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⚾ | Taiwan professional baseball is reluctant to enter Ryukyu BO CPBL statement "violates extended regulations"

Photo CPBL currently operated by 5 teams [Photo: Getty Images]

Taiwan professional baseball is reluctant to enter Ryukyu BO CPBL statement "violates extended regulations"

If you write the contents roughly
In addition, we announced a solicitation for financing through stock investment type crowdfunding for entry.

"CPBL is not involved in the crowdfunding of the team at all." Taiwan Professional Baseball (CPBL ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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investment(FinallyBritish: investment) Is mainlyEconomyIn the futurecapitalRefers to activities that invest current capital to increase (capacity) (this does not include commercial activities that do not increase production capacity in modern times).In a broad sense, it is also used in self-improvement and relationships.

Uncertainty in any form of investmentrisk) Is accompanied.In general, the higher the expected rate of return on an investment, the higher the uncertainty.If a transaction that violates this general rule is possibleArbitrageWill occur, resulting in a decrease in the rate of return or an increase in risk.

Investment in finance

Investment in finance is to invest financial capital in risky investment targets through economic and management activities.There are various types of investment assets to invest in, with different risk and return profiles.Investment is required because the economy or management entity can invest in larger investment opportunities by raising additional capital in addition to equity capital.By reducing investment opportunities with low return on investment and focusing on higher return on investment, the return on investment of the economy as a whole grows faster, which in turn grows the total financial capital of society as a whole.This serves as the cornerstone of a cycle of sustainable reproduction of investable financial capital.

For example, in the case of securities (stocks, bonds, etc.) investment, if a company makes a profit by expanding factories, strengthening sales channels, strengthening research and development, acquiring companies, etc. with the funds provided, the risk A certain percentage of the profits obtained as a result of the above are usually returned to investors who have taken the risk of the initial capital contribution as capital gains and dividends due to the increase in corporate value.In the case of stocks, there is great uncertainty about the amount that will be returned in the future.It can be negative from big profits.In the case of bonds, it is often promised that a certain amount of interest will be returned.

Investing in real estate is also considered an investment because it poses a risk to investors if they expect to make a profit from the use of purchased assets in terms of capital gains or rent yields and the cost of procuring rental assets.

In addition, short-term news flows rather than long-term returns based on investment decisions on fundamental values ​​created by fundamentals, such as capital gains and dividends created by medium- to long-term trends in structural profitability of the industries and businesses to be invested. Make price judgments in the near future from the direction of price formation materials and anticipate returns due to price fluctuationsriskStrictly speaking, the activities to take are separated from investment.SpeculationCall.

On the other hand, the act on the target whose total return of the trading entity is always 0 or negativegamblingIs called.As an exampleLottery,Public competition,pachinkoAnd so on.However, of the investmentStock trading,Futures tradingFor investments with a strong speculative character such asMoney gameIt is sometimes said that it is included in gambling in a broad sense.

Investment target

Value is formed based on the company's future (dividendable) profits and cash flows.In the case of public stocks, the transaction price in the market fluctuates depending on supply and demand factors, market sentiment, and the financial market environment including interest rates.
Value is formed by the future interest / principal solvency of a company or other bond-issuing economic entity, financial market conditions such as the yield curve, and inflation trends.In the actual market, transaction prices fluctuate reflecting changes in expectations for these conditions, supply and demand trends, and liquidity.
Commodities reflect each unique supply and demand trend.Gold is a special investment target, and it has a unique price formation that does not depend only on the actual supply and demand.
Real estate
land,Apartment,ApartmentSuch.Real capital with strong peculiarity.
Financial derivatives(Derivative)
Investing in assets derived from more basic assets and commodities.
Virtually bilateral short-term interest investment.

Investment in economics

Investment in economicsCapital stockRefers to the increase in.Capital formation[Note 1]Also called.There are three main types: capital investment, housing investment, and inventory investment.

For example,Capital investment,public investmentHayaSocial capitalTo increase the productivity of the economy.また同時に生産設備などの投資財(財を生み出すための財)を需要することでもあり、合わせてAt the same time, it also demands investment goods (goods for producing goods) such as production equipment.Multiplier effectIt also has the effect of expanding demand by (investment multiplier).In other words, investment increases supply capacity and at the same time increases demand (investment duality).Closed economyIn, this balance of supply and demand is difficult due to the harsh conditions of walking on a "knife blade" (proposed by Harrod).

Investment, consumption and capital

Consider the following case.

At first Mr. A has $ 100. Mr. B borrows $ 100 from Mr. A. Mr. C, who received an order from Mr. B, will produce $ 100 worth of consumer goods. Mr. B consumes the consumer goods he bought. Mr. C uses this cash as savings.After a series of activities, Mr. A's $ 100 debt, Mr. B's $ 100 debt, and Mr. C's $ 100 savings, the total capital stock of the entire economy remains the same as the original economy.
At first Mr. A has $ 100. Mr. B borrows $ 100 from Mr. A. Mr. C, who received an order from Mr. B, will produce $ 100 worth of investment goods. Mr. B buys this investment good (factory / machine). Mr. C uses the cash he receives as savings.After a series of activities, Mr. A's $ 100 bond, Mr. B's $ 100 debt and $ 100 factory / machinery, and Mr. C's $ 100 savings will initially bring the total capital stock of the entire economy to total. Compared to that, it has increased by 100 dollars (for factories and machinery).

In this way, investment activities not only increase the transaction volume (flow) of the produced goods, but also accumulate capital (stock) in the economy to increase the goods, even when an equal amount of money circulates.

In addition, this investment has reduced consumption and saved money, and saving the economy as a whole is important in that sense.

Investment and interest rate

In general,interestrate(interest rate) Decreases, investment increases.In an environment where the rate of decline in future investment profitability is kept lower than the rate of decline in interest rates, it is expected that the rate of return (marginal efficiency of investment) will be low by raising funds at low cost due to the decline in interest rates. This is because the expectation that the profitability of making such an investment will improve is generally formed.In addition, in an environment where the impact of expectations on future investment profitability due to increased economic uncertainty that leads to inflation remains below a certain level, the real interest rate may decline due to the rise in the expected price rate. It becomes an expansion factor.

It is considered that the central bank, which is a money issuer, can induce the interest rate to a certain extent by manipulating the relative money supply to the currencies of other countries as long as the market price of money stays within a certain range. ing.As a result, there may be options to implement monetary policy aimed at stable economic development, such as encouraging private investment and curbing price increases.On the other hand, the nominal interest rate has historically usually been positive, so if the low nominal interest rate continues, the degree of freedom and marginal impact of such interest rate policy will decrease.

Investment and profit rate

In Keynes, investment is said to be made until the rate of profit (marginal efficiency of capital) expected for additional investment matches the rate of interest.

Productivity and investment

ProductivityInvesting to raise money is not just about physical capitalHuman capitalIt is also done for.将来自分の利益になるようにお金をかけるSpending money for your own benefit in the futureEducation investmentIs an example.In addition, investment in education for children is a special investment in which the beneficiaries and bearers are different.Others include investment in technology development.

Investment history

The history of investment is the history of risk and expectation.

1700 BCCode of HammurabiGave a legal framework for the means of pledged collateral.It legislated debit and credit rights with respect to mortgage land and penalized those who violated their financial obligations.
18st centuryChief retainer of the Edo ShogunateTanumaInvested in Nitta development to increase productivity.
Early 19th centuryRothschild family TheBattle of WaterlooUtilizing information in, made a huge profit in financial investment.
After the mid-19th centuryAgainst the backdrop of the rising nations in the United StatesTranscontinental railroadThere was a construction boom.This caused the United States to record a current account deficit.After that, the railway company was reorganized, but it had the effect of strongly connecting the east and west banks.
Late 19 centuryJapan isSchool systemStarted to spread primary education.In a blink of an eye, an educational network covering the whole country was created, which greatly contributed to catching up with the great powers.
Early 20th centuryThe great powers actively built battleships to maintain and expand their command of the sea.



AmericaThen, when the investor suffers damage due to false informationSecurities and Exchange Commission(SEC) Was the main cause of the damageCompany,Securities companyHas the authority to order compensation for (a system that relieves individuals in order from the smallest investment amount).

Establishing an investment company in JapanbankruptcyThere are cases where the investment is repeated, and a large amount of investment collected from about 100 investors nationwide cannot be repaid.出資者が経緯を知らされていないケースが多いためであるとされており、法整備の必要性が指摘されているIt is said that this is because there are many cases where the investor is not informed of the circumstances, and the need for legislation has been pointed out.[1].

Investment education

Japan scheduled to be revised in 2022Course of StudyThen.high school OfHome economicsIn the class, it is stipulated to touch the viewpoint of "asset formation", and while teaching the characteristics of basic financial products such as stocks, bonds, investment trusts, etc., investment that also goes into the importance of asset formation for the future Education is to be introduced[2].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ British: capital formation


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Crowdfunding(English: crowdfunding) Is群衆(crowd)WhenFunding(FUND) Is a coined word.It means that a small amount of money from a large number of people will provide financial resources and cooperation to other people and organizations.In modern timesインターネットOften done via[1][2].. Also called social funding[3], In JapaneseClafanMay be abbreviated as[4].

Cloud computing (cloud computing)cloudSome people confuse it with "cloud" and mistakenly describe it as "cloud funding", but it should be correct.crowd-"(Of the crowd).


CrowdfundingDisaster prevention,Citizen journalism,フ ァ ンbyArtistsSupport ofSocial/political movement,VentureInvestment in companies[5] ,movies[6] ,Free softwareDevelopment, invention development, scientific research[7] It is used to invest in a wide range of fields, including loans to individuals, business companies, and projects.

It is also attracting attention as a method of raising funds for companies by soliciting shares from many investors. This form of crowdfunding is(English edition[Annotation 1] Recently, as there is a direct reference toThe United States of AmericaAttracted attention from policy makers[8].. The JOBS Act is waiting to be implemented,en: Mosaic Inc.Mixed models, such as, make use of existing securities legislation that qualifies licensed civilians to invest directly in clean energy projects as part of the crowd.

In addition, crowd funding isCrowdsourcingConcept[Annotation 2] Has its origin.Crowdfunding[9] Is an application of this concept of raising money from many people through small donations to fund a particular project or venture[10].. Models necessarily involve diverse stakeholders[11].. These include people and organizations that propose ideas and projects to be funded, as well as the "crowd" who support the proposals. Crowdfunding consists of an organization (“platform”) that brings together the project leader and the “crowd”.

Generally, a large amount of money is required to develop a product or hold an event, but in crowdfunding, an unspecified number of people are invited to provide a relatively small amount of money via the Internet, and the project is executed when a certain amount is collected. By doing so, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of financing. The development of social media has made it easier for individuals to launch and announce projects, and in response, crowdfunding funding is becoming active. In the United StatesKickstarterIs famous.

Sports funding specialized in the sports field has evolved into a form that refers to a wide range of support from corporate matching, media matching, and second career measures, in addition to financing from unspecified majority.


Crowdfunding has several origins and a long history.

EuropeIn, books have been published in a manner similar to crowdfunding since centuries ago.[Annotation 3]..With the authorInfomationWhen we develop a project to publish some kind of book,AdsI let people know and made them apply in the form of purchase reservations and subscriptions.When it turns out that the number of applications has reached a sufficient number and there are enough purchasers to recover the cost of publishing, full-scale writing, proofreading, and printing of the book will proceed and actually It will be published.Strictly speaking, the book subscription method at that time was slightly different from modern crowdfunding.In the book pre-purchase method centuries ago, the actual flow of money was due to the fact that the actual book was delivered to the prospective purchaser.Even so, there is an aspect that the pre-order purchase of books has gathered the purchasers necessary for the authors and publishers to proceed with the business of "publishing books".[12].

1884 years,Statue of libertyProduction Committee America has run out of money for the pedestal of the statue. Newspaper publisherJoseph PulitzerIs his own newspaper "New York World』, Encouraged the American public to donate money to the pedestal.Pulitzer raised $ 6 in six months.Approximately 10 people made many donations of less than $ 12 for this.[13].

1997 British rock groupMarillionFans underwent a US tour and raised $6 in donations through a fan-hosted internet campaign[14].. The idea was designed and run by the fans, regardless of the band, but Marillion has since used it as a way to fund the recording and marketing of his albums from 2001 to the present. It has been very successful.en: Anoraknophobia[15][16] ,Marbles[17],en: Happiness Is the Road[18].

For companies headquartered in the United Statesen: ArtistShare (2000/2001) was considered the first crowdfunding site for music and lateren: Pledgie (2006),en: Sellaband (2006),en: IndieGoGo (2008),Kickstarter (2009),en: Appsplit (2010),en: Microventures Sites such as (2010) followed[19][20].

LockBand-Electric Eel ShockHas taken full advantage of crowdfunding and became one of the first bands to keep up with important recording deals in advance. As an unsigned band in 2004, he raised £ 100 from 100 fans (Samurai 1) and offered them a whole life guest list instead.[21].. Two years later, they became the fastest band to collect 5 budgets at Sella Bannd[22].. They internationally licensed this album internationally in their native Japan.

A freelance writer/director in the film industryen: Mark Tapio KinesIs the first work that was unfinished in 1997 at that time "Foreign CorrespondentsLaunched the website. Around early 1997, he received over $ 25 over the internet from at least 12 fans and funded him to complete the film.[23].. lateren: Franny ArmstrongIs her feature filmen: Age of StupidMade a donation system for[24].. She raised £ 2004 million in the five years from 2009 to 5 (opening date)[25].. In December 2004, French entrepreneurs and producersBenjamin PommeraudGuillaume colbocIs their short science fiction movie "Demain la Veille (wait for tomorrow)Internet donation campaign for the masses to raise money[26] Started. Within three weeks they raised $3 and were able to make a movie.

en: Morton ValenceIs an early example of a relatively obscure band that independently started crowdfunding without using third-party websites like Sellaband[27].

Crowdfunding[28] The earliest known reference to is written by Michael Sullivan on fundavlog on August 2006, 8.[29].

In 2012, TIME published an article describing and evaluating the best crowdfunding platforms in the world.[30].

In 2012, the crowdfunding market was estimated to be 2 billion dollars, double the size of the previous year, with the investment in video games in particular showing significant growth. The investment amount in the video game field at Kickstarter has reached more than 28 times compared to 2011. With game softwareStar CitizenIs about $620 million, on game consolesOUYARaised about $860 million and became a hot topic.


Crowdfunding is roughly classified into the following three types according to the form of return (reward) to the fund provider.[31][32].

  • There is no financial returnDonation type'
  • With a financial returnInvestment type'
  • Support by purchasing some rights and goods provided by the projectPurchase type'

in Japan,Fund settlement law,Financial Instruments and Exchange ActDue to restrictions on remittance and investment among individuals due to factors such as the above, the number of companies of purchase-type crowdfunding is the largest and the number of companies is high. On the other hand, the investment type (Social lending(Also said to be) is a small number of companies (in Japan, the second category of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act)Financial instruments businessRegistration required[32]), taking in investors' demand for financial returns, and has a track record of over 300 billion yen in Japan.

Incidentally,Toyo Keizai Inc.Let's start with investment-type crowdfundingLoan type""Fund type""Equity typeIs divided into[33].

Status in Japan


(#historyAs explained in the section, the book publishing business in Europe and the United States was often done by a method similar to crowdfunding.)Meiji 30sThe second half of the publisherMaruzenBut"Encyclopedia BritannicaStarted a project to publish the 35th edition (composed of XNUMX volumes), and accepted by the "reservation application fee" method (use the money by having people pay the "reservation application fee" in advance) Print and distribute the book, thenMonthly installmentI announced the sales method of collecting money at, accepted the application, and put it into practice.

In Japan (starting in 2000)Music SecuritiesMusic fund is said to be the first crowdfunding[34].

in Japan,First Abe CabinetIn line with the policy formulated in 1), measures to utilize crowdfunding as one of the means to “strengthen the supply of risk money” will be raised, and regulations will be relaxed.Financial Instruments and Exchange ActThe amendment such as was approved by the Diet on May 2014, 26.[35][36].

Status of self-regulatory organizations

Voluntary restrictions on crowdfunding operations are as follows.

  • The stock type isJapan Securities Dealers Association(Rules for stock investment type crowdfunding business)
  • The fund type is the Second Class Financial Instruments Business Association (Rules for electronic application type electronic offering handling business, etc.)
  • No purchase type, donation type, loan type (as of the end of July 2016)

Major crowdfunding sites in Japan

Purchase type

The number one crowdfunding platform in Japan. A long-established service in Japan that was founded in 1 at about the same time as READYFOR.We handle a wide range of projects in all genres, including manufacturing, food, and culture. "Light a small fire"The OVERDRIVE final work "MUSICA!" development project" (as of March 1), which recorded the domestic purchase type procurement amount No. 2019 under the slogan "," Beppu City's "Yu-Senchi", by Tanita Co., Ltd. We deal with a wide range of projects from companies such as "Twin Stick Project" to challenges by students and individuals.Kazuma IiriWill be the representative. The fee is 17%.
A community-specific crowdfunding platform.CAMPFIRE, Inc. took over the business from Searchfield, Inc. in 2018 and operates it.
GleeA fan community platform that is run by and specializes in the entertainment field. Based on SNS, in addition to crowdfunding, various functions required for fan businesses such as subscription-based monthly billing and newsletters are provided free of charge as a platform. The fee is 10%.
Japan's first crowdfunding service launched on March 2011, 3. Based on the vision of "creating a world where everyone can realize what they want to do," it is operated as a service that connects "people who need funds to do what they want to do" and "people who sympathize and support" through the Internet. There is.The success rate of financing for published projects is 29% (as of October 75), which is very high compared to the industry average of 2018%. In June 10, received the "Excellence Award (SPRING Award)" at the Japan Service Awards sponsored by the Service Industry Productivity Council.In May 30, he received the "Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Award (Female Entrepreneur Award)" at the 2016th Japan Venture Awards.The representative is Haruka Mera.The fee is 6%.
It is a sports-specific crowdfunding service operated by a corporation for the purpose of supporting teams, athletes, and sports. Founded in March 2016.GLOBIS Graduate School of ManagementStudents and graduates enrolled inMBA-Master of Business Administration-Born from (holder)Most of the members are MBA holdersIt has become a company.
With a strong feeling for sports and athletes, "Don't stand on the starting line before you start.Change the society where you cannot challengeBased on the philosophy, we aim to create an environment where athletes who challenge their dreams can have equal opportunities.Then all the members were listedCredoUnder the plan, development and operation specializing in sports.The features of the service are (1) generous support, (2) media development (free creation of column articles / in partnership with Yahoo! News, SmartNews, etc.), and (3) commissions from 10%.
cyber-agentgroup. There are many projects of genres such as manufacturing and restaurants. Listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange Mothers Market on December 2019, 12. 11% commission.
Founded in 2013Academist Co., Ltd.Japan's first crowdfunding service specializing in academic financing. It is operated as a service that conveys the appeal of research and researchers with the mission of "researchers go, we connect" and "realize an open academic industry and contribute to the creation of a future society." ing.The success rate of financing public projects is about 20%, well above the industry standard.The fee is 3% (of which XNUMX% is the settlement fee).
Fine cloud
Crowdfunding platform for beginners operated by Kokusai Resources Co., Ltd.
Asahi ShimbunA crowdfunding platform operated by.
Motion Gallery
A platform with strengths in the creative field.The fee is 10%, which is the lowest in the industry. "Happy hourAnd 'カ メ ラ ラ 止 め る!We are working on crowdfunding of movies that have become a hot topic, such as "Mini Theater Aid Fund" which recently collected 3 million yen and 3000 million yen.Troupe four seasonsKnown for the project. Received the 2015 Good Design Award.
Oita Godo ShimbunBut,Oita Bank,Music SecuritiesA crowdfunding platform operated in cooperation with.
La porno

Donation type

Investment type

Related laws and tax systems

Of the investment types, the loan type and fund type areAnonymous unionSince the investment act by the company falls under the category of “collective investment scheme interests”, which is a type of securities that is subject to the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act, it is necessary to register the Type II Financial Instruments and Exchange Business under the Gold Commercial Law, as mentioned above. Being supervised by the Gold Commercial Code. Anonymous partnership investment is accountingliabilitiesHowever, under certain conditions, financial institutions evaluate it as equity debt.[32][35]..Loan type is even moreMoney Lending Business Law OfMoney lending businessRegistration is required.The stock type isFinancial Instruments and Exchange ActFirst-class financial instruments business registration or first-class small-amount electronic recruitment handling company registration is required[37].

The donation type and the purchase type are not regulated by the Gold and Commercial Law, but the donation type has a taxation problem that corporations can only be deducted up to a certain amount and deductions cannot be received for individuals. The purchase type is mainly because the general consumer is the provider of funds,Defect liabilityOccurs,Specified Commercial Transaction Law,Freebie display methodIt is subject to the Consumer Relations Law and depends on the price of the products offered. It causes the same tax problem as the donation type[32][35].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ A bill that allows small investors to solicit widespread investment with less restrictions.
  2. ^ A rough concept that individuals reach their goals by collecting and using small contributions from many people.
  3. ^ To explain the situation to Japanese readers at that time, it was still said that "publishing a book" centuries ago.LetterpressEach character by hand with a machineTypeAssembled, put the paper into the printing machine one by one,Buttoya apple press(pressIn an era when the handles of printing machines such as) were manually rotated to print one by one, "publishing a book" was a "business" of a certain scale, and one book was published. It takes a lot of effort and a lot of money to do it, and when a writer or a publisher prints a book without checking the intentions of the readers of the world in advance, it takes a lot of effort and cost to write, calibrate, and print. After printing, it turns out that there are quite a few people trying to buy the book, and publishers and authors can't recover the costs of writing and publishing, just making a few such misunderstandings. , There was a risk of bankruptcy or bankruptcy with stock.As a result, a mechanism has been created to avoid or mitigate that risk.


  1. ^ Ordanini, Andrea; Fisk, Raymond P .; Miceli, Lucia; Pizzetti, Marta; Parasuraman, A. (2011). “Crowd-funding: transforming customers into investors through innovative service platforms”. Journal of Service Management 22 (4): 443–470. two:10.1108/09564231111155079. ISSN 1757-5818 .  (Or here too Scribd document)
  2. ^ "What IS Crowdfunding And How Does IT Benefit The Economy”(May 2012, 11). 2012/12/6Browse.
  3. ^ "What is crowdfunding? "Social funding" (crowd funding):-IT glossary binary". 2012/12/6Browse.
  4. ^ "Pavegen, which generates electricity when people walk, won over 3 million yen with Kurafan". 2019/7/18Browse., "86g waterproof and shockproof. Canon carabiner camera, Kurafan start!". 2019/7/18Browse.
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  8. ^ "Inside the JOBS Act: Equity Crowdfunding". 2012/11/6Browse.
  9. ^ "Crowd funding and ICO list”. Icotokennews. 2017/8/12Browse.
  10. ^ "Crowfunding in a Canadian Context”(Accessed February 7, 2013). 2013/5/28Browse.
  11. ^ "Crowdfunding: Transforming Customers Into Investors Through Innovative Service Platforms”(Accessed February 7, 2013). 2013/5/28Browse.
  12. ^ BBC The Statue of Liberty and America's crowdfunding pioneer
  13. ^ "Joseph Pulitzer”(May 2013, 2). 2013/2/28Browse.
  14. ^ "The Marillion story and what we can all learn from it". 2013/2/28Browse.
  15. ^ "guitartabsexplorer.com". 2013/2/28Browse.
  16. ^ “BBC article, May 11, 2001”. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1325340.stm 2013/2/28Browse. 
  17. ^ "OHM Review". 2013/2/28Browse.
  18. ^ "Calling the faithful for Album 15". 2013/2/28Browse.
  19. ^ "Wharton". 2013/2/28Browse.
  20. ^ "Inc.com". 2013/2/28Browse.
  21. ^ "Drownedinsound.com "Wanna Go VIP? Electric Eel Shock'll show you the way...", Dec 2nd, 2004". 2013/2/28Browse.
  22. ^ "itsallhappening, June 24th, 2008". 2013/2/28Browse.
  23. ^ Andrew Rodgers (June 1999, 6). “Filmmaker Uses Web To Help Finance, Cast Movie”. Chicago Tribune. 2013/1/7Browse.
  24. ^ Kate Bulkley (November 2012, 11). “funding models for film making | Sheffield Doc / Fest 2010 | guardian.co.uk”. Guardian. 2012/12/13Browse.
  25. ^ "Crowd-Funding FAQ”. Spanner Films (July 2009, 7). 2012/12/13Browse.
  26. ^ Christina Warren (January 2011, 1). “A Guide to Kickstarter & Crowd Funding [INFOGRAPHIC]”. Mashable.com. 2012/12/13Browse.
  27. ^ "blog entry by Morton Valence "Nothing Like Sellaband", May 22, 2008". 2013/2/28Browse.
  28. ^ "Crowdfunding and ICO Listing”. Applancer. 2017/8/12Browse.
  29. ^ "Crowdfundings earliest citation". 2013/2/28Browse.
  30. ^ "How to Pick the Right Crowdfunding Site". 2012/10/22Browse.
  31. ^ "Crowdfunding: a new form of community on the web”. The Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence. May 2,2013Browse.
  32. ^ a b c d "Law on crowdfunding (basic edition)”. AZX Law Office Attorney Nobuhiro Ikeda. 2016/5/10Browse.
  33. ^ ""Investment-type crowdfunding" begins to move". Oriental economyOnline (August 2014, 8). 2016/5/10Browse.
  34. ^ "Furusato Investment" Liaison Conference (2015). "Hometown Investment" Guide: 12. https://www.chisou.go.jp/tiiki/tiikisaisei/furusato/kaigi/tebiki_honnpen.pdf. 
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  36. ^ "Financial Services Agency-related bill at the 186th Diet". Financial Services Agency (September 2014, 5). 2016/5/9Browse.
  37. ^ "Crowdfunding". Kakaku.com. 2021/1/1Browse.

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