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Adipose tissue(Shibososhiki) isFat cellsSparseness composed ofConnective tissue OfAnatomyIt is a term. The main role isfatIt is to store energy as it is, but it protects important organs by absorbing physical shock from the outside world and from temperature changes in the outside world.InsulationIt also has a function to maintain body temperature. In recent yearshormoneImportant to createEndocrineIt is also attracting attention as an organ,TNF-α,Leptin, Recently discoveredAdiponectinInvolved in the production of such.
Adipose tissue is mainly皮膚Located under, but内 臓It can also be seen around. Under the skin, from heat and coldInsulationAnd accumulates in the deepest part of the subcutaneous layer. Around the internal organs, it becomes a protective padding. It also functions as a nutrient reserve.
The extra adipose tissue that hangs from the abdomen of an extremely obese personPannusIs called.Pannus makes surgery difficult for morbidly obese patients.ExtremeobesityIf you lose a lot of fat rapidly, such as after gastric bypass surgery, it may remain as a "skin apron".
Adipose tissue is more like an "intracellular matrix" than connective tissue. Microlobular structure with layers of fat cellsBlood vesselThe organizational structure is divided in the form of wrapping.
Adipocytes have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceridesInsulinIt has a role in determining tolerance and free fatty acid levels. In recent years, studies on endocrine function have revealed that abdominal fat (visceral fat) has a tendency to suppress metabolism, that is, to induce stronger metabolism than subcutaneous fat. This is a marker of impaired glucose tolerance,Cardiovascular diseaseIndependent risk factors (Diabetes mellitusとHigh blood pressureIncluding the diseases that are causedmetabolic syndrome(Called).
Hormones secreted by adipose tissue
HumanAn infantAnd some animals,Brown fatorBrown adipose tissueThere is a specialized form of adipose tissue called, located mainly around the neck and in the large blood vessels of the thorax. This specialized tissue is in mitochondriaOxidative phosphorylation OfRespiratory chain"Release" in the middle, specifically without using the hydrogen ion concentration gradients generated on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane for ATP productionDecoupling agentBy simply passing through uncoupling protein (UCP), which shows the action offatty acidCan be disassembled and generate heat. This process of heat generation will be significant for newborns who are exposed to the cold but cannot quiver to warm their bodies or take other measures to keep themselves warm.
Fatty acid composition
The fatty acid composition of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of American menopausal women is approximately as follows.
|saturated fatty acid||24.43|
|16:0 (Palmitic acid）||19.06|
|18:0 (stearic acid）||2.87|
|Monounsaturated fatty acid||54.49|
|cis-18: 1 (n-9)|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acid||21.08|
|cis-cis-18: 2 (n-6)|
|18: 3 (n-3)|
Cultural and social role
Previously and in other societies, fat was considered beautiful and smiling. Of a person who is considered obese by modern standards,RembrandtAnd especiallyPeter Paul RubensThis can be inferred from the depiction of the picture by. The latter is due to a remarkable amount of body fat as a positive (sometimes humorous) reference to womenRubens queBorn the term.Arab,West Africa,ArcticAboriginal and manyLatin AmericaIn this culture, many men prefer robust or "nourished" women. Developed country,East Asia, And manyEast AfricaMost men in the culture prefer slender women. Historically, in ChinaNorthern and Northern Dynasties,遊牧民Got in powerNorth morningThen, a plump woman is an old manHan peopleGot in powerSouthern DynastyThen, slender women were preferred.
In the modern world, extra human adipose tissue is said to be a "aesthetic" and "medical" problem.Also, in some cases, mature adipose tissueTumorHowever, the cause of this is not well understood so far.
- ^ London SJ et al (Aug 1991). “Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and diet in postmenopausal US women.”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54 (2): 340-345, Table.2 2015/4/29Browse..