University-Ritsumeikan-Kansai University-Kwansei Gakuin University-Kyoto Sangyo University-Ryukoku UniversityAnd so on, among othersKansai UniversityWas in 2005Doshisha UniversityFor the first time in 21 years, he won the league title, and in 2006 he built Japan's first indoor ice arena on the Takatsuki campus, attracting national attention.

It has been added as an official event for women from the Nagano Olympics and is attracting attention at Smile Japan (Japan Women's National Team).Even in girls' (university girls') ice hockey2013 From the 1ndJapan Student Women's Ice Hockey TournamentWas held, and the first winning school was Tokyo Women's College of Physical Education, and the runner-up was Nippon Sport Science University. 16 district representative schools are participating and the competition population is increasing. From 2017, the Japan Student Ice Hockey Tournament Women's Ice Hockey Tournament (Incare Open Tournament) was held for the first time.The first winning school was Nippon Sport Science University, and the runner-up was Tokyo Women's College of Physical Education. The 2018 championship is Nippon Sport Science University, and the runner-up is Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine.

Compared to baseball and soccer, the competitive population of young people is small, and many start at university.Katsuya TakasuThinks, "If it's a sport with few experienced people, I think I can aim for the best."Showa UniversityWhile enrolled, he established an ice hockey club and became the first captain.[9].

All Japan Championship

Separately from each leagueAll Japan Ice Hockey ChampionshipIs being held.This tournament is an open tournament in which university teams, club teams, and high school teams participate in a tournament format in addition to the four teams participating in the Asian League to compete for the championship.

Women's ice hockey

The following tournaments are held in Japan as national tournaments.

League match
Women's Japan Ice Hockey League (Started in 2012)
Cup match
All Japan Women's Ice Hockey Championship (Started in 1982)
Tournament after qualifying league
Japan Student Women's Ice Hockey Tournament (Started in 2013)

In addition to this, local and prefectural conventions are held.

As a women's teamRoad construction perigrine,SEIBU Princess Rabbits, Kushiro Bears, Bucks Ladies, GANBAX Kobe, etc. are known as prestigious.   

As a university women's team, Nippon Sport Science University has won 2015st place and 2018 consecutive victories every year from 1 to 4.

Works dealing with ice hockey




North AmericaSince it is a major sport, many movies about ice hockey are made.Introducing the main works for which software is available in Japan.

Card games

  • (Avalon Hill) A card game where you become the manager of an ice hockey team and aim to win the league.The Japanese version has also been released.
  • (White Wind) After the above "Slap Shot" was out of print, it was released with improvements and a different publisher.
  • Power play (Amigo de: Amigo) After the above "Phantom on the Ice" was out of print, it was released with improvements and a different publisher.
  • Ice Cold Ice Hockey Ice hockey has been simplified so that it can be played as a game.Official site (English)The card list is distributed free of charge in PDF, and you can play for free.

Game software

  • Champion ice hockey (Sega)
Game boy
Mega drive
PC engine
Super Nintendo
Sega Saturn
  • (Virgin Interactive Entertainment)
  • (Virgin Interactive Entertainment)
  • (Konami Digital Entertainment)
  • (Virgin Interactive Entertainment)
  • (Electronic Arts Victor)
  • (Konami Digital Entertainment)
  • (Game Bank)
  • (Konami)
Dream cast
  • (Sega)
PlayStation 2
  • ESPN National Hockey Night (Konami)
  • (Electronic Arts)
DS / Wii
It is a game of the Vancouver Olympics held in 2010.In addition, unlike normal ice hockey, the number of people is 4 (DS version is 3 people).There is also a dream competition version of "Fever Hockey" (when you put a pack in a mysterious machine, items will come out and the score will change).
PlayStation 3
  • (spike)
arcade game


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Martial arts on ice were true!Ice Hockey Shock Facts | SPORTS STORY - NHK
  2. ^ "Zamboni" is a manufacturer with the largest market share of ice resurfacers in the world.Zamboni (Zamboni) is a general noun for the ice resurfacer itself.
  3. ^ サ ッ カ ーPenalty shootout.
  4. ^ It is possible to pass the broken stick to the bench for replacement
  5. ^ Home Ice Advantage may not be applied in one-shot games.
  6. ^ "Why is it allowed to hit each other in ice hockey?About the amazing "fighting" rules”. VICTORY. 2020/3/8Browse.
  7. ^ It is said that there is also a speed competition using ice hockey shoes.
  8. ^ Japanese men's ice hockey, crisis of survival ... Corporate sponsors are all popular curling -[Business Journal]
  9. ^ Karate, ice hockey, mountain clinics. Every day was a new experience. -Katsuya Takasu Memorial Foundation

Related item

外部 リンク


basketball(basketballEn-us-basketball.ogg voice[HELP/File]) Is1891 ToAmericaOf the International YMCA PE TeacherJames NaismithA sport devised by.

Two teams of 5 to 5 people are oneballHandle by hand, rectangularCoatsRing-shaped with a height of 305 cm (10 ft) and a diameter of 45 cm (18 in) installed at both ends aboveバ ス ケ ッ トPassing the ball from above (goal) Compete for pointsBall skillsIs.The official game is played as an indoor competition.In a narrow sense, it refers to a dedicated ball used in this competition.Basket ballAlso translated as (rokyu).Local rules apply depending on the country / region, age and gender of the event.Also known as a sport where height is closely related to superiority[1].

Outline of the competition

basketballBecome the goal ofバ ス ケ ッ トIt is,FIBAOfficial rules[2]Then, the inner diameter of 305 cm installed horizontally at a height of 45 cmringIt consists of a (rim) and a net of about 45 cm that allows the ball to pass downward, woven with a white string attached to it.Various dimensions such as installation height vary depending on the competition age and equipment environment.

ThisBasket (ring)By passing the ball from top to bottom in the regular waygoalIs established and the score is recorded.Attacker (Offense) The team is a playerdribbleCarry the ball with or between playerspathWithin a certain period of time while doingshotAim for points (scores) by achieving goals.In addition, the ball once carried to the front courtBack coatIt cannot be returned to.Defensive side without attack right (defense) The team will play a defensive play that blocks the goal and deprives the player of the right to attack in a prescribed manner.Ball possession (right to attack)If there is a score,Violation(Violation in game operation) orfoulIf there isQuarter(Break during the match) Move between teams at the start.During the matchField goalIs two points (1 points) or two points with one success, depending on the position where the shot was shot.Three points(3 points) is recorded.Given by fouls or penalties for violationsFree throwThen, depending on the case, the number of throws is decided between one throw and three throws (1 to 3 throws), and one point is recorded for each successful throw.At the end of the match time, the team with the most points wins.Basically there is no draw, usually about half the time of a quarterOver timeRepeat (OT) until the victory or defeat is decided.

Features of the competition

The feature of the basketball game is

  • Basically, you cannot move while holding the ball
  • Bounce the ball on the floor when moving continuouslydribble(Ball carrying), this dribble is allowed only once in the player's series of plays
  • Do not use the lower body for the ball
  • There are relatively many provisions regarding interpersonal contact, and intentional contact and grasping the other person's body and clothes are prohibited.
  • The goal is that the score differs depending on the position where the shot was shot.
  • The offensive and defensive flow is fluid and can occur in many situations during the match.
  • Most plays have a time limit to keep the game going
  • A lot of exercise and physical ability is required to play at a high level

And so on.

As will be described later, the basic rules were formulated by the creator of the competition alone, andNBAIt is one of the sports with complicated rules because it also has an aspect as a "sport to show" due to the fact that it has developed along with professional sports that have TV broadcasts.On the other hand, in terms of "enjoyable sports" as recreation, if you have a goal ring and a ball, you can enjoy playing from one person, 1 on 1 (1 to 1) or 1 on 3 (3 to 3). You can also play the game in earnest.In the United States, rings are installed in public places such as parks, and the common name for goal rings has changed to "hopeIt is also called.

Invited by Naismith to become a YMCA PE teacherWilliam G. MorganAs a more recreational indoor sport, basketball with physical contact is too intense for the businessman class (25-40 years old) that he is in charge of.1895 Tobadminton,TennisWas referred tovolleyballInvented.



Naismith's idea

Basketball is one of the few competitions devised and popularized by a single person.The inventorAmerica,MassachusettsSpring fieldInternationalYMCAI was an instructor in the physical education department of a training school (currently Springfield College).Canadaperson'sJames Naismithso,1891 The rules he came up with are the prototype of today's basketball.[3][4][5][6]

In the summer of 1891, the International YMCA Training School held a training course for physical education and sports instructors, but at that time, YMCA in each state of the United States was dissatisfied with the existing program because students were less motivated about indoor gymnastics-centered programs in winter. There was a need for a program that was recreational and had a competitive element.[7][4][8]..In the fall of the same year, LH Gulick, the director of the physical education department, gathered five physical education instructors and examined them several times, and concluded that there was no choice but to create a new sport.[9][10]..Naismith, who was a physical education instructorAmerican Football,サ ッ カ ー,LacrosseI tried to incorporate such as as an indoor game, but it ended in failure[7][11][12]..Therefore, Naismith decided to take out the elements of each game, use the ball, and do not run while holding the ball in order to eliminate the tackle because it is necessary to remove rough play.[7][11]..It was also considered to reduce physical contact between competitors to improve safety during the game, which was done in Canada, where Naismith spent his childhood.OntarioInspired by the target play of Duck on the Rock, we decided to set the goal horizontally above the player's head.[7][11][13].

The 13 rules that Naismith first devised are now around 250, but the format of the game is basically almost unchanged.[14].

First match

1891 May 12, The first match was held at the International YMCA Training School, where 18 students were divided into 9 students each.[15][16]..For the ball of the first gamesoccer ballWas used[17]..Naismith envisioned a 45 cm square box for the goal, but he couldn't prepare it, so insteadpeachA basket to put ingymnasiumWill be installed on the balcony of[15][17][18]..The height of the goal at this time, 10 feet (3.05 m), has not changed since then and continues to the present.[15]..In addition, the size of the floor was about 11m x 15m.[17]..Among the 18 players in this world's first match are JapaneseGenzaburo IshikawaWas included[15][16]..In the first game, about an hour after the toss-up, the shot of the first grader WR Chase was decided and a point was scored and the game ended.[19]..Ishikawa who participated in this game left a sketch.

The name of this sport was named "Basket ball" because it became a hot topic between Naismith and student Frank Mann before the first match was played and used a peach basket (Basket).[18].

After that, it was introduced in the YMCA training school public relations magazine "The Triangle" (January 1892, 1 issue).[8],1892 It was officially named "Basket ball" in January.[15]..Also, at the beginning, the notation in English was "Basket ball" in two words,1921 Officially became "Basketball" in one word[20].."Basketball" translated directly into Japanese

In addition,basketuseballBecause it is a technique, "Basket ballIs also translated.

Number of players

Since Naismith was supposed to be recreational, he thought that the number of teams could be the same as long as the number of teams was the same, so the number of teams was not specified in the rules of Article 13.[21].Cornell UniversityThen, the match was played between 50 people and 50 people, but it is an anecdote that E. Hitchcock, the homeroom teacher, said that the gymnasium could be destroyed.[22]..The number of players will be gradually limited thereafter,1894 The number of players will be 5, 7, and 9 according to the floor area.[15]..The size of the court and the number of players have been confirmed as they are now1897 It was after becoming[23].

Players on the court can be replaced at a limited time, and even if there is a vacancy due to a foul or injury, it can be replenished as a replacement.There is no limit to the number of changes, so one player can change many times.

Goal shape

At the beginning of the idea, the goal was taken out using a ladder or a stick every time a shot was decided.[23]..The peach basket used for the goal was fragile and was soon replaced by a metal cylindrical goal.[23][24]..The shape of the goal changed little by little after that, and according to one theory, it became the shape of the goal as it is now, which is net-like and has a cut bottom.1912 From 1913 to XNUMX[23][25]..The inner diameter of the ring, 45 cm, has not changed at all since the first match.[26].


Basketball became enthusiastic and popular, but it was often blocked by spectators reaching out from the railings and railings on the gymnasium.[27]..This was a later backboard, initially a wire mesh, but since 1904 wood boards of 1.8 cm or more have been used.[27]..However, since it became invisible to the audience, transparent plastic plates were later used.[27]..The position of the backboard was initially on the end line, but when the goal moves to the inside of the 61 cm court, the backboard will be integrated with the goal and placed inside the end line. Became[28].


Formation of FIBA

Basketball has been popular from the beginning,Smith collegeBy Sender Berenson, who was a PE teacher atWomen's basketballDuring the year, it began to compete in various parts of the United States, and rapidly spread to countries around the world through the International YMCA Training School.Against this background,1904 OfSt. Louis OlympicsWas held as a demonstration sport[5](1904 から1924 UntilOlympicConducted as an open competition).1932 In 6 monthInternational Basketball Federation (FIBA)Was formed,1936 OfBerlin olympicWas adopted as an official event for the men's Olympics[5]. Also,1976 OfMontreal olympicWas also adopted for the official women's event[5].

Creation and development of professional league

In the United States1946 The Men's Professional Basketball League BAA was founded in Japan and merged with NBL three years later.NBAWas born.1967 To the opposing leagueABAWas established and threatened its position,1976 The ABA has disappeared, and the NBA continues to reign as the world's premier league.

Dream team era

The NBAGeorge Maikan,Bill Russell,Wilt Chamberlain,Oscar Robertson,Kareem Abdul-Jabbar,Magic Johnson,Larry Bird,Michael JordanStar players such as belong to1992 OfBarcelona OlympicThen "Dream teamWas formed[5], Won the championship with overwhelming strength.

In addition,1996 Women's Professional Basketball LeagueWNBAWas established,Sheryl Swoopes,Lisa leslie,Lauren JacksonStar players such as have emerged.


With the revitalization of the NBA and the Olympics, the internationalization of basketball has progressed rapidly in recent years, and the FIBA ​​announcement announced.1998 At that time, the world's competitive population was about 4 million, and the countries and regions that joined FIBA2006 It increased to 8 as of August.

History in Japan

JapanBasketball was transmitted to1908 So I graduated from YMCA training schoolHyozo OmoriIs the current dogma that was introduced for the first time at Tokyo YMCA.[15]. And1913 FH Brown, the YMCA physical education director, came to Japan and worked hard to teach competitions in the Kanto and Kansai regions.

In 1891, he participated in the world's first match held at the YMCA training school in Springfield.Genzaburo IshikawaThere is also a different theory that it may have been brought about by[29]..However, in Japan in the 1910s, it is said that there were still few sports facilities and poor competition equipment, so there was no saucer to accept in earnest, and no record of Ishikawa introducing and teaching basketball in Japan has been found.[30].

1924 IsWaseda University,Rikkyo University,Tokyo University of CommerceFormed the All Japan Student Basket Ball Union.Competitive battles were held all over the country.And1930 ToJapan Basketball Association (JABBA)Has been established and is working to popularize and develop and improve the level of competition.

1975 ToWomen's Basketball World ChampionshipXNUMXnd place.

2005 Japan's first professional leaguebj leagueWas launched, but the development and strengthening of Japanese basketball as a whole was slow,AsiaHave been struggling in each tournament[31]..The representative of Japan is a girl2004 OfAthens OlympicsHowever, the boys have been cut off at the end of the 3 Montreal Olympics.

August 2014, 11,Japan Basketball Association (JBA) isFIBAThe problems of "Integration of domestic men's top leagues", "Reform of JBA lacking governance ability", and "Long-term strengthening measures for Japan national team", which were recommended by (International Basketball Federation), were not solved and qualified by FIBA. Suspended[32].

August 2015, 6,FIBA(International Basketball Federation) held a managing board meeting in Switzerland and decided to lift the indefinite suspension of participation in international games imposed on the Japan Association on November 2014, 11.[33].

In September 2016, a new league "NBL and bj league integrated"Japan Professional Basketball League(B League) ”has begun.

In modern Japan, many schools and companies have club activities and club activities, each of which holds a national convention every year.Many schools and parks have simple basketball goals, but there are not many places where official games can be played.

Most sporting goods stores sell basketball goods, and the sport is well known to the public.

Tools, utensils, facilities


皮革 皮革,合成 皮革,rubberBalls made of such as are used.A test ball is used as the official ball.Ball No. 7 (round 75-78 cm, weight 600-650 g) for general (boys) and junior high school students (boys), and ball No. 6 (round 72-) for general (girls) and junior high school students (girls) 74cm, weight 500-540g), but for elementary school students, No. 5 ball (circumference 69-71cm, weight 470-500g) is used.[34]..When the lower end of the ball is dropped from a height of 1.8m, the air pressure is adjusted so that the upper end bounces within the range of 1.2-1.4m.

Also, 2004 FIBA ​​(International Basketball Federation), A total of 8 panels of brown and cream colors have been approved from the conventional 2 panels of brown, and the visibility of the trajectory and rotation of the balls has been improved for players and spectators.OverseasSpalding,ア デ ィ ダ ス,Nike,WilsonBut in Japan,Molten, Spalding,Mikasa,TachikaraEtc. are manufactured and sold.

NBAThen, the association officially certified, the commissioner's certification, the name of the home team to be used, etc. were engraved.SpaldingThe company's natural leather balls are used. In the 2006-2007 season, it was once changed to a unique ball with two sides made of synthetic leather.[35]However, the evaluation among the players is bad and it has been restored.


A 28m long and 15m wide coat is used, and a white line with a width of 5cm sets the section.[2][34]..The long side is called the side line and the short side is called the end line.The area separated by the end line and the side lineInbounds(Inside the court), on the side line and end line and on the outsideOut of bounds(Outside the court).Various lines such as a center line that divides the court into two in the center, a center circle, a free throw lane, a free throw circle, a 2-point line, and a no-charge semicircle are marked on the court.Half of the court with the attacking basket is called the front court, and half of the court with the other basket is called the back court. FIBA and NBA have different coat sizes and compartments[36]However, in FIBA, there was a change in 2010, the free throw lane (paint area) changed from trapezoidal to rectangular, a no-charge semicircle was added, and the 3-point line was expanded.NBAIs approaching the specifications of.

The principle is that the boundary line in the basket is the same as crossing the line on the line.For example, a shot that steps on the 3-point line is 3 points even if it is considered to have crossed the 2-point boundary and the goal is reached.However, advancing the ball to the front court is established when the ball and both feet of the player holding the ball enter the front court.

Also, when playing in the air, the part of the court that was touched last is applied, so if you jump from inside the court of the line, you can continue playing until you land even if the landing point is off the court, and you can shoot. If you do, the score at the jumped part will be applied.

Most of the flooring materials used in official games are wood flooring with wax coating, but there are also hard acrylic boards.Asphalt and concrete are mainly used outdoors, and sand and soil are often used in park facilities.However, since it is a ball game, flatness is particularly required so that the bounce of the ball does not change.Therefore, turf and carpet are unsuitable.

The size may vary depending on the circumstances of the court installation location, and it is often designed to be smaller than the above regulations.In addition, some lines may be omitted in parks and the like.

When setting up audience seats, it is also a feature that the court and the audience seats are closer than in other sports.For example, in the NBA, the distance between the sideline and the front row of seats is only about 1 meter, and the end line is about a few meters.


BasketballgoalIt is,FIBAAccording to the official rules, the inner diameter is 305 cm, which is installed horizontally at a height of 45 cm.ringIt consists of a (rim) and a net of about 45 cm that allows the ball to pass downward, woven with a white string attached to it.A rectangular flat with a width of 120 cm and a height of 180 cm installed in parallel, perpendicular to the court surface and 105 cm inside and above the end line.BackboardThe ring is attached via a 15.1 cm flange[2].

  • NBAThen, the inner diameter of 305 cm (10 in) installed horizontally at a height of 45.72 cm (18 ft)NBACertificationring(ダンクショットの際に安全なように可動式となっている)とそれに取り付けられた白い紐で編まれた下方へボールが通過可能な38〜45cm(15〜18in)のネットで構成される。コート面に垂直、エンドラインから122cm(4ft)内側の上方に、平行に設置された幅183cm(6ft)高さ 107cm(3.5ft)の長方形で平らなBackboardThe ring is attached via a 15.24 cm (6 in) flange.[36].
  • In FIBA, the basket on the front court is called the opponent's basket, but in the NBA, the basket on the front court is the basket of your team, and the basket on the back court is the opponent's basket.In either case, the score is the same when the ball is placed in the basket on the front court. In the NBA, shots are put into their baskets, so goals are sometimes expressed as money, and banks of bank shots are sometimes expressed as banks.

The height of a Japanese mini basket (elementary school student) is 260 cm.[34]Various dimensions vary depending on the age of the athlete and the equipment environment.

Game wear

Uniform (team jersey)

uniform TheshirtとPantsSay.The shirtNo sleeveI mainly wear short sleeves, running, etc.All team members wear shirts and pants of the same design color and shape[Note 1], Front and back must be the same color[Note 2]..The pants do not necessarily have to be the same color as the shirt.One team wears a dark color and the other wears a light color (preferably white).The team listed earlier or the home team in the match table wears a light uniform, and the team or visitor (away) team listed later wears a dark uniform.It may be exchanged in discussions between both teams.Number the uniforms on the chest and back.In principle, this number should be up to 4-15, or up to 2 digits by the tournament organizer. It is possible to use the numbers "0" and "00" according to the rules of the tournament, but it is not allowed to use "0" and "00" at the same time in the same team, and numbers such as "07" are allowed. Is not recognized.Uniform numberSee also.As with other ball games, team logos, emblems, advertisements, etc. may be attached with the permission of the tournament organizer, but the distance from the number is strictly set.The shape has changed with the times, and in particular, pants, which were as short as athletics in the past, are now stretched to near knee length.Under the uniform, undershirt, to the extent permittedspatsIt is also possible to wear such as.Others include headbands, arm sleeves, wristbands, shin pads,SupporterMay also be worn.

Shoes, socks

Since strenuous movements are required to play basketball, shoes that are not slippery and have high cushioning properties that cushion shocks when jumping or landing are required, and are prepared exclusively for this purpose.Although the weight has been reduced with the progress of synthetic resin technology, until around the 1960s, it was heavy as a sports shoe with a thick rubber sole.Also, socks were sometimes worn with thick wool socks for mountaineering.Also in the 1970sNBAUnder the influence ofHigh socksWas popular, but nowNBABut it's only worn by some players and in games in reprint jerseys.

NBAIn the case of warm-up wear during the game,Team jerseyFrom uniforms called uniforms to supporters, socks, and headbands, only the NBA-designated manufacturer logo, NBA logo, and team logo are allowed, and the only player can choose and wear them.Basketball shoesOnly.Therefore, athletes have contracts with their respective shoe makers.For star players, the player modelBasketball shoesWill be provided, and commercial products of the same type will be made and sold.


Transition of main rules

The main rule revisions are summarized below.


From creation
  • 1932 Backpass rule setting.Against shooting foulsFree throwIs the current number.
  • Players who take turns and retire from the court in 1933 can now participate in play up to two more times.The uniform number isArithmetic figuresEncourage to use.
  • 1935 3 second ruleIs closer to the present.
  • After a successful field goal in 1938Center jumpThere is no provision to restart with, and from outside the end lineSlow inTo
  • 1946 Moved the backboard to its current position inside the court.There is no limit to the number of shifts. You will be sent off with 5 fouls.He was given the right to abandon free throws and choose throw-in from out.
  • 1954 NBAShot clock(24-second rule) Introduced.
  • 1956 Shot clock (30 seconds rule) introduced and backpass rule abolished.
  • 1957 Free throwCan no longer be abandoned.
Since it became a rule in line with international rules after the Rome Olympics.
  • 1965 The match between general men and women and high school boys is halved for 20 minutes, and the ball used is No. 7.
  • 1973 Backpass rule, 10-second rule revival.
  • 1974 The basket count one throw is back.
  • 1979 "Three for two rules" setting that gives one more when even one of the two free throws does not fit.
  • 1985 3 pointsAdoption of rules, team foul penalties reduced to 7 fouls Three fortwo abolished.
  • 1991 The "right of choice" to choose a throw-in from the out of the center line without a free throw is abolished.The uniform number is from 4.
  • 1995 Alley-oop expands to legal play Shooting foul expands by the time the shooter hits the floor.Intentional foul renamed to "Unsportsman-like foul".
  • At the end of the second half of 1999 and the last two minutes of each extension period, the game clock is stopped when the field goal is successful.
  • 2000 20-minute half changed to 10-minute quarter system.
  • 2001 Change from 30-second rule to 24-second rule.
  • 2010 Restricted area expanded from trapezoidal to rectangular, 3-point line expanded.No charge area setting.Introduced a 14-second reset of the shot clock.
  • The shot clock is reset to 2012 seconds during the 14 offense rebound.
  • 2014 Player's technical foul was disqualified and sent off twice.One free throw for technical foul penalties.
  • In 2018, the foot that was attached at the same time as holding the ball was set to 0 steps.

Current main rules

The following are mainlyInternational Basketball Federation(FIBA)[2] as well as the Japan Basketball Association(JBA) Official Rules[39]by.

Japan Professional Basketball League[40]And the North American professional leagueNBAEach has its own rules[41]Is stipulated.Also, elementary school students doMini basketballAlso its own rules[34]Is stipulated.

  • A match is played between 5 players and 5 players. There is also a 3 to 3 3 x 3 (15 x 12).The number of substitutes varies depending on the match, and may be set more on the home team side.For example, in the bj league, there are XNUMX home teams and XNUMX away teams.
  • Perform 10 4-minute periods.The first and second periods are called the first half, and the third and fourth periods are called the second half.
  • If both teams score the same at the end of the 4th period, the 1 minute extension period will be extended as many times as necessary.
  • The ball must be handled by hand.Violation of violations of rules other than physical contact and non-athletic behavior, such as walking three or more steps while holding the ball (traveling), intentionally kicking or stopping with the foot or thigh, or hitting with a fist (For detailsViolationSee section).
  • Unjustified physical contact with the player of the opponent team or an act that is not like a sportsman is called a foul (detailsfoulSee section).
  • Pass the live ball through the opponent team's basket from above or stay in the basket (shoot, Shot) will be the goal, and the prescribed score will be recognized. Two points are allowed for field goals from the 2-point area (area within the 3-point line on the attacking basket side), and 2 points are allowed for field goals outside the 3-point line (3-point area).[Note 3]..The free throw goal is one point.
  • A free throw will be given if a foul is received from the defensive side during the shooting operation.If the shot is successful, the score will be recognized (basket count) and one free throw will be awarded.If the shot fails, 1 free throws will be given for shots from the 2-point area and 2 free throws for shots from the 3-point area.
  • If a player controls a live ball on the court, the team must make a shot within 24 seconds of the start of control (24-second rule).
  • The game is in the center circle by players from both teamsJump ballCan be started with[Note 4]..In the first half, attack the opponent team's basket on the bench side of the opponent team, and in the second half, replace the attacking basket.The extended time period attacks the same basket as the second half.
  • From the second period (see match time)Alternate possession rulesTherefore, it starts with a throw-in from the outside of the center line farther from the officials table.

The captain of each team must participate in the first period.

Referees and Table Officials

The referees (officials) will be two or three people.This is selected by the organizer.

In addition to this, he assists the referee and performs tasks such as recording the score.Table officialsThere are 4 (TO) people.

Game time

10 minutes for 1 quarter[Note 5]It will be held in 1 quarters from the 4st quarter to the 4th quarter, for a total of 40 minutes.[42]Match time is the remaining timeElectronic bulletin boardIs displayed on the scoreboard.[Note 6] In the following situations, the match time (game clock) is paused.[Note 7]

  • From the moment of foul or violation judgment until the player on the court touches the ball after a free throw or throw-in
  • time outFrom the start of the game until the player on the court touches the ball after a free throw or throw-in
  • From the situation the referee deems necessary, after a free throw or throw-in, until the player on the court touches the ball
  • After less than 4 minutes after the end of the 2th period and the extended period (the game clock shows 2:00), after all field goals are successful, after throw-in, until the player on the court touches the ball.

Each period ends with 0.0 seconds remaining,サ ッ カ ー,rugbyInLoss timeThere is no concept of.[Note 8]

Between each period, there is a 1-minute interval between the 2st and 3nd and 4rd and 2th periods, and a 2-minute interval (both intervals) during the half-time between the 3nd and 10rd periods, respectively. Given.However, this is often changed by the organizer of the tournament.Previously, it was the first half and the second half (half) of 20 minutes, and the half time was 10 minutes.afterwardsNBAIt became a 4-period system like the rule of.There is no so-called draw, and if there is a tie, an extended period of 5 minutes will be repeated until it is settled.The extended period is considered an extension of the 4th period and team fouls are counted together with the 4th period.

In junior high school games, there are four 8-minute periods.The extension will be 4 minutes.

小学生の試合では、5 - 6分のピリオドを4回行い、前半10人の選手を1人5 - 6分出場させ、第1ピリオドから1人の選手が3ピリオド連続で出場できない。延長は3分となる。


Violations of rules other than non-athletic or non-athletic behavior.Both violation and violation.It will be a restart from the throw-in by the opponent team.

Basketball clip.svg


Of the violations that violate the rules, unjustified contact with the body and acts that are not like sportsmen are called fouls or fouls.

There are types of personal fouls, technical fouls, unsportsman-like fouls, and disc-orienting fouls.

Most fouls are imposed on individual players, but there are also fouls imposed on coaches, assistant coaches, and teams (fouls imposed on teams are recorded as coach fouls).

1 times in total for all fouls in one playerNBAIf 6) player fouls are declared, the referee will tell you the fact and you must be replaced immediately (both foul out and profanely sent off), and you will not be able to participate in the game thereafter (below).Player changeSee also).サ ッ カ ーUnlike, even if you leave, you can sit on your team's bench and put a substitute on the court, and there is usually no penalty for participating in subsequent games.

However, if you are disqualified or sent off due to two unsportsman-like fouls or two technical fouls, or if you are disqualified or sent off due to a disc-orienting foul, your team's changing room (locker) Must be in the room, waiting room) or outside the building with the court[Note 9].

For personal fouls, a throw-in is given to the opposite team of the team that was sentenced to the foul.Fouls are often declared mainly to the defensive player, but if the offensive player interferes with the action of the defensive player, the offensive player is declared a foul.A foul (other than a technical foul) against a player who is in motion on a shot will be awarded a score of 2 to 3 points if the shot is successful, and an additional free throw will be given.If the shot is unsuccessful, two or three free throws will be awarded, depending on the shot.In the case of unsportsman-like fouls and disqualifying fouls, two free throws are given even when the shot is not in motion, and in the case of technical fouls, one free throw is given.

Basketball clip.svg

Player fouls are recorded as team fouls for each period.After four fouls have been recorded for the team, the following team foul penalties will apply:If you commit a foul when your team is not in control of the ball, the opponent team will be given two free throws, and if you commit a foul while your team is in control of the ball, the opponent team will be given two free throws. A throw-in is given.

If a foul occurs 10 minutes before the start of the game or between each period, it will be treated as if it occurred during the next period.Fouls during the extended period will be treated as fouls in the 4th period and will continue to be counted as team fouls.

time out

Each team can take a timeout.The timeout is 1 minute.During this time, each team is changing the flow of the game by devising strategies and resting players.A coach or assistant coach can claim a time-out.However, it is not approved immediately after requesting it, but it is approved when the game clock stops.You can take up to 2 times in the first two periods and up to 2 times in the second two periods.Therefore, one team can use a total of five timeouts in one game.Timeouts not used in the first two periods cannot be carried over to the second half.When entering overtime (overtime), you can take one for each overtime (2 minutes).

Due to the 2010 rule revision, if the team controlling the ball times out after 4:2 remaining in 00 periods, when throwing in from the back court, it will be thrown in from the slow inline out of the front court.

Elementary school students can change both teams in the 4th quarter and overtime.

NBAYou can take 1 minute 1 times per game (however, you can use up to 6 times in the 4th quarter), and 3 seconds once per 2 quarters (1 half) in the first half or the second half (20 times in total per game).Also, you can take 1 minute 1 times for each overtime (2 minutes).Time-out claims can be made not only by coaches, but also by players on the attacking team.

Japan Professional Basketball LeagueIn addition to the normal time-out, the (B-League) time-out includes a 2-second official time-out that occurs at the time of the first dead ball with less than 4 minutes remaining in the 5nd and 90th quarters.

Player change

Players on the court are distinguished as players, and players on the bench as substitutes. In FIBA-managed tournaments, each team can have up to 12 players on the bench, 5 players and up to 7 substitutes.In domestic competitions, the organizer stipulates in the competition guidelines, and 12 or 15 people are common.

Player changes are allowed when the game clock is stopped.A free throw is allowed before the first ball of the free throw is handed over or when the last free throw is successful.Substitutions are allowed for both teams, but the teams that scored for two minutes before the end of the fourth period cannot be replaced when the shot is successful.However, when the scored team is replaced, the scored team can also be replaced.

The substitute can return to the game as a player as many times as he wants.However, if you commit 5 fouls or if you are disqualified or sent off due to a malicious foul (disc orientation foul), you will not be able to return to the game as a player again.

Player position name


Point guard(PG)
Of the team that carries the ball, passes and gives instructionsCommand tower,Game maker.
Shooting guard(SG)
Earn points by shooting and penetrating from long distances.It also assists point guards and attacks like a small forward.


Small forward(SCIENCE FICTION)
A versatile position that requires flexible play.There are various play styles from shooter type to inside type.
Power forward(FP)
Rebound, screen, shoot from near the goal and defend against Big Man.

セ ン タ ー

セ ン タ ー(C)
High height and power are required.Pull the team with rebounds, screens, scoring under goals and defense.


The position is a combination of two guardsBack coat, Together with the two forwards and the centerFront courtAlso called[43]..By number

  1. No. 1 (PG)
  2. No. 2 (SG)
  3. No. 3 (SF)
  4. No. 4 (PF)
  5. No. 5 (C)

It is also called.

In basketball, positions are not strictly defined as there are no rules such as soccer goalkeepers and baseball pitchers.The point guard player may play under the goal, or the center may carry the ball or act as a playmaker.Ideally, each player should play many roles.so that,Utility playerThere are many players who can serve as both point guards and shooting guards.Combo guard, "Guard Forward (GF)" and "Guard Forward (GF)"Swingman, And a player who can double as a forward and a centerForward center(FC) ".Power forward and centerPost playIt is also called a post player because it does. In the NBA, there are many players who act as point guards even though their original position is forward.Such players are rare, but "Point forwardIs called.For point forward players,Magic Johnson(Especially after returning to active duty),Anthony Mason,Lebron james,Lamar OdomThere is [44].. In the NBA player,FranceAlso a representativeBoris DiawIs a rare player who can cover guards, forwards, centers and all positions.

In the NBA before 2014, there was a stereotype that the closer to the goal, the more reliable the shot was and the higher the expected score was.Stephen CurryembraceGolden State Warriors 2014-2015 season NBATeams that place importance on three-points, such as winning the championship, have made great strides, and from the latter half of the 2010s to the 2020s, it has become important to be able to score three-point shots in any position.It is a legend who has been active as a representative of the NBA for a long time as a center against this trend.Shaquille O'Neal"If I come back to the present day, I won't give up three points. (Three points) isn't what Bigman does," he said.[45].

In the first match, with reference to lacrosse, the goalkeeper (1 person), guard (2 people), center (3 people), wing (2 people), and home (1 person) were 9 players.

Basic play


path(Pass) is a play in which the player holding the ball throws the ball to another player.There are no restrictions on the throwing method or direction.


In basketball, the act of moving while holding the ball in the hand is prohibited, so the player hits the ball from above with his palm to make it bounce, and this is done continuously to move the player with the ball.It is a foul if it is considered to have moved while holding.

Basketball clip.svg


Passing the ball from the top of the basket for the team to score, or the action for that, and the sequence of steps from the ball to the basket.Often referred to as a shoot, this is a common name, and all are referred to as shots in the Japanese basketball competition rules.


Taking a missed ball, regardless of enemy or ally, is called rebound.Take action to take an advantageous position to take a reboundScreen outorBox outThat.

Basketball clip.svg

Block shot

A play that blocks the shot shot by the opponent while the ball is rising before reaching the backboard.When the shot ball is descending toward the ring or hits the backboard and touches it while heading toward the ringGoaltendingOr become a basket interference turn nover.

Basketball clip.svg


The other party's passInterceptPlays to steal the ball controlled by pivoting, dribbling, etc.

Basketball clip.svg


Stand in a position that restricts the movement of the opponent player in a place where there is no ball.Tackle-like movements are foul due to physical contact and must be stopped there.

Basketball clip.svg

Post play

A play that secures a position that serves as a base point and a relay point for an attack, functions as a screen, gives a pass for deploying the attack, and brings it to a penetrate or shot.Depending on the position, the area near the backboard is called the low post, the area near the free throw circle is called the high post, and the middle between them is called the middle post.

Slow in

In order to return the dead ball to the live and restart the game, the player of the team with the right to attackOut of bounds To pass to Inbounds from.There is a time limit, and the match time is stopped during the throw-in act.The game will not resume until the referee holds the ball and is instructed to do so.

Basketball clip.svg

Free throw

One teamfoul, Or specificViolationThis is one of the bonuses given to the opponent team when you do.You can shoot a shot from just before the free throw line in the free throw circle without being protected by any player.Depending on the type of penalty, one throw is thrown in a row between one and three throws, and one goal is given if one free throw is scored.When shooting, you cannot enter ahead of the free throw line until the ball touches the ring.If the ball does not touch the ring, it becomes the opponent's ball as an air ball.In addition, the player to shoot must hit within 1 seconds of being handed over to the referee.There are several ways to resume play after the final throw has been thrown.or,1996 と1997 The national free throw competition was held in both years.

Basketball clip.svg


footworkIs the footsteps of the player.Basketball is an important basic movement for all plays, as it requires quick movements back and forth and left and right.Offenses require accurate and agile footsteps because there is a limit on the number of steps and it is also necessary to jump afterwards.Also, sadon stop from the dashpivotIs also an important offense footwork.Normally, for running shots, the left foot railroad crossing with the right hand.The left hand is a right foot railroad crossing.In defense, it is necessary to react quickly to the movement of the player to mark and move so as not to be shaken off, so movement in various directions is required.You must be able to handle various foot steps such as side step, back step, and cross step.

Steps when catching a ball
  • Catch with both feet landing: You are allowed to freely decide the pivot foot and step.Then move on to the next play.
  • If you catch the ball in the air.
  • Landing one foot at a time: The foot that touches the ground first becomes the pivot foot, and the foot that touches the ground later can step freely using the pivot.
  • After stepping with one foot, jump and land on the next step: It is not allowed to touch the floating foot.Dribbling from this state is also not allowed.It is not allowed except to hold or release the ball as it is, or to release the ball (shot, pass) after jumping at the railroad crossing in the second step.
  • First step Jump with one foot Next land with both feet at the same time: No further steps are allowed.It is permissible to start dribbling as it is or to jump and release the ball (shot, pass).


pivotIs a step used when performing ball keeping while landing.With one foot as the pivot foot, touch the ground at the same place on the court, step the other foot back and forth and left and right to move the axis of the body, toss and upset the opponent, break the rhythm, your pass, Facilitates the next play such as shots and dribbles.It is not possible to move to the grounding location, but it is allowed to rotate at that location.

  • If you get the ball with both feet on the ground, you can use any foot as the pivot foot.
  • When landing one foot at a time, only the foot that landed first can be used as an axle foot.
  • If you land the first step with one foot and the second step with both feet, you cannot pivot and you must either jump and release the ball or start dribbling with both feet landed.
If you step in violation of theseTravelingBecomes

There are no step restrictions for players who do not hold the ball.

Team play

Offense spray

  • Classification by tempo

  • Classification by method

Defense spray

  • Classification by method

Mixed type

Zone press = Zone + Press
Zone one-to-one = zone + one-to-one
  • Classification by formation

The numbers indicate the number of defenses, listed in order from the side closer to the front court to the side closer to the back court. The four formations below 2-2-1 are usually used only for zone presses. 4-1-3 and 1-1-2 are used in both normal zone defense and zone press.

Classification by range

Range of defense

Basic terms

Offense term

Section TOC(A line Ka line Sa line Line Na line Ha line Ma line Ya line La line Wa line)

Defense term

Section TOC(A line Ka line Sa line Line Na line Ha line Ma line Ya line La line Wa line)

Terminology related to recording

Other terms

Professional league

Basketball group

Major basketball tournaments

Derived competition

Related works

1990 からWeekly Shonen JumpA cartoon dealing with basketball inSLAM DUNK』Started serialization,1996 Even after the end of the serialization, it continued to sell and became a big hit with over 1 million copies, boosting the basketball competition population, and in 2005, the number of registered members of the Japan Basketball Association alone exceeded 600 million.[46]It has a great influence on the Japanese basketball world.[47]..Also, from that achievement, the original authorTakehiko InoueHas been specially commended by the Japan Basketball Association[48][49]..Basketball was considered a taboo (not a hit) among manga editors,[50]After the slam dunk,Duck sky''Kuroko's Basketball''Row Kyubu!] And various hit works have come out.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ FC BarcelonaThere are exceptions, such as the basketball team.
  2. ^ Stripes are allowed as long as they comply with the regulations
  3. ^ Whether it is 3 points or 2 points is determined by the position where the shot was made. Even if you jump from the 3-point area and land on the 2-point area after shooting, you will still get a 3-point shot.
  4. ^ In a jump ball situation, the game is restarted with a throw-in according to the alternate possession rules, so the jump ball is played only once at the start of the game.
  5. ^ In the NBA and B League, it is represented by a quarter, not a period. (Example) 1st period = 1st quarter
  6. ^ 電光掲示板の場合、試合時間は、残り1分までは10:00、9:59、と秒単位で表示され、残り1分以後では59.9、59.8、と10分の1秒単位で表示される。得点板の場合9、8と1分ごとに残り時間を表示し、残り1分以後では1/2と1/4と30秒単位、15秒単位で表示するものが多い。
  7. ^ Make good use of this rule in the game and make effective use of the remaining time.At the end of the fourth period, especially in close quarters, the use of offensive fouls, defensive fouls, and time-out suspensions can have a significant impact on the game.This will shape the climax of the match
  8. ^ The referee will judge the score after 0.0 seconds remaining.If it is determined that the ball is out of the hand of the player who shot before 0.0 seconds remaining, a score will be scored.However, if a throw-in is made when the remaining time is 0.3 seconds or more, a shot after catching the ball is allowed, but if it is less than 0.3 seconds, a score is given only when a direct dunk shot or a direct tap shot is made.
  9. ^ Fighting is declared to the team bench personel (bench member).For acts that are significantly lacking in sportsmanship, the tournament organizer or the federation may be ordered to suspend participation in subsequent games at the discretion of the tournament organizer or the federation.
  10. ^ Until the 2000-2001 season, the NBA banned zone defense itself, and in the event of a breach, it was violated as illegal defense.The current NBA violates defenders who aren't on the offensive player as Markman, and must not stay in the paint zone below the goal for more than three seconds.


  1. ^ "The road to the history-changing Tokyo Olympics women's basketball "Proud Silver Medal"”. FNN Prime Online (August 2021, 8). As of September 17, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2021/9/15Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d "Official Basketball Rules". FIBA.com (June 2017, 1). ‭201170-01-26Browse.
  3. ^ "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" p.126 1984
  4. ^ a b "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.2 1982
  5. ^ a b c d e "JOC-Competition Introduction: Basketball". 2014/10/3Browse.
  6. ^ "Special feature: The secret of basketball". 2021/9/18Browse.
  7. ^ a b c d "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" p.127 1984
  8. ^ a b Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.33 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  9. ^ Quote error: invalid <ref> It is a tag. "gendaitaiikuす rtstaikei26_p127Text is not specified for an annotation named "
  10. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.34-35 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  11. ^ a b c "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.3 1982
  12. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.37 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  13. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.39 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  14. ^ "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.3-4 1982
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" p.128 1984
  16. ^ a b Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.9 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  17. ^ a b c Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.10 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  18. ^ a b Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.44 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  19. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.11 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  20. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.45 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  21. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.70 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  22. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.71 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  23. ^ a b c d "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.4 1982
  24. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.82 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  25. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.83 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  26. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.83-84 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  27. ^ a b c Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.85 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  28. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.85-86 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  29. ^ "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" 1984 (p.128) introduces it as a different theory to the established theory.
  30. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.14-18 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  31. ^ On page 84 of "English Encyclopedia for Working People" (supervised by Yasuteru Otani and Katsuaki Horiuchi), a young African-American is described as "a level that far surpasses all Japanese players among the playgrounds around here." It is argued that there is an extremely large difference in the level of basketball when comparing Japan and the United States.
  32. ^ "JBA and FIBA ​​suspend qualifications Acting Chairman Maruo "Early sanctions lifted mission"". Yahoo.com (June 2014, 11). 2015/5/31Browse.
  33. ^ "International Basketball Federation lifts Japan's disposition and evaluates the results of reforms --Sports: Nikkan Sports”(Japanese). nikkansports.com. 2022/1/12Browse.
  34. ^ a b c d Mini basketball rules at a glance (PDF) (Japan Mini Basketball Federation)
  35. ^ NBA Introduces New Game Ball --NBA.com
  36. ^ a b "Official Rules of the National Basketball Association". NBA.com (June 2008, 9). 2012/3/29Browse.
  37. ^ Transition of basketball rules Ⅰ NPO Japan Basketball Promotion Association
  38. ^ Transition of basketball rules Ⅱ NPO Japan Basketball Promotion Association
  39. ^ JBA Official Goods
  40. ^ bj league / competition rules
  41. ^ Official Rules of the NBA Latest Edition
  42. ^ In the case of the NBA, the match time is 12 minutes and 4 quarters, for a total of 48 minutes. NCAA is 20 minutes each in the first and second half.
  43. ^ Chris Sasaki. "[Column] Chris Sasaki talks about'League No. 1 back coat combination !?'". NBA Japan. http://www.nba.co.jp/nba/%E3%82%B3%E3%83%A9%E3%83%A0-%E4%BD%90%E3%80%85%E6%9C%A8%E3%82%AF%E3%83%AA%E3%82%B9%E3%81%8C%E8%AA%9E%E3%82%8B%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B0no1%E3%81%AE%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E3%82%B3%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88%E3%82%B3%E3%83%B3%E3%83%93%E3%81%AF/trwzablnrky51e0qbk72ndl34 2015/1/26Browse. 
  44. ^ DID YOU KNOW about NBA? Game Edition (Explanation of Positions by NBA Official Website)
  45. ^ "The center shouldn't hit 3 points," said legend Shack.
  46. ^ Changes in the number of registered members of the Japan Basketball Association
  47. ^ "Power of Manga (1) Slam Dunk Scholarship (above)”. Asahi Shimbun (April 2007, 11). As of April 8, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2019/11/25Browse.
  48. ^ Special Award for Slam Dunk Author = Basket Association, Jiji Press, June 2010, 9.[Broken link]
  49. ^ "Takehiko Inoue of "Slam Dunk", Japan Association to special award". Asahi Shimbun digital (February 2010, 6). As of February 10, 2010オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/6/4Browse.
  50. ^ From Takehiko Inoue's "Slam Dunk" Vol. 31 Postscript.

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